Generic drug: goserelin acetate
Brand name: Zoladex
What is Zoladex (goserelin acetate), and how does it work?
Stage B2-C Prostatic Carcinoma
Zoladex is indicated for use in combination with flutamide for the management of locally confined Stage T2b-T4 (Stage B2-C) carcinoma of the prostate. Treatment with Zoladex and flutamide should start 8 weeks prior to initiating radiation therapy and continue during radiation therapy.
Zoladex is indicated for the management of endometriosis, including pain relief and reduction of endometriotic lesions for the duration of therapy. Experience with Zoladex for the management of endometriosis has been limited to women 18 years of age and older treated for 6 months.
Advanced Breast Cancer
Zoladex is indicated for use in the palliative treatment of advanced breast cancer in pre- and perimenopausal women.
What are the side effects of Zoladex?
Stage B2-C Prostatic Carcinoma
The following adverse experiences were reported during a multicenter clinical trial comparing Zoladex + flutamide + radiation versus radiation alone. The most frequently reported (greater than 5%) adverse experiences are listed below:
Table 1 : ADVERSE EVENTS DURING ACUTE RADIATION
THERAPY (within first 90 days of radiation therapy)
flutamide + Zoladex + Radiation
Table 2 : ADVERSE EVENTS DURING LATE RADIATION PHASE
(after 90 days of radiation therapy)
flutamide + Zoladex + Radiation
Additional adverse event data was collected for the combination therapy with radiation group over both the hormonal treatment and hormonal treatment plus radiation phases of the study. Adverse experiences occurring in more than 5% of patients in this group, over both parts of the study, were
Zoladex has been found to be generally well tolerated in clinical trials. Adverse reactions reported in these trials were rarely severe enough to result in the patients' withdrawal from Zoladex treatment. As seen with other hormonal therapies, the most commonly observed adverse events during Zoladex therapy were due to the expected physiological effects from decreased testosterone levels. These included hot flashes, sexual dysfunction and decreased erections.
Tumor Flare Phenomenon: Initially, Zoladex, like other GnRH agonists, causes transient increases in serum levels of testosterone. A small percentage of patients experienced a temporary worsening of signs and symptoms, usually manifested by an increase in cancer-related pain which was managed symptomatically.
Isolated cases of exacerbation of disease symptoms, either ureteral obstruction or spinal cord compression, occurred at similar rates in controlled clinical trials with both Zoladex and orchiectomy. The relationship of these events to therapy is uncertain.
In the controlled clinical trials of Zoladex versus orchiectomy, the following events were reported as adverse reactions in greater than 5% of the patients.
Table 3 : TREATMENT RECEIVED
|Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms||13||8|
|Pain (worsened in the first 30 days)||8||3|
|Upper Respiratory Infection||7||2|
|Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease||5||3|
|Congestive Heart Failure||5||1|
|Complications of Surgery||0||18*|
|* Complications related to surgery were reported in 18% of the orchiectomy patients, while only 3% of Zoladex patients reported adverse reactions at the injection site. The surgical complications included scrotal infection (5.9%), groin pain (4 .7%), wound seepage (3.1%), scrotal hematoma (2.8%), incisional discomfort (1.6%) and skin necrosis (1.2%).|
The following additional adverse reactions were reported in greater than 1% but less than 5% of the patients treated with Zoladex:
- CARDIOVASCULAR - arrhythmia, cerebrovascular accident, hypertension, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disorder, chest pain;
- CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - anxiety, depression, headache;
- GASTROINTESTINAL - constipation, diarrhea, ulcer, vomiting;
- HEMATOLOGIC - anemia;
- METABOLIC/NUTRITIONAL - gout, hyperglycemia, weight increase;
- MISCELLANEOUS - chills, fever;
- UROGENITAL - renal insufficiency, urinary obstruction, urinary tract infection, breast swelling and tenderness.
As would be expected with a drug that results in hypoestrogenism, the most frequently reported adverse reactions were those related to this effect.
Table 4 : TREATMENT RECEIVED
|Application Site Reaction||6||-|
The following adverse events not already listed above were reported at a frequency of 1% or greater, regardless of causality, in Zoladex-treated women from all clinical trials:
- WHOLE BODY – allergic reaction, chest pain, fever, malaise;
- CARDIOVASCULAR - hemorrhage, hypertension, migraine, palpitations, tachycardia;
- DIGESTIVE - anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, dyspepsia, flatulence;
- HEMATOLOGIC - ecchymosis;
- METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL - edema;
- MUSCULOSKELETAL - arthralgia, joint disorder; CNS - anxiety, paresthesia, somnolence, thinking abnormal;
- RESPIRATORY - bronchitis, cough increased, epistaxis, rhinitis, sinusitis;
- SKIN - alopecia, dry skin, rash, skin discoloration;
- SPECIAL SENSES - amblyopia, dry eyes;
- UROGENITAL - dysmenorrhea, urinary frequency, urinary tract infection, vaginal hemorrhage.
The following adverse events were reported at a frequency of 5% or greater in premenopausal women presenting with dysfunctional uterine bleeding in Trial 0022 for endometrial thinning. These results indicate that headache, hot flushes and sweating were more common in the Zoladex group than in the placebo group.
Table 5 : ADVERSE EVENTS REPORTED AT A FREQUENCY OF 5%
OR GREATER IN Zoladex AND PLACEBO TREATMENT GROUPS OF TRIAL 0022
|ADVERSE EVENT||Zoladex 3.6 mg
|Skin and appendages|
The adverse event profile for women with advanced breast cancer treated with Zoladex is consistent with the profile described above for women treated with Zoladex for endometriosis. In a controlled clinical trial (SWOG–8692) comparing Zoladex with oophorectomy in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with advanced breast cancer, the following events were reported at a frequency of 5% or greater in either treatment group regardless of causality.
Table 6 : TREATMENT RECEIVED
(n=57) % of Pts.
(n=55) % of Pts.
In the Phase II clinical trial program in 333 pre- and perimenopausal women with advanced breast cancer, hot flashes were reported in 75.9% of patients and decreased libido was noted in 47.7% of patients. These two adverse events reflect the pharmacological actions of Zoladex.
Injection site reactions were reported in less than 1% of patients.
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Clinical studies suggest the addition of Hormone Replacement Therapy (estrogens and/or progestins) to Zoladex may decrease the occurrence of vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness associated with hypoestrogenism without compromising the efficacy of Zoladex in relieving pelvic symptoms. The optimal drugs, dose and duration of treatment has not been established.
Changes In Bone Mineral Density
- After 6 months of Zoladex treatment, 109 female patients treated with Zoladex showed an average 4.3% decrease of vertebral trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) as compared to pretreatment values. BMD was measured by dual-photon absorptiometry or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.
- Sixtysix of these patients were assessed for BMD loss 6 months after the completion (posttherapy) of the 6- month therapy period.
- Data from these patients showed an average 2.4% BMD loss compared to pretreatment values.
- Twenty-eight of the 109 patients were assessed for BMD at 12 months posttherapy. Data from these patients showed an average decrease of 2.5% in BMD compared to pretreatment values. These data suggest a possibility of partial reversibility.
- Clinical studies suggest the addition of Hormone Replacement Therapy (estrogens and/or progestins) to Zoladex is effective in reducing the bone mineral loss which occurs with Zoladex alone without compromising the efficacy of Zoladex in relieving the symptoms of endometriosis. The optimal drugs, dose and duration of treatment has not been established.
Changes In Laboratory Values During Treatment
- Plasma Enzymes: Elevation of liver enzymes (AST, ALT) have been reported in female patients exposed to Zoladex (representing less than 1% of all patients).
- Lipids: In a controlled trial, Zoladex therapy resulted in a minor, but statistically significant effect on serum lipids. In patients treated for endometriosis at 6 months following initiation of therapy, danazol treatment resulted in a mean increase in LDL cholesterol of 33.3 mg/dL and a decrease in HDL cholesterol of 21.3 mg/dL compared to increases of 21.3 and 2.7 mg/dL in LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, respectively, for Zoladex-treated patients. Triglycerides increased by 8.0 mg/dL in Zoladex-treated patients compared to a decrease of 8.9 mg/dL in danazol-treated patients.
- In patients treated for endometriosis, Zoladex increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol during 6 months of treatment. However, Zoladex therapy resulted in HDL cholesterol levels which were significantly higher relative to danazol therapy. At the end of 6 months of treatment, HDL cholesterol fractions (HDL2 and HDL2) were decreased by 13.5 and 7.7 mg/dL, respectively, for danazol-treated patients compared to treatment increases of 1.9 and 0.8 mg/dL, respectively, for Zoladex-treated patients.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Zoladex. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- Bone Mineral Density: Osteoporosis, decreased bone mineral density and bone fracture in men.
- Cardiovascular: Deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and transient ischemic attack have been observed in women treated with GnRH agonists. Although a temporal relationship was reported in some cases, most cases were confounded by risk factors or concomitant medication use. It is unknown if there is a causal association between the use of GnRH analogs and these events.
- Ovarian Cyst: Ovarian cyst formation and, in combination with gonadotropins, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).
- Changes in Blood Pressure: Hypotension and hypertension have been reported. These changes are usually transient, resolving either during continued therapy or after cessation of therapy.
- Pituitary Apoplexy and Tumors: Pituitary apoplexy (a clinical syndrome secondary to infarction of the pituitary gland) and pituitary adenoma have been diagnosed. Most of the pituitary apoplexy cases occurred within 2 weeks of the first dose, and some occurred within the first hour. In these cases, pituitary apoplexy has presented as sudden headache, vomiting, visual changes, ophthalmoplegia, altered mental status, and sometimes cardiovascular collapse. Immediate medical attention has been required. Pituitary tumors have been reported.
- Acne: Usually within one month of starting treatment.
- Other Adverse Reactions: Psychotic disorders, convulsions and mood swings.
What is the dosage for Zoladex?
- Zoladex, at a dose of 3.6 mg, should be administered subcutaneously every 28 days into the anterior abdominal wall below the navel line using an aseptic technique under the supervision of a physician.
- While a delay of a few days is permissible, every effort should be made to adhere to the 28-day schedule.
Stage B2-C Prostatic Carcinoma
- When Zoladex is given in combination with radiotherapy and flutamide for patients with Stage T2b- T4 (Stage B2-C) prostatic carcinoma, treatment should be started 8 weeks prior to initiating radiotherapy and should continue during radiation therapy.
- A treatment regimen using a Zoladex 3.6 mg depot 8 weeks before radiotherapy, followed in 28 days by the Zoladex 10.8 mg depot, can be administered. Alternatively, four injections of 3.6 mg depot can be administered at 28-day intervals, two depots preceding and two during radiotherapy.
- For the management of advanced prostate cancer, Zoladex is intended for long-term administration unless clinically inappropriate.
- For the management of endometriosis, the recommended duration of administration is 6 months. Currently, there are no clinical data on the effect of treatment of benign gynecological conditions with Zoladex for periods in excess of 6 months.
- Retreatment cannot be recommended for the management of endometriosis since safety data for retreatment are not available.
- If the symptoms of endometriosis recur after a course of therapy, and further treatment with Zoladex is contemplated, consideration should be given to monitoring bone mineral density.
- Clinical studies suggest the addition of Hormone Replacement Therapy (estrogens and/or progestins) to Zoladex is effective in reducing the bone mineral loss which occurs with Zoladex alone without compromising the efficacy of Zoladex in relieving the symptoms of endometriosis.
- The addition of Hormone Replacement Therapy may also reduce the occurrence of vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness associated with hypoestrogenism. The optimal drugs, dose and duration of treatment has not been established.
- For use as an endometrial-thinning agent prior to endometrial ablation, the dosing recommendation is one or two depots (with each depot given four weeks apart).
- When one depot is administered, surgery should be performed at four weeks. When two depots are administered, surgery should be performed within two to four weeks following administration of the second depot.
- For the management of advanced breast cancer, Zoladex is intended for long-term administration unless clinically inappropriate.
Renal Or Hepatic Impairment
- No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal or hepatic impairment.
What drugs interact with Zoladex?
- No formal drug-drug interaction studies have been performed. No confirmed interactions have been reported between Zoladex and other drugs.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
- Administration of Zoladex in therapeutic doses results in suppression of the pituitary-gonadal system.
- Because of this suppression, diagnostic tests of pituitary-gonadotropic and gonadal functions conducted during treatment and until the resumption of menses may show results which are misleading. Normal function is usually restored within 12 weeks after treatment is discontinued.
Is Zoladex safe to use while pregnant or breastfeeding?
- Zoladex is contraindicated during pregnancy unless Zoladex is being used for palliative treatment of advanced breast cancer. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women using Zoladex.
- Based on mechanism of action in humans and findings of increased pregnancy loss in animal studies, Zoladex can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If this drug is used during pregnancy, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. There is an increased risk for pregnancy loss due to expected hormone changes that occur with Zoladex treatment.
- It is not known if goserelin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Zoladex, a decision should be made to either discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Zoladex (goserelin acetate) implant is a GnRH agonist used to treat advanced breast cancer, prostate cancer, endometriosis, and endometrial thinning. Serious side effects vary depending on the condition treated.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Signs of Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, PSA Test, Treatments
What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Learn the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer, along...
Breast Cancer Awareness: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Learn about breast cancer causes, symptoms, tests, recovery, and prevention. Discover the types of treatments such as surgery and...
What Is Endometriosis? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
What is endometriosis? Endometriosis is an abnormal growth of endometrial cells found in the uterus. Not to be confused with...
10 Things Young Women Should Know About Breast Cancer
Is breast cancer genetic? Should I get tested for the BRCA gene? What every young women should know about breast cancer. Discover...
Prostate Cancer Quiz
Is prostate cancer the most common cancer in men? Take this prostate cancer quiz to find out and learn the causes, symptoms, and...
Breast Cancer: Visual Guide to Male Breast Cancer
Breast cancer isn't just a woman's disease. Learn about the symptoms and treatment of male breast cancer, and find out what can...
Breast Cancer Quiz: Symptoms & Signs
This Breast Cancer Quiz features signs, symptoms, facts, causes, common forms, terms, risk factors, statistics, and more. ...
Endometriosis Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition. Take this quiz to learn what happens when a woman has endometriosis as well as...
Breast Cancer: Female Celebrities Who’ve Had Breast Cancer
Celebrities face medical challenges too, including breast cancer. Find out how actors, entertainers, and other famous women dealt...
Breast Cancer: Where It Can Spread
When breast cancer spreads, or metastasizes, it often goes to these five places: the lymph nodes, bones, liver, lungs, and brain....
Breast Cancer: Diet Tips for Breast Cancer
No single food or diet plan prevents breast cancer, but what you eat plays a role in how likely you are to get the disease or...
Related Disease Conditions
What Foods To Avoid If You Have Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in the United States. Based on the type of proteins in the breast cells responsible for breast cancer, breast cancer is divided into two types
Endometriosis implants are most commonly found on the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, the outer surfaces of the uterus or intestines, and on the surface lining of the pelvic cavity. They also can be found in the vagina, cervix, and bladder.
How Does Prostate Cancer Kill You in the End?
Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate gland in men. Death from prostate cancer most often happens when cancer has spread (metastasized) to other organs in the body.
Prostate Cancer: Erectile Dysfunction
Second Source article from The Cleveland Clinic
Breast Cancer in Men
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
How Quickly Does Prostate Cancer Spread?
Prostate cancer is a cancer that develops in the prostate gland in men and it is one of the most common types of cancer. In some cases, it can take up to eight years to spread from the prostate to other parts of the body (metastasis), typically the bones. In other cases, it may be more aggressive.
Prostate Cancer Staging and Survival Rates
The prognosis for prostate cancer, as with any cancer, depends on how advanced the cancer has become, according to established stage designations. The patient's PSA score at diagnosis, as well as their Gleason score (the grading system used to determine the aggressiveness of prostate cancer) determines the prognosis and final stage designation. Prostate cancer has a high survival rate in general, but your chances depend on the stage of the cancer.
What Happens If You Don't Treat Prostate Cancer?
If prostate cancer is left untreated, it may grow and possibly spread out of the prostate gland to the local tissues or distant sites such as liver and lungs.
How Common Is Lymphovascular Invasion in Breast Cancer?
About 30% of breast cancers metastasize to nearby blood vessels and lymph nodes, a process called lymphovascular invasion.
How Do You Check for Prostate Cancer at Home?
Prostate cancer is highly treatable in its early stages. Thanks to the increase in cancer screening, cancer is also being diagnosed early.
What Are the 5 Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer rarely produces symptoms in the early stage; however, few signs can help in detecting prostate cancer.
What Is Stage IV Prostate Cancer Life Expectancy?
The survival rate in most people with advanced prostate cancer is 30 percent at the fifth year of diagnosis. This means around 70 percent of the diagnosed men are not alive in the fifth year after diagnosis.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men after skin cancer. Risk factors include age, family history, ethnicity, and diet. Prostate cancer is diagnosed by a digital rectal exam, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and prostate biopsy. Symptoms may include frequent need to urinate, incontinence, pain, blood in the urine, fatigue, and more. Prognosis and treatment depend on cancer staging. Watchful waiting, surgery, radiation, cryotherapy, and other management strategies are available. Research and clinical trials strive to find new and better treatments for prostate cancer.
What Foods Kill Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer refers to the uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland. There is no particular food or recipe that can directly kill prostate cancer cells. Some foods that may be helpful in prostate cancer recovery and relapse prevention include foods containing lycopene, beans, green tea, cruciferous vegetables and fruit like cranberries, strawberries, blueberries and pomegranates.
Male Breast Cancer
Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast cancers, and most cases are found in men between the ages of 60 and 70. A man's risk of developing breast cancer is one in 1,000. Signs and symptoms include a firm mass located below the nipple and skin changes around the nipple, including puckering, redness or scaling, retraction and ulceration of the nipple. Treatment depends upon staging and the health of the patient.
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Triple-negative breast cancer is more common in Hispanic and African-American women. Signs and symptoms include a lump in the armpit or breast, nipple discharge and inversion, and changes in the breast's skin. Treatment may incorporate surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
What Do Male Breast Cancer Lumps Feel Like?
A lump-like swelling in the breast that may or may not be painful is the most common symptom of male breast cancer. A lump or thickening may be near the breast or in the underarm area.
Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms, breast self-examination (BSE), biopsy, and specialized testing on breast cancer tissue. Treatment of breast cancer may involve surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Breast cancer risk may be lowered by managing controllable risk factors. What you should know about breast cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women. One in every eight women in the United States develops breast cancer. There are many types of breast cancer that differ in their capability of spreading (metastasize) to other body tissues. The causes of breast cancer are unknown, although medical professionals have identified a number of risk factors. There are 11 common types of breast cancer and 4 uncommon types of breast cancer. Breast cancer early signs and symptoms include a lump in the breast or armpit, bloody nipple discharge, inverted nipple, orange-peel texture or dimpling of the breast's skin (peau d'orange), breast pain or sore nipple, swollen lymph nodes in the neck or armpit, and a change in the size or shape of the breast or nipple. Breast cancer can also be symptom free, which makes following national screening recommendations an important practice. Breast cancer is diagnosed during a physical exam, by a self-exam of the breasts, mammography, ultrasound testing, and biopsy. Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of cancer and its stage (0-IV) and may involve surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
Prostate Cancer Treatment: Focal Therapy and Other Experimental Treatments
Several new and experimental treatments for prostate cancer are under study, including treatments that use ultrasound, lasers, tissue-freezing gas, and new ways of administering radiation. These new methods are types of focal therapy, that is, treatment focused on the cancer cells in the prostate, rather than systemic therapy that administers medications or other treatments to the whole body with the aim of treating the prostate.
Can Prostate Cancer Be Completely Cured?
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men. Due to routine screening of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the United States, nearly 90% of prostate cancers get detected in early stages. When found early, there are several treatment options available and prostate cancer has a high chance of getting cured.
Can Fibroadenomas Turn Into Breast Cancer?
A fibroadenoma is the most common type of benign, non-cancerous lump of the breast. Although it is rare, complex fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors have a chance to develop into malignant breast cancer.
Prostate Cancer Early Signs and Symptoms
Difficulty with urination – frequency, weak stream, trouble getting started, etc. – is usually the first sign of prostate cancer. But these and other early symptoms of prostatic cancer can also come from benign prostate conditions, so diagnostic testing is important, including PSA tests and digital rectal exam.
What Were Your First Signs of Inflammatory Breast Cancer?
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare but rapidly growing cancer that gives rise to several signs and symptoms, mostly within a span of three to six months. One of the first signs is most likely to be visible swelling (edema) of the skin of the breast and/or redness of the breast (covers more than 30 percent of the breast).
What Are the Five Stages of Prostate Cancer?
The Gleason grading system grades prostate cancer from 1 to 5. According to cells’ appearances under a microscope, this system grades the most common (primary) and second most common (secondary) patterns of cells in a tissue sample collected via biopsy.
Prostate Cancer Facts
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer and cancer death in males; in some men, identifying it early may prevent or delay metastasis and death from prostate cancer. The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is a part of the male reproductive system that wraps around the male urethra at it exits the bladder. Prostate cancer is common in men over 50 years of age, with the risk of developing prostate cancer increases with aging.
Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Inflammatory breast cancer is an accelerated form of breast cancer that is not usually detected by mammogram or ultrasound. Symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer include pain in the breast, skin change in the breast area, bruise on the breast,sudden swelling of the breast, nipple retraction or discharge, and swelling of the lymph nodes.
Breast Cancer Prevention
Lifestyle changes, a healthy antioxidant-rich diet, exercise, and weight reduction can help reduce a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. It's important to be aware of how risk factors such as family history, lifestyle factors, breast conditions, radiation therapy, and hormonal factors may influence your chances of developing breast cancer. Mammography and breast self-examinations are crucial steps in breast cancer prevention.
How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?
Prostate cancer is largely a disease of men over 40, so it’s around this age doctors recommend the first prostate screening. The first exam is a blood test to determine if there are abnormal prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in your blood – PSA is produced by the prostate. If the PSA is high, your doctor will perform a digital rectal exam, during which the doctor feels your prostate from inside your rectum with a gloved finger. Other diagnostic tests include an endoscopic biopsy of tumor tissue for analysis in a lab.
Breast Cancer and Lymphedema
Lymphedema is a common chronic, debilitating condition in which excess fluid called lymph collects in tissues and causes swelling in them. It is common after a mastectomy, lumpectomy or breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy.
Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment
If prostate cancer is detected early and appears to be slow-growing, invasive procedures, chemotherapy, radiation and other approaches can sometimes do more harm than good. Many prostate cancer treatments come with side effects, like incontinence or impotence, so it’s in the patient’s interest to put off invasive treatments as long as is medically safe. Active surveillance is where doctors "watch and wait" for changes that could prompt medical intervention.
Does Endometriosis Make You Fat?
Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue that lines the inside of the uterus grows outside of the uterus. There is no research to conclusively prove that endometriosis directly causes weight gain in women who suffer from the condition. However, these women do frequently find themselves gaining weight.
Breast Cancer and Coping With Stress
Being diagnosed with breast cancer is stressful. Learning relaxation techniques, exercising, eating well, getting adequate sleep, receiving psychotherapy, and maintaining a positive attitude can help you cope. Creating documents, such as an advance directive, living will, and durable power of attorney will outline your wishes in the event that you are no longer able to make decisions regarding your care.
Breast Cancer Recurrence
Breast cancer most often recurs within the first 3-5 years after the initial treatment. Changes in the look, feel, or appearance of the breast may indicate breast cancer recurrence. Factors related to recurrence include tumor size, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, lymph node involvement, and oncogene expression. Check out the center below for more medical references on breast cancer, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related diseases, treatment, diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
What Are the Early Signs of Endometriosis?
The endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus, which changes throughout the menstrual cycle, shedding during menstrual periods. Endometriosis is the presence of normal endometrial tissue abnormally implanted in locations other than the inner wall of the uterus. This causes pain and other symptoms that may include infertility.
What Is the Most Accurate Test for Prostate Cancer?
The most accurate test for detecting prostate cancer is a prostate biopsy, which involves taking a tissue sample from the prostate and examining it under a microscope.
What Type of Breast Cancer Is Most Likely to Metastasize?
While all types of breast cancer have the potential to metastasize, HER2-positive and triple-negative cancers are more likely to metastasize faster than the other types.
Where Is the First Place Breast Cancer Spreads?
Breast cancer starts in the breast tissues and usually first spreads to the lymph nodes under the arms, around the collarbone and inside the breasts.
Can Prostate Cancer Kill You?
Yes. Like any other cancer, prostate cancer is a potential killer. However, this is true of the metastasized prostate cancer that has remained undiagnosed for a long time. The disease is vastly curable when diagnosed early.
Are There Any Clinical Trials for Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among American women. Around 250,000 women and 2,300 men are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the United States. Each year, breast cancer kills around 42000 women and 510 men in the United States.
How Long After Breast Cancer Can You Get Lymphedema?
Breast cancer means a disease in which the cells of your breast abnormally grow out of control. It commonly occurs in women than in men. There are different types of breast cancer depending on the type of cells that turned cancerous (grow wildly).
Eight Early Signs of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women in the United States (next to some types of skin cancer that are most common). Screening tests can help you identify if you have the condition.
Can HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Be Cured?
HER2-positive breast cancer is associated with cancer cells that have extra copies of the HER2 gene and produce extra HER2 receptor proteins. With recent advances in medicine, it is considered that HER2-positive breast cancer is curable.
Breast Cancer Early Warning Signs and Symptoms
In most cases, there are no early warning signs of breast cancer. Breast cancer may not produce any early symptoms, and in many cases, it is first discovered on screening mammography. The most common sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast.
Is Breast Cancer Metastatic Terminal?
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer globally, overtaking lung cancer in some countries. Metastatic breast cancer is an advanced stage cancer that has spread to distant organs.
What Is Usually the First Sign of Breast Cancer?
A lump in the breast or in the armpits is often the first sign of breast cancer. This may be felt while in the shower. There may or may not be changes in the structure of the breast. Other early signs include changes in breast skin, breast pain and others.
Breast Cancer Stages
Breast cancer staging is the determination of the extent and spread of cancer. An individual's health care team uses stages to summarize the extent of cancer in a standardized way that is recognized by all health care providers. They use this staging to determine the treatment most appropriate for the type of cancer. Cancer staging helps to determine the prognosis, or outlook, of cancer, including rates of recurrence and survival rates.
HER2-Positive Breast Cancer
In about 10%-20% of breast cancers, the cancer cells test positive for HER2, sometimes referred to as the HER2/neu protein. HER2 is a growth-promoting protein located on the surface of some cancer cells. HER2-positive breast cancers tend to grow more rapidly and spread more aggressively than breast cancers that are HER2-negative. Doctors do not know what specifically causes some breast cancers to express this protein while others do not.
Prostate Cancer Treatment: Chemotherapy, Bone-Targeted and Immune Therapy
Doctors may introduce chemotherapy and immune therapy if other measures fail to cure a case of prostate cancer. However, unlike with other forms of cancer, chemotherapy isn’t the first choice for early prostate cancer. Immune therapy uses the body's own immune system to attack the prostate tumor, while bone-targeted therapy aims to preserve bone and prevent metastasis.
What Should I Know About Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer of American women, but it can also occur in men. Every year in the U.S., there are over 266,000 new diagnoses of breast cancer. A woman has a risk of one in eight for developing breast cancer at some point during her lifetime.
How Quickly Do Symptoms of Inflammatory Breast Cancer Appear?
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare type of breast cancer accounting for around 1 to 5 percent of all breast cancer cases. There are three main parts in a breast: lobules, ducts and connective tissue. The milk-producing glands form the lobules. Milk formed in the lobules is carried to the nipples through tube-like channels called the ducts.
Breast Cancer Treatment by Stage
Treatment of breast cancer depends upon the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. Some of the various treatments include: hormone therapy, radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, HER2-targeted therapy, neoadjuvant therapy, and adjuvant therapy.
What Is the Breast Cancer BRCA Gene Test?
BRCA genes (BRCA 1 and 2, when normal, repair damaged DNA) are among the genetic mutations linked to breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and other cancers when mutated. Every woman with a BRCA mutation is at high risk for breast cancer, irrespective of whether she has a family history of breast cancer or not. By age 80, a woman with a BRCA mutation has about an 80% chance of developing breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations also increase the risk of ovarian cancer, by 54% and 23%, respectively.
Breast Cancer Treatment
Breast cancer treatments depend upon the type of breast cancer that is present as well as the stage (extent of spread) of the tumor. Treatment for early breast cancer typically involves surgery to remove the tumor. After surgery, medical professionals may administer radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy.
Prostate Cancer: Radical Prostatectomy Surgery
Radical prostatectomy, or surgical removal of the entire prostate gland, isn’t typically the first choice in prostate cancer treatment. Sometimes a radical approach is necessary to keep the cancer from metastasizing, however. Some cases are too severe or diagnosed too late for drugs or radiation to have much effect. In these cases, treatment teams may opt for a radical prostatectomy, despite potential side effects like impotence and incontinence.
What Are the Signs of Metastatic Breast Cancer?
Signs of metastatic breast cancer (breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body) include constant fatigue, constant nausea, loss of appetite and unexplained weight loss.
Can Prostate Cancer Be Detected by a Blood Test?
Prostate cancer develops in the prostate gland of men. It is one of the most common types of cancer. It is usually seen in men older than 50 years of age. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland that produces seminal fluid required to nourish and transports sperm. Prostate cancer develops slowly. More often, it is confined to the prostate gland, requiring minimal or no treatment.
What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor About Breast Cancer?
A diagnosis of breast cancer can be overwhelming, so it's important to write down all your questions before meeting with your doctor.
Prostate Cancer: Radiation, Brachytherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals
Radiation treatment for prostate cancer is a powerful tool at doctors’ disposal. Using radiation vs. surgery or other invasive treatments to kill cancer cells may still cause side effects, but ideally they are less severe. Radiation therapy can be performed via external beam therapy (EBRT) or the placement of radioactive seeds into the prostate (prostate brachytherapy) or using radioactive drugs (radiopharmaceuticals).
Prostate Cancer Treatment: Hormonal Therapy
Prostate cancer is highly sensitive to, and dependent on, the level of the male hormone testosterone, which drives the growth of prostate cancer cells. Testosterone belongs to a family of hormones called androgens, and today front-line hormonal therapy for advanced and metastatic prostate cancer is called androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
What Are the 4 Stages of Breast Cancer?
The four stages of breast cancer include Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, and Stage IV. There is one more stage called stage 0 or carcinoma in situ. It means the initial stage where the cancerous cells are confined to their origin and have not acquired the “invasive” character yet.
What Are the 4 Stages of Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer is cancer that develops in the prostate glands of men. It is one of the most common types of cancer. It is usually seen in men older than 50 years of age. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces seminal fluid. This fluid nourishes and transports sperm.
What Are the Four Types of Breast Cancer?
The four most common types of breast cancer are ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma in situ, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma. The designations are based on the locations of the tumors, whether they have spread and where they have spread to.
What Is the Latest Treatment for Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer affects 1 in 5 men. Learn how it is diagnosed and treated by doctors.
What Are The Five Warning Signs Of Breast Cancer?
The majority of breast cancer patients first seek diagnosis because of a lump on the breast. This is one of the five warning signs of breast cancer. Others include changes in the nipple, changes in the breast skin and other symptoms.
What Are the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer?
All men are at risk of prostate cancer; however, some men are at more risk than others. Apart from being male, current risk factors for prostate cancer include the following.
What Is the Sentinel Lymph Node in Breast Cancer?
The first nodes in the axilla affected by breast cancer are known as sentinel or guardian lymph nodes. A positive sentinel lymph node biopsy or SLNB indicates that the cancer is no longer in situ.
Breast Cancer During Pregnancy
Breast cancer occurs in about 1 in every 1,000 pregnant women. Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy involves surgery, but it is very difficult to protect the baby from the dangerous effects of radiation and chemotherapy. It can be an agonizing to decide whether or not to undergo breast cancer treatment while one is pregnant.
Breast Cancer in Young Women
About 5% of cases of breast cancer occur in women under the age of 40 years old. Some risk factors for breast cancer in young women include a personal history of breast cancer or breast disease, family history of breast cancer, prior radiation therapy, and the presence of BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutations. Breast self-exams, clinical breast exams, and screening mammograms may help detect breast cancer. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapy.
When Should You Screen for Prostate Cancer?
Screening for prostate cancer helps detecta tumor early, enabling timely treatment and prevention of any complications. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), the decision to get screened should be made by men in consultation with their doctor. The doctor needs to counsel the men about the uncertainties involved in the screening process, the risks and potential benefits of getting screened for prostate cancer.
What Are the Main Causes of Prostate Cancer?
The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known. Studies have revealed that prostate cancer occurs when the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or genetic material of a normal prostate cell undergoes a sudden and abnormal change called a mutation.
The Early Signs of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer in its early stages usually causes no signs and symptoms. Screening can help detect the cancer early.
How Do I Know If I Have Endometriosis?
Approximately, one-third of the women with endometriosis remain asymptomatic. Severe pain during menses may be the first sign of endometriosis. Other symptoms that you may experience include heavy periods, low back pain, cramps, pain during intercourse and other symptoms.
Breast Cancer Growth Rate
The available evidence suggests that breast cancer may begin to grow around 10 years before it is detected. However, the time for development differs from tumor to tumor.
Breast Cancer Clinical Trials
Breast cancer clinical trials are research programs designed to evaluate new medical treatments, drugs, or devices for the treatment of breast cancer. Clinical trials are designed to test the safety and efficacy of new treatments as well as assess potential side effects. Clinical trials also compare new treatment to existing treatments to determine if it's any better. There are many important questions to ask your doctor before taking part in a breast cancer clinical trial.
How Does a Doctor Diagnose Prostate Cancer?
The prostate gland or prostate is a part of the male reproductive system. It is a small (almost walnut-sized) gland located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum (the last part of the large bowel), surrounding the urethra (the tube carrying urine out of the bladder). The prostate has two main functions: producing and storing fluid that helps make semen and regulating bladder control.
What Does Breast Cancer in a Man Feel Like?
Male breast cancer is rare and affects 2.7 out of 100,000 African American men and 1.9 out of 100,000 Caucasian men in the United States.
What Happens If You Are Diagnosed With Prostate Cancer?
A diagnosis with prostate cancer does not mean that a person’s life has come to a full stop. Many people with prostate cancer, if diagnosed early, go on to live for many years. If the disease is diagnosed in very early stages, the doctor may only keep the patient under surveillance and treat as required. However, the patient must make some changes in their life during and after the treatment.
What Is the Newest Treatment for Breast Cancer?
Targeted therapies are a newer form of breast cancer treatment. They can be used alone or along with other therapies. Targeted therapies directly target cancer cells or specific processes that contribute to the growth of cancer cells. Target therapy often has fewer side effects.
How Can You Detect Breast Cancer Early?
Breast cancer develops from the cells of the breasts and can spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). It is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in women in the United States. A lump in the breast or armpit is often the first sign. Treatment success depends largely on early detection.
Genetic Testing: Families With Breast Cancer
Breast cancer can be a killer and the decision to get tested to see if a patient is prone to the disease should be discussed with a doctor -- particularly if the woman has a history of breast cancer in her family. Genetic testing can only tell so much about breast cancer risk, however.
How Can You Tell if a Guy Has Breast Cancer?
A breast tumor or cancer is suspected if the guy has a hard lump underneath the nipple and areola. Male breast cancer exhibits the same symptoms as female breast cancer, including a lump. Male breast cancer may also cause skin changes around the nipple.
How Does Breast Cancer Start?
Breast cancer develops in the cells of the breasts and can spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). It is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in women in the US. Although extremely rare, breast cancer can sometimes occur in men. Breast cancer forms when there are changes or mutations in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which can cause normal breast cells to become cancerous.
What Are the Risk Factors for Developing Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer refers to the uncontrolled growth of cells within the breast. The risk factors for developing breast cancer include age, genetics, family history, personal history, menstrual history, breast density, previous radiation therapy, ethnicity, body weight, physical activity level, reproductive history, alcohol consumption and hormone pill use.
How Common Is Breast Cancer in Men?
Breast cancer is more common in women. However, men can get breast cancer too. The chances of occurrence of breast cancer in men are rare. Out of every 100 breast cancer diagnosed in the United States, 1 is found in a man.
What Are the Reasons for Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease that can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Experts are not yet fully aware of what may be the exact reason for breast cancer. The chances of getting breast cancer depend on the person’s age, personal history, genetic factors, and diet.
How Is Prostate Cancer Screening Done?
There are no standard or routine screening tests for prostate cancer. Studies are being done to find ways to make prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing more accurate for early cancer detection.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Breast Cancer
- Breast Cancer Husband
- Prostate Cancer
- Breast Cancer: A Feisty Women's Discussion
- Inflammatory Breast Cancer
- Breast Cancer
- Prostate Cancer Treatment Update
- Breast Cancer: Mother-daughter relationships
- Breast Cancer: The Male View on Survival and Support
- Breast Cancer: Early Diagnosis and Prevention
- Breast Cancer: Early Stage Treatments
- Breast Cancer: Clinical Trials - Today's Cutting Edge
- Breast Cancer, Metastatic: Treatment Goals and Therapy Options -- Harold J. Burstein, MD
- Breast Cancer Treatment Update
- Breast Cancer FAQs
- Endometriosis FAQs
- Prostate Cancer FAQs
- Stress and Aggressive Breast Cancer: Cause or Effect?
- Breast Cancer Risk - Reduced With Exercise
- Prostate Cancer - New Criteria
- Prostate Cancer Risk May Be Lowered By Vitamin E
- Herceptin Metastatic Breast Cancer Treatment
- Hormone Therapy in Survivors of Breast Cancer
- Breast Cancer: Types of Breast Cancer
- Elizabeth Edwards has Breast Cancer Alert
- Breastfeeding -- Protection from Breast Cancer?
- Exercise Improves Breast Cancer Survival
- Advanced Breast Cancer in Young Women Increasing
- Angelina Jolie's Mastectomy
- Does Positive Additude Affect Breast Cancer?
- What Is the Prostate Cancer TNM Stage?
- How Common and Dangerous Is Male Breast Cancer?
- Is Prostate Cancer Genetic?
- How Many Breast Cancer Deaths Are there Each Year?
- Where Can Breast Cancer Spread To?
- Why Is Breast Cancer More Common in Females than Males?
- How Much Breast Cancer is Genetic?
- How Long Can Breast Cancer Patients Live?
- Who Does Breast Cancer Affect?
- What Does Prostate Cancer Do to You?
- How Do You Develop Prostate Cancer?
- What Are the Early Signs of Prostate Cancer?
- How Does Breast Cancer Form?
- How Many Breast Cancer Stages Are There?
- Does Endometriosis Cause Infertility?
- Facts on Breast Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Types
- Breast Cancer Symptoms and Signs
- Breast Cancer Detection
- Breast Cancer Treatment
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.