What is Zebeta (bisoprolol)?

Zebeta (bisoprolol) is a beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (beta-blocker) to treat high blood pressure and heart pain (angina). 

Zebeta prevents the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine (adrenaline) from binding to beta receptors on nerves. By blocking the effect of norepinephrine and epinephrine on the nerves reaching the heart and blood vessels, beta-blockers reduce heart rate and the force with which the heart contracts and reduce blood pressure by dilating blood vessels but may constrict air passages by stimulating the muscles that surround the air passages. 

Angina occurs when the heart’s need for oxygen exceeds the supply of oxygen-carrying blood. By slowing heart rate and decreasing the force with which the heart muscle contracts, Zebeta reduces the work of the heart and the demand of the heart for oxygen. 

Common side effects of Zebeta include:

Serious side effects of Zebeta include cardiac failure. 

Drug interactions of Zebeta include rifampin, which when taken with Zebeta may make Zebeta less effective. Other beta-blockers when taken with Zebeta may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. 

Certain calcium channel blockers (CCBs) may enhance the effect of Zebeta on the heart. 

The use of digoxin with Zebeta also may cause an excessive reduction in heart rate. 

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce the blood pressure lowering effects of beta-blockers. 

It is unknown if Zebeta is secreted in breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.

What are the important side effects of Zebeta (bisoprolol)?

Bisoprolol is generally well-tolerated, and side effects are mild and transient.

Side effects include:

Patients with asthma may have symptoms increase.

Zebeta (bisoprolol) side effects list for healthcare professionals

Safety data are available in more than 30,000 patients or volunteers. Frequency estimates and rates of withdrawal of therapy for adverse events were derived from two U.S. placebo-controlled studies.

In Study A, doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg bisoprolol fumarate were administered for 4 weeks. In Study B, doses of 2.5, 10, and 40 mg of bisoprolol fumarate were administered for 12 weeks. A total of 273 patients were treated with 5-20 mg of bisoprolol fumarate; 132 received placebo.

Withdrawal of therapy for adverse events was 3.3% for patients receiving bisoprolol fumarate and 6.8% for patients on placebo. Withdrawals were less than 1% for either bradycardia or fatigue/lack of energy.

The following table presents adverse experiences, whether or not considered drug related, reported in at least 1% of patients in these studies, for all patients studied in placebo-controlled clinical trials (2.5- 40 mg), as well as for a subgroup that was treated with doses within the recommended dosage range (5- 20 mg). Of the adverse events listed in the table, bradycardia, diarrhea, asthenia, fatigue, and sinusitis appear to be dose related.

Body System/
Adverse Experience
All Adverse Experiences (% )
Bisoprolol Fumarate
Placebo
(n=132)
%
5-20 mg
(n=273)
%
2.5-40 mg
(n=404)
%
Skin
  increased sweating1.50.71.0
Musculoskeletal
  arthralgia2.32.22.7
Central Nervous System
  dizziness3.82.93.5
  headache11.48.810.9
  hypoaesthesia0.81.11.5
Autonomic Nervous System
  dry mouth1.50.71.3
Heart Rate/Rhythm
  bradycardia00.40.5
Psychiatric
  vivid dreams000
  insomnia2.31.52.5
  depression0.800.2
Gastrointestinal
  diarrhea1.52.63.5
  nausea1.51.52.2
  vomiting01.11.5
Respiratory
  bronchospasm000
  cough4.52.62.5
  dyspnea0.81.11.5
  pharyngitis2.32.22.2
  rhinitis3.02.94.0
  sinusitis1.52.22.2
  URI3.84.85.0
Body as a Whole
  asthenia00.41.5
  chest pain0.81.11.5
  fatigue1.56.68.2
  edema (peripheral)3.83.73.0
*percentage of patients with event

The following is a comprehensive list of adverse experiences reported with bisoprolol fumarate in worldwide studies, or in postmarketing experience (in italics):

Central Nervous System

Dizziness, unsteadiness, vertigo, syncope, headache, paresthesia, hypoesthesia, hyperesthesia, somnolence, sleep disturbances, anxiety/restlessness, decreased concentration/memory.

Autonomic Nervous System

Dry mouth.

Cardiovascular

Bradycardia, palpitations and other rhythm disturbances, cold extremities, claudication, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, chest pain, congestive heart failure, dyspnea on exertion.

Psychiatric

Vivid dreams, insomnia, depression.

Gastrointestinal

Gastric/epigastric/abdominal pain, gastritis, dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, peptic ulcer.

Musculoskeletal

Muscle/joint pain, arthralgia, back/neck pain, muscle cramps, twitching/tremor.

Skin

Rash, acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin irritation, pruritus, flushing, sweating, alopecia, dermatitis, angioedema, exfoliative dermatitis, cutaneous vasculitis.

Special Senses

Visual disturbances, ocular pain/pressure, abnormal lacrimation, tinnitus, decreased hearing, earache, taste abnormalities.

Metabolic

Gout.

Respiratory

Asthma/bronchospasm, bronchitis, coughing, dyspnea, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, URI.

Genitourinary

Decreased libido/impotence, Peyronie's disease, cystitis, renal colic, polyuria.

Hematologic

Purpura.

General

Fatigue, asthenia, chest pain, malaise, edema, weight gain, angioedema.

In addition, a variety of adverse effects have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse effects of Zebeta:

Central Nervous System

Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia, hallucinations, an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation to time and place, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium.

Allergic

Fever, combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm, respiratory distress.

Hematologic

Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura.

Gastrointestinal

Mesenteric arterial thrombosis, ischemic colitis.

Miscellaneous

The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta-blocker practolol has not been reported with Zebeta (bisoprolol fumarate) during investigational use or extensive foreign marketing experience.

Laboratory Abnormalities

In clinical trials, the most frequently reported laboratory change was an increase in serum triglycerides, but this was not a consistent finding.

Sporadic liver test abnormalities have been reported. In the U.S. controlled trials experience with bisoprolol fumarate treatment for 4-12 weeks, the incidence of concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 3.9%, compared to 2.5% for placebo. No patient had concomitant elevations greater than twice normal.

In the long-term, uncontrolled experience with bisoprolol fumarate treatment for 6-18 months, the incidence of one or more concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 6.2%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 1.9%. For concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT of greater than twice normal, the incidence was 1.5%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 0.3%. In many cases these elevations were attributed to underlying disorders, or resolved during continued treatment with bisoprolol fumarate.

Other laboratory changes included small increases in uric acid, creatinine, BUN, serum potassium, glucose, and phosphorus and decreases in WBC and platelets. These were generally not of clinical importance and rarely resulted in discontinuation of bisoprolol fumarate.

As with other beta-blockers, ANA conversions have also been reported on bisoprolol fumarate. About 15% of patients in long-term studies converted to a positive titer, although about one-third of these patients subsequently reconverted to a negative titer while on continued therapy.

What drugs interact with Zebeta (bisoprolol)?

Zebeta should not be combined with other beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving catecholaminedepleting drugs, such as reserpine or guanethidine, should be closely monitored, because the added beta-adrenergic blocking action of Zebeta may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. In patients receiving concurrent therapy with clonidine, if therapy is to be discontinued, it is suggested that Zebeta be discontinued for several days before the withdrawal of clonidine.

Zebeta should be used with care when myocardial depressants or inhibitors of AV conduction, such as certain calcium antagonists (particularly of the phenylalkylamine [verapamil] and benzothiazepine [diltiazem] classes), or antiarrhythmic agents, such as disopyramide, are used concurrently.

Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.

Concurrent use of rifampin increases the metabolic clearance of Zebeta, resulting in a shortened elimination half-life of Zebeta. However, initial dose modification is generally not necessary. Pharmacokinetic studies document no clinically relevant interactions with other agents given concomitantly, including thiazide diuretics and cimetidine. There was no effect of Zebeta on prothrombin time in patients on stable doses of warfarin.

Summary

Zebeta (bisoprolol) is a beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (beta-blocker) to treat high blood pressure and heart pain (angina). Common side effects of Zebeta include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, depression, headache, nausea, impotence, slow heart rate, low blood pressure, numbness,tingling, cold extremities, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, and increased asthma symptoms. Serious side effects of Zebeta include cardiac failure. It is unknown if Zebeta is secreted in breast milk.

Treatment & Diagnosis

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Medically Reviewed on 4/13/2020
References
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