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What is Yosprala, and how does it work?
Yosprala is a prescription medicine used:
- in people who have had heart problems or strokes caused by blood clots, to help reduce their risk of further heart problems or strokes, and
- who are at risk of developing stomach ulcers with aspirin.
The aspirin in Yosprala is used:
- to help reduce the risk of strokes and death in people who have previously had certain types of “mini strokes” (transient ischemic attacks or TIAs) or strokes.
- to help reduce the risk of heart attack and death in people who have previously had a heart attack or a type of chest pain called unstable angina pectoris.
- to help reduce the risk of heart attack and sudden death in people with a type of ongoing chest pain called chronic stable angina pectoris.
- in people who have had surgery or a procedure to improve blood flow to their heart, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and who already have another condition that is being treated with aspirin.
The omeprazole in Yosprala is used:
- to help decrease the risk of developing stomach ulcers due to aspirin in people who are 55 years of age or older, or who have a history of stomach ulcers.
Yosprala should not be used to treat sudden signs and symptoms of a heart attack or stroke. Yosprala should only be used as directed by your doctor to help reduce the risk of further heart problems or strokes.
It is not known if Yosprala is safe and effective in children.
Yosprala has not been shown to reduce the risk of bleeding in the stomach or intestines that is caused by aspirin.
You should not take an aspirin tablet and an omeprazole tablet together instead of taking Yosprala, because they will not work the same way.
What are the side effects of Yosprala?
Yosprala can cause serious side effects, including:
- Stomach and intestine problems. Stop taking Yosprala and call your doctor right away if you have symptoms of stomach and intestine problems, including black, bloody, or tarry stools, coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds, or severe nausea, vomiting, or stomach pain.
- Kidney failure. Long-lasting (chronic) kidney failure can happen with regular use of aspirin, a medicine in Yosprala. This is more likely to happen in people who already have kidney problems before treatment with Yosprala. Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of kidney failure, including changes in urination, swelling of the hands, ankles or feet, skin rash or itching, or your breath smells like ammonia.
- Liver problems. Long-term use of Yosprala at certain doses may cause liver problems. Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of liver problems, including yellowing of your skin or your eyes, stomach-area (abdominal) pain and swelling, itchy skin, and dark (tea-colored) urine.
- Low vitamin B-12 levels. Low vitamin B-12 levels in your body can happen in people who have taken Yosprala for a long time (more than 3 years). Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of low vitamin B-12 levels, including shortness of breath, lightheadedness, irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness, pale skin, feeling tired, mood changes, and tingling or numbness in the arms or legs.
- Low magnesium levels. Low magnesium levels in your body can happen in people who have taken Yosprala for at least 3 months. Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of low magnesium levels, including seizures, dizziness, irregular heartbeat, jitteriness, muscle aches or weakness, and spasms of hands, feet or voice.
- Stomach growths (fundic gland polyps). People who take PPI medicines for a long time have an increased risk of developing a certain type of stomach growths called fundic gland polyps, especially after taking PPI medicines for more than 1 year.
These are not all the possible side effects of Yosprala. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What is the dosage for Yosprala?
- Take one tablet daily.
- Yosprala is available in combinations that contain 81 mg or 325 mg of aspirin. Generally 81 mg of aspirin has been accepted as an effective dose for secondary cardiovascular prevention. Providers should consider the need for 325 mg and refer to current clinical practice guidelines.
- Take Yosprala once daily at least 60 minutes before a meal.
- The tablets are to be swallowed whole with liquid. Do not split, chew, crush or dissolve the tablet.
- Use the lowest effective dose of Yosprala based on the individual patientâ€™s treatment goals and to avoid potential dose dependent adverse reactions including bleeding.
- If a dose of Yosprala is missed, advise patients to take it as soon as it is remembered. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose. Take the next dose at the regular time. Patients should not take 2 doses at the same time unless advised by their doctor.
- Do not stop taking Yosprala suddenly as this could increase the risk of heart attack or stroke.
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What drugs interact with Yosprala?
Tables 2 and 3 include drugs with clinically important drug interactions and interaction with diagnostics when administered concomitantly with Yosprala and instructions for preventing or managing them.
Consult the labeling of concomitantly used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with omeprazole or aspirin.
Table 2: Clinically Relevant Interactions Affecting Drugs Co-Administered with Yosprala and Interaction with Diagnostics
|Clinical Impact:||The effect of PPIs, such as omeprazole, on antiretroviral drugs is variable. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known.|
Concomitant use with Y OSPRALA is contraindicated.|
Atazanavir: Avoid concomitant use with Yosprala. See prescribing information for atazanavir for dosing information.
Nelfinavir: Avoid concomitant use with Yosprala. See prescribing information for nelfinavir.
Saquinavir: See the prescribing information for saquinavir for monitoring of potential saquinavir-related toxicities.
Other antiretrovirals: See prescribing information for specific antiretroviral drugs.
|Heparin and Warfarin|
|Clinical Impact:||Increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs, including omeprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death.|
Aspirin can increase the anticoagulant activity of heparin and warfarin, increasing bleeding risk.
|Intervention:||Monitor INR and prothrombin time and adjust the dose of warfarin, if needed, to maintain target INR range. Monitor and adjust the dose of heparin and warfarin as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of omeprazole with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. No formal drug interaction studies of high-dose methotrexate with PPIs, such as omeprazole, have been conducted.|
|Intervention:||A temporary withdrawal of Yosprala may be considered in some patients receiving high-dose methotrexate.|
|CYP2C19 Substrates (e.g., clopidogrel, citalopram, cilostazol, phenytoin,diazepam)|
Concomitant use of omeprazole 80 mg results in reduced plasma concentrations
of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet
There are no adequate combination studies of a lower dose of omeprazole or a higher dose of clopidogrel in comparison with the approved dose of clopidogrel.
|Intervention:||Avoid concomitant use with Yosprala. Consider use of alternative antiplatelet therapy.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of omeprazole results in increased exposure of citalopram leading to an increased risk of QT prolongation.|
|Intervention:||Limit the dose of citalopram to a maximum of 20 mg per day. See prescribing information for citalopram.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of omeprazole results in increased exposure of one of the active metabolites of cilostazol (3,4-dihydro-cilostazol).|
|Intervention:||Reduce the dose of cilostazol to 50 mg twice daily. See prescribing information for cilostazol.|
|Clinical Impact:||Potential for increased exposure of phenytoin with concomitant omeprazole. Aspirin can displace protein-bound phenytoin leading to a decrease in the total concentration of phenytoin.|
|Intervention:||Monitor phenytoin serum concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for phenytoin.|
|Clinical Impact:||Increased exposure of diazepam with concomitant omeprazole.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for increased sedation and reduce the dose of diazepam as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||Maintenance doses of aspirin above 100 mg reduce the effectiveness of ticagrelor.|
|Intervention:||Avoid concomitant use of ticagrelor with the 325 mg/40 mg tablet strength of Yosprala.|
|Clinical Impact:||Potential for increased exposure of digoxin with concomitant omeprazole.|
|Intervention:||Monitor digoxin concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See digoxin prescribing information.|
|Drugs Dependent on Gastric pH for Absorption (e.g., iron salts, erlotinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, mycophenolate mofetil, ketoconazole/itraconazole)|
|Clinical Impact:||Omeprazole can reduce the absorption of other drugs due to its effect on reducing intragastric acidity.|
|Intervention:||Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF): Co-administration of omeprazole in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving omeprazole and MMF. Use
Yosprala with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF.|
See the prescribing information for other drugs dependent on gastric pH for absorption.
|Clinical Impact:||Potential for increased exposure of tacrolimus with concomitant omeprazole, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19.|
|Intervention:||Monitor tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for tacrolimus.|
|Clinical Impact:||Aspirin may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors.|
|Intervention:||Monitor blood pressure as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||The hypotensive effects of beta blockers may be diminished by the concomitant administration of aspirin.|
|Intervention:||Monitor blood pressure as needed in patients taking Yosprala concomitantly with beta blockers for hypertension.|
|Clinical Impact:||The effectiveness of diuretics in patients with underlying renal or cardiovascular disease may be diminished by the concomitant administration of aspirin.|
|Intervention:||Monitor blood pressure as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||The concurrent use of NSAIDs and aspirin may increase the risk of serious adverse events, including increased bleeding or decreased renal function.|
|Intervention:||Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding or decreased renal function.|
|Clinical Impact:||Moderate doses of aspirin may increase the effectiveness of oral hypoglycemic drugs, leading to hypoglycemia.|
|Intervention:||Monitor blood sugar as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concurrent use of aspirin and acetazolamide can lead to high serum concentrations of acetazolamide (and toxicity).|
|Intervention:||Adjust the dose of acetazolamide if signs of toxicity occur.|
|Uricosuric Agents (Probenecid)|
|Clinical Impact:||Aspirin antagonizes the uricosuric action of uricosuric agents.|
|Intervention:||Monitor serum uric acid levels as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of aspirin can displace protein-bound valproic acid, leading to an increase in serum concentrations of valproic acid.|
|Intervention:||Monitor valproic acid serum concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for valproic acid.|
|Interactions with Investigations of Neuroendocrine Tumors|
|Clinical Impact:||Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to omeprazole-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors.|
|Intervention:||Temporarily stop Yosprala treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary.|
|Interaction with Secretin Stimulation Test|
|Clinical Impact:||Omeprazole can cause a hyper-response in gastrin secretion in response to secretin stimulation test, falsely suggesting gastrinoma.|
|Intervention:||Temporarily stop Yosprala treatment at least 14 days before assessing to allow gastrin levels to return to baseline.|
|False Positive Urine Tests for THC|
|Clinical Impact:||There have been reports of false positive urine screening tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients receiving PPIs such as omeprazole.|
|Intervention:||An alternative confirmatory method should be considered to verify positive results.|
|Clinical Impact:||There have been clinical reports of interactions with other drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system (e.g., cyclosporine, disulfiram) with omeprazole.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients to determine if it is necessary to adjust the dosage of these other drugs when taken concomitantly with Yosprala.|
Table 3: Clinically Relevant Interactions Affecting Yosprala When Co-Administered with Other Drugs
|CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 Inducers|
|Clinical Impact:||Decreased exposure of omeprazole when used concomitantly with strong inducers.|
|Intervention:||St. John’s Wort, rifampin: Avoid concomitant use with Yosprala. Ritonavir-containing products: See prescribing information for specific drugs.|
|CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 Inhibitors|
|Clinical Impact:||Increased exposure of omeprazole.|
|Intervention:||Voriconazole: Avoid concomitant use with Yosprala.|
Is Yosprala safe to use while pregnant or breastfeeding?
- Use of NSAIDs, including Yosprala, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.
- Avoid use of NSAIDs, including Yosprala, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester).
- There are no available data with Yosprala use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associate risk for major birth defects and miscarriage; however, there are published studies with each individual component of Yosprala.
- Pregnant women should avoid use of Yosprala and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks gestation because of the risk of the premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.
- Breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Yosprala.
Yosprala is a prescription medicine used in people who have had heart problems or strokes caused by blood clots, to help reduce their risk of further heart problems or strokes, and who are at risk of developing stomach ulcers with aspirin. Yosprala can cause serious side effects, including stomach and intestine problems, kidney failure, liver problems, low vitamin B-12 levels, low magnesium levels, and stomach growths (fundic gland polyps).
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What Causes Congestive Heart Failure?
Congestive heart failure is a chronic disease that progresses with time if left untreated. Heart failure can occur due to diseases of the heart, the blood vessels supplying oxygen and nutrients to the heart, or sometimes from factors outside the heart (extracardiac causes). With proper management, people who have congestive heart failure can lead nearly normal lives, depending on the severity of the condition.
Aneurysm vs Stroke: Which Is Worse?
What is the difference between an aneurysm and a stroke?
How Do You Know If You Have a Blood Clot in Your Leg?
Blood clots are clumps of blood formed when the blood changes from a fluid to a semisolid form. When a blood clot is formed in one of the large veins in the legs or arms, the condition is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A blot clot in your leg can hamper the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the affected area. An untreated DVT may cause the clot to grow bigger and break in small pieces that can travel to other organs, such as the heart and lungs, causing serious consequences.
Heart Attack Prevention
Heart disease and heart attacks can be prevented by leading a healthy lifestyle with diet, exercise, and stress management. Symptoms of heart attack in men and women include chest discomfort and pain in the shoulder, neck, jaw, stomach, or back. Women experience the same symptoms as men; however, they also may experience: Extreme fatigue Pain in the upper abdomen Dizziness Fainting Leading a healthy lifestyle with a heart healthy low-fat diet, and exercise can help prevent heart disease and heart attack.
How Serious Is a Heart Catheterization?
Cardiac catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure that is considered to be safe for most patients. The procedure helps doctors find and fix any heart problems. It is a low-risk procedure and complications are usually rare, but as with any procedure, complications may arise.
What are the 5 Warning Signs of a Stroke?
What is a stroke and what should you do if someone you know has one? Learn the signs of stroke and what to do if you think you're having one.
Smoking and Heart Disease
Smoking increases the risk of heart disease in women and men. Nicotine in cigarettes decrease oxygen to the heart, increases blood pressure, blood clots, and damages coronary arteries. Learn how to quit smoking today, to prolong your life.
Heart Disease Treatment in Women
Heart disease treatment in women should take into account female-specific guidelines that were developed by the American Heart Association. Risk factors and symptoms of heart disease in women differ from those in men. Treatment may include lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight management, smoking cessation, stress reduction), medications, percutaneous intervention procedure (PCI), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Heart disease is reversible with treatment.
Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series
Vitamins and exercise can lower your risk for heart attack and heart disease. Folic acid, vitamins, and homocysteine levels are interconnected and affect your risk for heart disease or heart attack. For better heart health, avoid the following: fried foods, hard margarine, commercial baked goods, most packaged and processed snack foods, high fat dairy, and processed meats such as bacon, sausage, and deli meats. Antioxidants and exercise also play a key role in heart attack and heart disease prevention. Lower your risk factors for heart disease and heart attack by: lowering cholesterol, lowering blood pressure, diabetes prevention, and smoking cesssation. Here are a few things you can do to prevent heart attacks: Eat whole, natural, fresh foods, eat five to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, eat more omega-3 fatty acids, drink water, tea, non-fat dairy and red wine, eat lean proteins, limit glycemic foods, and exercise daily.
Stroke is the third leading killer in the United States. Some of the warning signs of stroke include sudden confusion, trouble seeing with one or both eyes, dizziness, loss of balance, and more. Stroke prevention and reatable risk factors for stroke include lowering high blood pressure, quit smoking, heart disease, diabetes control and prevention.
Can a Person Survive a Hemorrhagic Stroke?
A hemorrhagic stroke is a serious medical emergency and should be treated immediately. While survival rates are low, there are ways to improve your chances. Learn how to spot hemorrhagic symptoms, what causes them, and how they can be treated.
How Can I Take Care of My Heart at Home?
Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in many countries. Keeping the heart healthy no matter how old you are may limit heart diseases and complications.
Warning Signs of a Stroke
Signs of a stroke may sometimes go unnoticed initially and gradually progress. Sometimes, the signs of a stroke may appear suddenly.
Heart Attack Prevention Overview
Heart attacks are the major causes of unexpected, sudden death among men and women. A heart attack also is a significant cause of heart failure. The process of developing atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) begins early in life. Heart attack prevention should begin in childhood because the atherosclerosis process can not be reversed. The risk of having a heart attack increases if you have diseases or conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and other heart conditions. You can lowering your risk of having a heart attack by: Lifestyle changes, for example: Diet Exercise Quit smoking Control high blood pressure, diabetes, and other diseases that are risk factors) In some cases, medication is the most effective way of preventing a heart attack
Can Peripheral Artery Disease Affect the Heart?
Peripheral artery disease is a condition in which extremities (usually the legs) do not receive sufficient blood flow due to the narrowing of or blocks in arteries. Peripheral artery disease is also likely to be a sign of more widespread accumulation of fat deposits in the arteries (atherosclerosis or plaque).
How Can You Prevent a Stroke From Happening?
Strokes occur due to the obstruction of blood flow to the brain. Some irreversible factors, such as age and family history, are likely to increase the risk of stroke. These factors cannot be modified. However, many such preventable or modifiable factors can help prevent strokes.
What Is a Widowmaker Heart Attack?
A Widowmaker is a type of heart attack, which is deadlier than most others. A widowmaker heart attack occurs when the left ascending artery (LAD) that supplies blood to the front part of the heart (largest part) is clogged-up because of clots in the arterial wall. This causes the death of heart muscle in this area, medically termed myocardial infarction. Because the widowmaker damages a major portion of the heart, timely management is necessary to prevent fatalities.
Types of Strokes
A stroke, also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA), occurs when the blood supply is cut off or reduced to a part of the brain. There are five main types of strokes, and the causes and clinical presentation of each of them vary
How Can You Tell the Difference Between Bell's Palsy and a Stroke?
Bell's palsy and stroke have similar symptoms, but they are two very different conditions. Learn more about what makes them different, recognize each's symptoms, and how to treat both.
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