- 10 Common Allergy Triggers Slideshow Pictures
- Take the Quiz on Allergies
- Nasal Allergy Relief Products Slideshow
What is Xyzal (levocetirizine dihydrochloride), and how is it used?
Xyzal is a histamine H1-receptor antagonist indicated for:
- The relief of symptoms associated with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis
- The treatment of the uncomplicated skin manifestations of chronic idiopathic urticaria
Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis
Perennial Allergic Rhinitis
Xyzal is indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and children 6 months of age and older.
Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria
Xyzal is indicated for the treatment of the uncomplicated skin manifestations of chronic idiopathic urticaria in adults and children 6 months of age and older.
What are the side effects of Xyzal?
The most common adverse reactions (rate ≥2% and > placebo) were somnolence, nasopharyngitis, fatigue, dry mouth, and pharyngitis in subjects 12 years of age and older, and pyrexia, somnolence, cough, and epistaxis in children 6 to 12 years of age.
In addition to the adverse reactions reported during clinical trials and listed above, adverse events have also been identified during post-approval use of Xyzal. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Adverse events of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, increased appetite, angioedema, fixed drug eruption, pruritus, rash and urticaria, convulsion, paraesthesia, dizziness, tremor, dysgeusia, vertigo, movement disorders (including dystonia and oculogyric crisis), aggression and agitation, hallucinations, depression, insomnia, suicidal ideation, visual disturbances, blurred vision, palpitations, tachycardia, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, hepatitis, dysuria, urinary retention, myalgia, and edema have been reported.
Besides these events reported under treatment with Xyzal, other potentially severe adverse events have been reported from the post-marketing experience with cetirizine. Since levocetirizine is the principal pharmacologically active component of cetirizine, one should take into account the fact that the following adverse events could also potentially occur under treatment with Xyzal: orofacial dyskinesia, severe hypotension, cholestasis, glomerulonephritis, still birth, tic, myoclonus, and extrapyramidal symptoms.
What is the dosage of Xyzal?
Xyzal is available as 2.5 mg/5 mL (0.5 mg/mL) oral solution and as 5 mg breakable (scored) tablets, allowing for the administration of 2.5 mg, if needed. Xyzal can be taken without regard to food consumption.
Adults and Children 12 Years of Age and Older
The recommended dose of Xyzal is 5 mg (1 tablet or 2 teaspoons [10 mL] oral solution) once daily in the evening. Some patients may be adequately controlled by 2.5 mg (1/2 tablet or 1 teaspoon [5 mL] oral solution) once daily in the evening.
Children 6 to 11 Years of Age
The recommended dose of Xyzal is 2.5 mg (1/2 tablet or 1 teaspoon [5 mL] oral solution) once daily in the evening. The 2.5 mg dose should not be exceeded because the systemic exposure with 5 mg is approximately twice that of adults.
Children 6 months to 5 Years of Age
The recommended initial dose of Xyzal is 1.25 mg (1/2 teaspoon oral solution) [2.5mL] once daily in the evening. The 1.25 mg once daily dose should not be exceeded based on comparable exposure to adults receiving 5 mg.
Dose Adjustment for Renal and Hepatic Impairment
In adults and children 12 years of age and older with:
- Mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CLCR] = 50-80 mL/min): a dose of 2.5 mg once daily is recommended;
- Moderate renal impairment (CLCR = 30-50 mL/min): a dose of 2.5 mg once every other day is recommended;
- Severe renal impairment (CLCR = 10-30 mL/min): a dose of 2.5 mg twice weekly (administered once every 3-4 days) is recommended;
- End-stage renal disease patients (CLCR < 10 mL/min) and patients undergoing hemodialysis should not receive Xyzal.
No dose adjustment is needed in patients with solely hepatic impairment. In patients with both hepatic impairment and renal impairment, adjustment of the dose is recommended.
Latest Medications News
Daily Health News
What drugs interact with Xyzal?
In vitro data indicate that levocetirizine is unlikely to produce pharmacokinetic interactions through inhibition or induction of liver drug-metabolizing enzymes. No in vivo drug-drug interaction studies have been performed with levocetirizine. Drug interaction studies have been performed with racemic cetirizine.
Pharmacokinetic interaction studies performed with racemic cetirizine demonstrated that cetirizine did not interact with antipyrine, pseudoephedrine, erythromycin, azithromycin, ketoconazole, and cimetidine. There was a small decrease (~16%) in the clearance of cetirizine caused by a 400 mg dose of theophylline. It is possible that higher theophylline doses could have a greater effect.
Ritonavir increased the plasma AUC of cetirizine by about 42% accompanied by an increase in half-life (53%) and a decrease in clearance (29%) of cetirizine. The disposition of ritonavir was not altered by concomitant cetirizine administration.
Is Xyzal safe to use while pregnant or breastfeeding?
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, Xyzal should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
No peri- and post-natal animal studies have been conducted with levocetirizine. Cetirizine has been reported to be excreted in human breast milk. Because levocetirizine is also expected to be excreted in human milk, use of Xyzal in nursing mothers is not recommended.
What else should I know about Xyzal?
Avoid engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness such as driving or operating machinery when taking Xyzal.
Avoid concurrent use of alcohol or other central nervous system depressants with Xyzal.
Use with caution in patients with predisposing factors of urinary retention (e.g. spinal cord lesion, prostatic hyperplasia). Discontinue Xyzal if urinary retention occurs.
Xyzal is a histamine H1-receptor antagonist indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, and the treatment of the uncomplicated skin manifestations of chronic idiopathic urticaria. The most common adverse reactions were somnolence, nasopharyngitis, fatigue, dry mouth, and pharyngitis in subjects 12 years of age and older, and pyrexia, somnolence, cough, and epistaxis in children 6 to 12 years of age.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Common Allergies: Symptoms and Signs
What are allergies? Pollen, food, perfumes, and many more things can provoke allergy symptoms. Allergies are an overreaction of...
Allergies: Common Plants and Trees That Trigger Allergies
Find out more about which plants and trees might be producing pollen that is causing your itchy eyes and a runny nose.
Out-of-Control Allergy Symptoms: Treatment Relief in Pictures
Learn 10 signs your allergies are out of control. See these surprising allergy symptoms and find out how to get relief for...
Picture of Urticaria
This is a close-up view of wheals with white-to-light-pink color centrally and peripheral erythema. See a picture of Urticaria...
Dangerous Allergies: Anaphylaxis and Life-Threatening Allergy Triggers
Common allergy triggers may provoke anaphylaxis. Hives, tongue swelling, face swelling, rashes, low blood pressure, rapid and...
Pictures of Allergy Relief Tips at Home: AC Filters, Electronic Air Cleaners, and More
Learn how a combination of medication, preventing allergens, and allergy relief products can reduce allergy symptoms and help you...
Nasal Allergy Attack: Causes, Triggers, Treatments
Nasal allergies are a common problem that affects millions of people. An allergist can recommend the best allergy nasal sprays...
Home Allergy Quiz: Is Your Home Allergy-Proof?
Take this home allergy quiz and test your knowledge on allergens, dust mites, pollens and more to see how allergy-proof your home...
Related Disease Conditions
Chronic Rhinitis and Post-Nasal Drip
Chronic rhinitis (non allergic rhinitis) causes runny nose, sneezing, nasal itching and congestion. Post-nasal drip is drainage of mucus from the sinuses into the throat. Treatment includes over-the-counter (OTC) medications.
Hives, also called urticaria, is a raised, itchy area of skin. Most often the cause of hives is unknown. Sometimes it is a sign of an allergic reaction to food or medications, but the cause of the allergy (the allergen) is unknown. Dermatographism and swelling (angioedema) may accompany hives. Treatment to get rid of hives and alleviate symptoms typically includes antihistamines.
An allergy refers to a misguided reaction by our immune system in response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances. When these allergens come in contact with the body, it causes the immune system to develop an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to it. It is estimated that 50 million North Americans are affected by allergic conditions. The parts of the body that are prone to react to allergies include the eyes, nose, lungs, skin, and stomach. Common allergic disorders include hay fever, asthma, allergic eyes, allergic eczema, hives, and allergic shock.
Hay Fever (Allergic Rhinitis)
Hay fever (allergic rhinitis) is an irritation of the nose caused by pollen and is associated with the following allergic symptoms: nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, eye and nose itching, and tearing eyes. Avoidance of known allergens is the recommended treatment, but if this is not possible, antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal sprays may help alleviate symptoms.
Cold, Flu, Allergy Treatments
Before treating a cold, the flu, or allergies with over-the-counter (OTC) medications, it's important to know what's causing the symptoms, which symptoms one wishes to relieve, and the active ingredients in the OTC product. Taking products that only contain the medications needed for relieving your symptoms prevents ingestion of unnecessary medications and reduces the chances of side effects.
Are Hives (Urticaria) Contagious?
Hives are not contagious are triggered by an allergic response to a substance. Symptoms and signs of hives include a raised, itchy red rash on the skin. An individual should seek medical care for hives if he or she develops dysphagia, wheezing, shortness of breath, or throat tightening.
Allergy Treatment Begins at Home
Avoiding allergy triggers at home is one of the best ways to prevent allergy symptoms. Controlling temperature, humidity, and ventilation are a few ways to allergy-proof the home. Cleaning, vacuuming, and using HEPA air filters also helps control allergies.
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- cetirizine (Zyrtec, Zyrtec Allergy, Zyrtec Hives)
- loratadine, Claritin, Claritin RediTabs, Alavert, Claritin Hives Relief, Children's Claritin
- fexofenadine (Allegra, Mucinex Allergy)
- loratadine and pseudoephedrine (Alavert Allergy & Sinus, Claritin-D, Claritin-D 24 hour)
- fluticasone (Flonase, Flonase Allergy Relief)
- budesonide nasal inhaler (Rhinocort Allergy, Rhinocort Aqua)
- Nasal Allergy Medications
- Quzyttir (cetirizine)
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
All content is from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prescribing information.