What is Xcopri, and how does it work?
Xcopri is a prescription medicine used to treat partial-onset seizures in adults.
It is not known if Xcopri is safe and effective in children.
What are the side effects of Xcopri?
Xcopri may cause serious side effects, including:
- problems with the electrical system of the heart (QT shortening). Call your healthcare provider if you have symptoms of QT shortening including fast heartbeat (heart palpitations) that last a long time or fainting.
- nervous system problems. Xcopri may cause problems that can affect your nervous system. Symptoms of nervous system problems include:
The most common side effects of Xcopri include:
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all the possible side effects of Xcopri.
For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Does Xcopri cause addiction or withdrawal symptoms?
Drug Abuse And Dependence
Xcopri contains cenobamate and is listed as a Schedule V controlled substance.
- Abuse is the intentional, non-therapeutic use of a drug, even once, for its desirable psychological or physiological effects. In a human abuse potential study conducted in recreational sedative abusers (n=39), single doses of Xcopri (200 mg and 400 mg) were compared to placebo.
- Xcopri at single doses of 400 mg produced responses on positive subjective measures such as “Drug Liking,” “Overall Drug Liking,” “Take Drug Again,” and “Good Drug Effects” that were statistically greater than the responses produced on these measures by placebo.
- In this study, euphoric mood occurred at greater extent with Xcopri (400 mg) (8%) than with placebo (0%).
- Phase 1 multiple ascending dose studies in healthy subjects showed rates of euphoria and feeling drunk of about 3% and disturbance in attention of about 5% in subjects who received supratherapeutic doses of cenobamate, but these adverse events were absent in the placebo group.
- In Phase 2 and 3 studies in subjects with epilepsy, euphoric mood, confusional state, and sedation occurred at low rates in subjects who received Xcopri (0.5-2.5%).
- Physical dependence is a state that develops as a result of physiological adaptation in response to repeated drug use, manifested by withdrawal signs and symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dose reduction of a drug.
- Clinical studies in healthy subjects indicate that Xcopri may cause physical dependence and lead to a withdrawal syndrome characterized by insomnia, decreased appetite, depressed mood, tremor, and amnesia. Xcopri should be withdrawn gradually.
What is the dosage for Xcopri?
Important Administration Instructions
- Xcopri may be taken any time with or without food. Swallow tablets whole with liquid.
- Do not crush or chew.
General Dosing Recommendations
Monotherapy And Adjunctive Therapy
- Xcopri is administered orally once daily.
- The recommended dosage and titration, which should not be exceeded because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, is included in Table 1.
Table 1: Recommended Dosage for Partial-Onset Seizures in Adults
|Week 1 and 2||12.5 mg once daily|
|Week 3 and 4||25 mg once daily|
|Week 5 and 6||50 mg once daily|
|Week 7 and 8||100 mg once daily|
|Week 9 and 10||150 mg once daily|
|Week 11 and thereafter||200 mg once daily|
|If needed based on clinical response and tolerability, dose may be increased above 200 mg by increments of 50 mg once daily every two weeks to 400 mg.||400 mg once daily|
Dosage Modifications In Patients With Hepatic Impairment
- For patients with mild to moderate (5-9 points on Child-Pugh assessment) hepatic impairment, the maximum recommended dosage is 200 mg once daily.
- Xcopri is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Discontinuation Of Xcopri
- If Xcopri is discontinued, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of at least 2 weeks, unless safety concerns require abrupt withdrawal.
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What drugs interact with Xcopri?
Effect Of Xcopri On Other Drugs
Table 5 summarizes the effect of Xcopri on other drugs.
Table 5: Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions
|Drug or Substrate Type||Effect of Xcopri on Drug or Substrate||Clinical Recommendation|
|lamotrigine||↓ plasma concentrations||Because of a potential for reduced efficacy of these drugs, increase the dosage of lamotrigine or carbamazepine, as needed, when used concomitantly with Xcopri.|
|carbamazepine||↓ plasma concentrations|
|phenytoin||↑plasma concentrations||Because of a potential 2-fold increase in phenytoin levels, gradually decrease phenytoin dosage by up to 50% as Xcopri is being titrated.|
|phenobarbital||↑ plasma concentrations||Because of a potential for an increase in the risk of adverse reactions from these drugs, consider a reduction in dosage of phenobarbital or clobazam, as clinically appropriate, when used concomitantly with Xcopri.|
|desmethylclobazam, the active metabolite of clobazam||↑plasma concentrations|
|CYP2B6 Substrates||↓ plasma concentrations||Because of a potential for reduced efficacy of these drugs, increase the dosage of CYP2B6 or CYP3 A4 substrates, as needed, when used concomitantly with Xcopri.|
|CYP3A Substrates||↓ plasma concentrations|
|Oral contraceptives||↓ plasma concentrations||Because of the potential for reduced efficacy of oral contraceptives, women should use additional or alternative non-hormonal birth control while taking Xcopri.|
|CYP2C19 Substrates||↑ plasma concentrations||Because of a potential for an increase in the risk of adverse reactions from these drugs, consider a reduction in dosage of CYP2C19 substrates, as clinically appropriate, when used concomitantly with Xcopri.|
Drug That Shorten The QT Interval
- Xcopri can shorten the QT interval; therefore, caution should be used when administering Xcopri and other drugs that shorten the QT interval.
CNS Depressants And Alcohol
- Concomitant use of Xcopri with other CNS depressants, including alcohol, may increase the risk of neurological adverse reactions, including sedation and somnolence.
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Is Xcopri safe to use while pregnant or breastfeeding?
- There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of Xcopri in pregnant women.
- There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), such as Xcopri, during pregnancy.
- Encourage women who are taking Xcopri during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry by calling the toll-free number 1-888-233-2334 or visiting http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.
Xcopri is a prescription medicine used to treat partial-onset seizures in adults. It is not known if Xcopri is safe and effective in children. Xcopri contains cenobamate and is listed as a Schedule V controlled substance.
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Related Disease Conditions
Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which the person has seizures. There are two kinds of seizures, focal and generalized. There are many causes of epilepsy. Treatment of epilepsy (seizures) depends upon the cause and type of seizures experienced.
Seizures Symptoms and Types
Seizures are divided into two categories: generalized and partial. Generalized seizures are produced by electrical impulses from throughout the brain, while partial seizures are produced by electrical impulses in a small part of the brain. Seizure symptoms include unconsciousness, convulsions, and muscle rigidity.
Seizure vs. Seizure Disorders (Differences and Similarities)
The differences between a seizure, epilepsy, and seizure disorders are confusing to many people. What makes it more confusing, is that they are not the same thing. A seizure begins suddenly, and is a symptom of another disease. When a seizure occurs there is uncontrolled activity in the brain that usually only lasts for a short period. While a seizure disorder is a medical condition, in which the person has episodes of uncontrolled activity in the brain producing symptoms that include one or more seizures. Epilepsy is considered a seizure disorder.There are two types of major seizures, generalized and partial seizure type and the symptoms depend upon the part of the brain affected, and may include: Loss of consciousness Thought disturbances Convulsions Eye rolling Stiff limbs Twitching on only one side or a portion of the body like an arm or leg. Involuntary urination or bowel movement Repetitive shaking or jerking of the body Staring into space, sometimes with eye blinking No loss of consciousness, but the person becomes confused for a few minutes A third type of seizure is called unclassified seizure.Seizure disorders are classified under two types of major seizures (generalized and partial), and a third type called unclassified seizures. There are about 40 types of named seizure disorders. The symptoms and signs are different depending on the part of the brain affected by the seizure. Examples of seizure disorders are: Febrile seizures Benign Rolandic epilepsy Catamenial epilepsy Absence seizures Frontal lobe epilepsy Epilepsy Sometimes there is a known cause for a seizure like alcohol, cocaine or other illegal drug abuse, drug reactions, a severe chemical imbalance in the blood, or medical problems like low blood pressure. Treatment, management, and prevention of seizures include medication and avoiding any known causes or common triggers. REFERENCES: CDC. "Types of Seizures." Updated: Apr 10, 2017.Harvard Health Publications; Harvard Medical School. "Generalized Seizures (Grand Mal Seizures)."
Migraines and Seizures (Symptoms, Auras, Medication)
Migraines are a type of headache and seizures are the main symptom of epilepsy. Migraine headaches and seizures are two different neurological problems that have similar signs, symptoms, and auras, for example, sensitivity to light (photophobia) and sound, irritability, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms unique to migraine and migraine auras are water retention, problems sleeping, appetite changes, and talkativeness. Symptoms unique to seizure and seizures auras are depression, a feeling of heaviness, a feeling that a seizure is approaching, and depression. Many of the symptoms of migraine and seizures are the same, however, seizures do not cause migraines; however, people who have seizures are twice as likely to have migraines and vice-versa. People who have migraines are twice as likely to have seizures, and people with seizures are twice as likely to have migraines; however, one condition does not cause the other.
Epilepsy and Seizures: How to Treat?
A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder where brain activities are abnormal, causing more than one or recurrent episodes of seizures. Most cases of seizures can be managed conservatively with medication and supportive treatments.
What Are the Different Types of Seizures?
A seizure is a sudden change in the brain's normal electrical activity. During a seizure, brain cells fire uncontrollably than their normal rate, temporarily affecting the way a person behaves, moves, thinks, or feels. Recurrent seizures are called epilepsy. Seizures are usually categorized into three types depending on their onset.
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