X. scabrosa, Xanthoparmelia scabrosa.
Xanthoparmelia is a type of lichen. Lichen is an organism that is made up of fungus and algae living together. Xanthoparmelia is used to make medicine.
Products containing xanthoparmelia are often marketed for sexual enhancement. In 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) seized numerous brand name supplement products containing xanthoparmelia because these products also contained the prescription drug tadalafil (Cialis). This drug is used to treat erectile dysfunction (ED).
How does it work?
There is not enough information available to know how xanthoparmelia might work. It is thought to contain poisonous chemicals.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction (ED).
- Increasing sexual desire (as an aphrodisiac).
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
The appropriate dose of xanthoparmelia depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for xanthoparmelia. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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Ernst-Russell MA, Elix JA, Chai CLL, et al. Structure Revision and Cytotoxic Activity of the Scabrosin Esters, Epidithiopiperazinediones from the Lichen Xanthoparmelia scarbosa. Aust J Chem 1999;52:279-83.
FDA Enforcement Report. January 21, 2004. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2004/ENF00831.html.
Moerman KL, Chai CL, Waring P. Evidence that the lichen-derived scabrosin esters target mitochondrial ATP synthase in P388D1 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2003;190:232-40. View abstract.