Diabetes mellitus (DM), or simply referred to as diabetes, is a condition that impairs the body's ability to use blood glucose, known as blood sugar, and other nutrients including fats and proteins. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps glucose from the food get into the cells to be used for the production of energy. A person with diabetes becomes deficient in insulin production or resistant to its action that causes the buildup of glucose in the blood. Over time, having too much glucose in the blood can cause several health problems.
Diabetes has emerged as one of the fastest growing health challenges, and the number of adults living with diabetes has tripled in the world over the past two decades. China has the highest number of diabetes cases worldwide, with around 116 million people being affected, followed by India and the United States with around 77 million and 31 million people with diabetes, respectively.
What are the risk factors for diabetes?
Doctors use the term “prediabetes or borderline diabetes” when a person’s blood sugar level is usually in the range of 100-125 mg/dL. The prediabetes level means that the blood glucose level is higher than usual but not high enough to be called diabetes. People with prediabetes are, however, at risk of type 2 diabetes, although they do not usually experience the symptoms of full-blown diabetes.
The risk factors for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are similar. They include:
What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes?
The classical symptoms of untreated diabetes include:
- Unintended weight loss
- Polyuria (increased urination)
- Polydipsia (increased thirst)
- Polyphagia (increased hunger)
Symptoms develop rapidly in type 1 diabetes, whereas they usually develop much more slowly, are subtle, or absent in type 2 diabetes. Several signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes. They include:
How is diabetes diagnosed?
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by recurrent or persistent high blood sugar level and is diagnosed using
Prevention of diabetes
There is no established measure to prevent type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, one can lower the risk of type 2 DM by following the below measures:
- Eating a diet high in fresh, nutritious foods including whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, low-fat dairy, and healthy fat sources such as nuts
- Avoiding high-sugar foods that provide empty calories or calories that do not have other nutritional benefits such as sweetened sodas, fried foods, and high-sugar desserts
- Refraining from drinking excessive amounts of alcohol or keeping intake to less than one drink a day
- Engaging in at least 30 minutes of exercise a day for at least 5 days a week, such as walking, aerobics, riding a bike, or swimming
- Recognizing signs of low blood sugar levels such as dizziness, confusion, weakness, and profuse sweating when exercising
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Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
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fenugreekFenugreek is an aromatic herb (Trigonella foenum-graecum) that has been traditionally taken as a supplement for many health benefits such as increasing milk production in lactating women, and reducing blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. It may also be used for treating diabetes (type 1 and type 2), constipation, wounds and boils, inflammation, thickening of arteries (atherosclerosis), and more. Common side effects of fenugreek include indigestion, diarrhea, gas (flatulence), nausea, headache, dizziness, abnormal urine odor, abnormal body odor, low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia), allergic reaction, asthma, wheezing, and loss of consciousness.
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insulin regular humanRegular human insulin is a biological product used to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Human insulin is a natural hormone secreted by the pancreas. Common side effects of insulin regular human include hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, injection site reactions, generalized rash, drop in blood pressure, shortness of breath, wheezing, fast pulse, sweating, peripheral edema, and weight gain. Overdose can cause hypoglycemia and hypokalemia. Insulin is the preferred treatment for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, as well as gestational diabetes mellitus. Consult your doctor if breastfeeding.
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L-methylfolate/pyridoxal 5-phosphate/methylcobalaminL-methylfolate/pyridoxal 5-phosphate/methylcobalamin is a combination of three vitamins of the B group, and is used to treat peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Common side effects include allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, headaches, drowsiness (somnolence), temporary widespread skin rash (exanthema), itching, swelling(edema), and excessive red blood cells (polycythemia vera), and others. Use with caution if potential benefits outweigh potential fetal risks in pregnant women and women who are nursing infants.
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taurineTaurine is a dietary supplement used in the treatment of many conditions including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and type 2 diabetes. Taurine is also used as a component of energy drinks, infant formula, and health foods. There are no reported side effects for taurine. Avoid taurine if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
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