What is a muscle twitch?

Muscle twitches have a variety of causes, many of which are minor. You should see your doctor if the twitches are continuous, cause weakness or muscle loss, affects multiple body parts, begin after a new medication or new medical condition.
Muscle twitches have a variety of causes, many of which are minor. You should see your doctor if the twitches are continuous, cause weakness or muscle loss, affects multiple body parts, begin after a new medication or new medical condition.

A muscle twitch (also called a fasciculation) is a fine movement of a small area of your muscle. It is caused by tiny muscle contractions and is not something you can control. 

Unlike a muscle spasm, which is when a muscle suddenly contracts, a muscle twitch is typically not painful. Most muscle twitches are common, normal, and often resolve by themselves. 

Muscle twitches have a variety of causes, many of which are minor and don’t require medical care.

Signs of muscle twitching

Small, involuntary contractions of a muscle can occur anywhere in your body. The most common locations to experience muscle twitches are your face, forearms, fingers or thumbs, upper arms, and legs. They’re not rare and can have a variety of causes.

Your brain needs to receive a specific amount of nerve impulses to contract a muscle and to allow you to move your body. When this system becomes imbalanced, it can cause muscle twitching. 

This issue can happen in your brain, spine, or nerves — where the impulse signals are sent from — or in your muscles, which receive the signals. This imbalance can cause involuntary twitching of individual or small groups of muscles.

Causes of muscle twitching

Muscle twitching, or fasciculations, can have a variety of causes. Many of them are easily managed at home, but some require medical attention.  


Mental stress is one of the primary causes of muscle twitching. Triggered by anxiety or stressful situations, these kinds of muscle twitches are sometimes called “nervous ticks”.


Drinking caffeine or other stimulants can trigger muscle twitches. Caffeine can interfere with molecules in your body that are responsible for moving energy on a cellular level. When those molecules are out of balance, it can change the amount of energy in your muscle, causing an uncontrolled “firing” or contraction.

Lack of sleep

Sleep is critical to maintaining the health of your body and mind. It’s a complex process of rest and renewal necessary for many functions. Sleep deprivation can cause a wide variety of issues, including muscle twitching.

Dehydration or poor nutrition

Your body needs enough water and nutrients to function properly. Without sufficient water, the balance of salt in your muscles gets disturbed, which can lead to twitching. Similarly, a deficiency in certain nutrients like potassium, calcium, or Vitamin D can cause imbalances that result in muscle twitches.

Nervous system conditions

Muscle twitches can be caused by nervous system conditions, including ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), spinal muscular atrophy, neuropathy (nerve damage), or myopathy (muscle disease). 

A doctor can perform blood tests or other assessments to determine if your muscle twitching is caused by one of these conditions. In these cases,muscle twitching is often accompanied by other symptoms including weakness or a loss of muscle.

Other causes of muscle twitching

Additional causes for muscle twitching include:

  • Exercise
  • Medication side effects
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Pinched spinal nerves

A doctor can help determine the cause of your muscle twitching and how to best manage or reduce it.


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When to see the doctor for muscle twitching

You should talk to your doctor if your muscle twitching:

  • Is continuous, or lasts for a long time
  • Happens when you’re moving and resting
  • Affects multiple parts of your body at once
  • Is accompanied by weakness or muscle loss
  • Is accompanied by a loss of or change in sensation (feeling)
  • Begins after you start taking a new medication
  • Happens after you’ve been diagnosed with a new medical condition
  • Is accompanied by fever, headache, nausea, or vomiting

Diagnosing muscle twitching

Your doctor will assess your muscle twitching by examining the affected area while you’re relaxed so that they can fully observe the twitching. Your doctor may ask you the following questions:

  • When did you first notice your muscle twitching? 
  • How long does your twitching last?
  • Does your twitching always happen in the same location?
  • How often does your twitching occur?
  • Do you have any other symptoms?

Your doctor might also perform blood tests to determine if the cause is an electrolyte imbalance or related to your blood chemistry. Additionally, your doctor may recommend other tests, including:

Treatments for muscle twitching

You can easily treat and prevent many causes of muscle twitching at home. Most muscle twitches can be prevented by:

  • Getting enough sleep (experts recommend 7-8 hours per night)
  • Staying hydrated
  • Eating a balanced diet including a diversity of fruits and vegetables
  • Avoiding too much caffeine (found in coffee, tea, or energy drinks)
  • Exercising daily
  • Managing stress with healthy coping mechanisms like meditation or journaling
  • Discussing medication changes with your doctor

Placing a warm or cool compress or a damp washcloth on your affected muscle can relieve some discomfort. Similarly, gentle massage or stretching can help reduce muscle twitching. 

If your doctor finds that another medical condition is causing your muscle twitching, they will recommend an appropriate treatment.

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Medically Reviewed on 1/12/2021
ALS Association: "What Do Fasciculations or Muscle Twitching Mean?"

Columbia University Department of Neurology: "Sleep Deprivation."

Healthline: "What You Need to Know About Muscle Twitching."

MedlinePlus: "Muscle twitching."

Neurology International: "Another Perspective on Fasciculations: When is it not Caused by the Classic form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or Progressive Spinal Atrophy?"

The Ohio University Wexner Medical Center: "Why do my muscles twitch?"