Hydronephrosis refers to the swelling of the kidney caused by the collection of urine.
Hydronephrosis refers to the swelling of the kidney caused by the collection of urine. Surgery would be recommended only in the most severe cases. The goal of the surgery is to reduce swelling and pressure in the kidney by establishing a free flow of the urine. The most common surgical procedure used for the treatment of hydronephrosis is pyeloplasty. Pyeloplasty repairs the most common type of blockage, that is, the blockage at the point where the kidney joins the ureter (ureteropelvic junction blockage). It removes the narrowed or obstructed part of the tube connecting the kidney to the bladder (ureter) and reconnects the healthy portion to the kidney’s drainage system. The surgeon may perform pyeloplasty in:
- Traditional or open incision method
- Robot-assisted pyeloplasty
- Laparoscopic pyeloplasty
What is hydronephrosis?
Hydronephrosis involves the collection of urine in the kidney due to incomplete emptying of the urinary tract. This results in swelling and obstruction of the kidney. The swelling or obstruction can occur at:
- Opening of the kidneys into the ureters
- The ureters
- The bladder
- The urethra
Hydronephrosis may be of two types:
- Unilateral hydronephrosis (only one kidney is affected)
- Bilateral hydronephrosis (both the kidneys are affected)
Hydronephrosis, if left untreated, can lead to kidney failure.
What causes hydronephrosis?
The most common causes of hydronephrosis include:
- Kidney stones
- Tumors in the bladder or prostate gland
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlargement of the prostate gland causing pressure in the urethra)
- Blood clots in the kidney or ureter
- Strictures (narrowing of the urinary tract)
- Nerve or muscle problems in the kidney or ureters
- Urinary retention
- Vesicoureteral reflux (a condition where urine flows backward from the bladder to the ureter)
- Ureterocele (a condition where the lower part of the ureter may protrude into the bladder)
- Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (blockage at the point where the kidney joins the ureter)
- Ureterovesical junction obstruction (blockage at the point where the ureter joins the bladder)
- Posterior urethral valves (a congenital condition in which there are abnormal flaps of tissue in the urethra)
- Urethral cancer
In women, hydronephrosis may occur as a result of:
What are the symptoms of hydronephrosis?
Hydronephrosis generally doesn’t cause any symptoms. If symptoms occur, they include:
- Blood in the urine
- Weakness or malaise
- Fever due to a urinary tract infection
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Leg swelling
- Sudden or intense pain in the back or side of the abdomen
- Cloudy urine
- Painful urination
In the case of electrolyte abnormalities, it may lead to:
How is hydronephrosis diagnosed?
The surgeon takes the history of the patient. They may also ask you to undergo specific tests, which include:
What is the treatment for hydronephrosis?
Acute or sudden hydronephrosis can be treated using a stent or soft tube (nephrostomy tube). The stent is inserted through the skin (percutaneously) into the kidney to drain off the urine. Treatment options for kidney or ureteral stones include:
Latest Health and Living News
Daily Health News
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Top What Surgery Is Done for Hydronephrosis? Related Articles
Diabetes and Kidney DiseaseIn the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
What Is the Difference Between Nephritis and Nephrosis?What is the difference between nephritis and nephrosis?
Kidney CancerThere are several types of kidney cancer, including renal cell cancer (renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma), transitional cell carcinoma, and Wilms tumor. Symptoms of kidney cancer include blood in the urine, an abdominal lump or mass, chronic pain in the side, and tiredness. Treatment of kidney cancer -- which may include surgery, arterial embolization, radiation therapy, biological therapy or chemotherapy -- depends upon the stage of the disease and the patient's overall health.
Hypertensive Kidney DiseaseHigh blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease). Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. If you have kidney disease, you should control your blood pressure. Other treatment options include prescription medications.
Kidney Disease QuizKidney disease is common. Take this kidney disease quiz to test your knowledge and learn the symptoms, causes and types of kidney disease and what foods to eat and avoid!
Kidney (Renal) Failure
Kidney failure can occur from an acute event or a chronic condition or disease. Prerenal kidney failure is caused by blood loss, dehydration, or medication. Some of the renal causes of kidney failure include sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma, and acute glomerulonephritis.
Post renal causes of kidney failure include bladder obstruction, prostate problems, tumors, or kidney stones.Treatment options included diet, medications, or dialysis.
Kidney Stone SlideshowWhat causes kidney stones? Where is kidney stone pain located on your body? Learn the symptoms and signs of kidney stone pain. Explore kidney stone treatment and how to prevent kidney stones.
The First Signs of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)
Kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline material that form in the kidneys. Symptoms of kidney stones can include pain, nausea, vomiting, and even fever and chills. Kidney stones are diagnosed via CT scans and specialized X-rays. Treatment of kidney stones involves drinking lots of fluids and taking over-the-counter pain medications to medical intervention including prescription medications, lithotripsy, and sometimes even surgery.
Kidneys PictureThe kidneys are a pair of organs located in the back of the abdomen. See a picture of the Kidneys and learn more about the health topic.
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD), ARPKD, and ADPKDPolycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by numerous cysts in the kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder. There are two major inherited forms of PKD, autosomal dominant PKD, and autosomal recessive PKD. Symptoms include headaches, urinary tract infections, blood in the urine, liver and pancreatic cysts, abnormal heart valves, high blood pressure, kidney stones, aneurysms, and diverticulosis. Diagnosis of PKD is generally with ultrasound, CT or MRI scan. There is no cure for PKD, so treatment of symptoms is usually the general protocol.
Ways to Keep Your Kidneys HealthyYou might know that more than a drink or two a day is bad for your health. But in some cases, any alcohol at all may not be a great idea.