The overall 5-year relative survival rate of patients with Ewing sarcoma is 62%. Adults typically do worse compared with children unless the treatment is very aggressive.
About 70% of children with Ewing sarcoma are cured. Teens who are of age 15 and 19 years have a lower survival rate of about 56%. If children are diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma after it spreads to nearby structures, the survival rate is less than 30%. The children diagnosed with a tumor located in the pelvis, ribs, or spine are less likely to be cured.
Adults typically have lower chance of cure or improvement than kids. About 30% of the cases recur after treatment within the next 5 years. Such tumors are typically non-responsive to treatment and have poorer treatment outcomes.
What is Ewing sarcoma?
Ewing sarcoma is cancer affecting the bone or soft tissue. It is rarer in adults and more common in teenage kids. Ewing sarcoma mostly affects the
- Hip bones.
- Long bones (thighbone, shinbone, and upper arm bone).
Ewing sarcoma cells can also spread to other areas of the body that include:
Ewing sarcoma is the second most common type of bone cancer in children but is very rare. It affects about 200 children and young adults every year in the United States. The other risk factors include age between 10 and 20 years, male gender, and previous exposure to radiation therapy.
What are the symptoms of Ewing sarcoma?
- A lump near the skin that feels warm and soft to the touch
- Persistent low fever
- Limping because the legs hurt
- Bone pain that worsens while exercising or during the night
- Broken bones that happen without an injury
- Weight loss
- Feeling tired constantly
- Paralysis or loss of bladder control if the tumor occurs near the spine
How is Ewing sarcoma diagnosed?
To diagnose Ewing sarcoma, the physician might ask the patient’s medical history and perform a physical examination. The physician might also order these tests:
How is Ewing sarcoma treated?
The main aim of treatment for Ewing sarcoma is to
- Cure the patient.
- Retain maximum function in the affected parts.
- Minimize long-term complications of the treatment.
The most common treatment regimen for Ewing sarcoma includes:
- Surgery to remove the tumor
- Radiation therapy
- High-dose chemotherapy
- Stem cell transplant
- Amputation of the affected arm or leg
- Resections for metastases (surgical removal of the tumor cells spread to other organs)
- Rehabilitation (any physical or occupational therapy)
- Antibiotics to treat infections
- Supportive care for the side effects of treatment
- Continuous follow-up care to determine the patient’s response to treatment
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