- What Does It Do ?
- How Safe Is It?
- Signs/ Symptoms
- Lung Cancer Survival Rate Chart
- Survival Rates by Stage & Types
Most of the cancers, if diagnosed and treated in the early stages, are definitely survivable. The main issue is timely detection. Many types of cancer are still very difficult to detect in the early stages because of their location, vague symptoms, and late reporting by patients. Higher survival rates are large because of several factors including not only early detection but also better treatment approaches. Treatment options have been revolutionized. A few decades ago, surgery and chemotherapy were the main treatment. However, now many more options are available such as immunotherapy and targeted drugs, hormone therapy, and radiation therapy.
|Sr. No. (From most to least)||Type of cancer||Patients expected to survive five years after their diagnosis (percent)|
|4||Melanoma (Skin cancer)||94|
|5||Female breast cancer||91|
|6||Hodgkin lymphoma (blood cancer of the lymphocytes)||88|
|7||Cancer of the uterus||83|
|9||Kidney and renal pelvis||75|
|10||Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (blood cancer)||74|
|11||Cancer of the cervix||69|
|12||Cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx||68|
|13||Colon and rectal cancer||66|
|14||Leukemia (Blood cancer)||65|
|16||Myeloma (White blood cell cancer)||52|
|18||Brain and nervous system cancer||35|
|21||Lungs and bronchial cancer||19|
|22||Liver and bile duct cancer||19|
What are the most common types of cancer?
Cancer is a leading cause of deaths worldwide. The most common types of cancer include
What are the common causes of cancer?
Cancer arises from mutation of the normal cells into cancer cells in a multistage process. Below are a few common causes of cancer.
- Genetic factors and a familial history of cancer are one of the important causes of developing cancer.
- Exposure to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation can lead to cancerous changes in the body.
- Exposure to asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxin (a food contaminant) and arsenic can lead to cancer.
- Infections from certain viruses (human papillomavirus [HPV] and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) are also considered a trigger for developing cancer.
- Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are risk factors for cancer.
What are the common warning signs of cancer?
Cancer is a medical condition in which the body cells grow out of control and crowd out the normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should. Cancer can start at any place in the body—be it the lungs, breast, colon or even blood. Cancer is alike in some way, but it is different in the ways it grows and spreads. Seven common warning signs of cancer are described below.
- Changes in bowel or bladder habits: Cancer can change the body’s metabolism. Stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and ovarian cancer are considered to change bowel and bladder habits in an individual.
- A sore that does not heal: A sure sign of skin cancer is a growth that starts to look different or a sore that doesn't heal. The sore may get bigger or thicker with change in color, oddly shaped border and crusts or scabs over the sore that doesn’t heal.
- Unusual bleeding or discharge: Blood could be a warning sign of a problem in the urinary tract and digestive tract. Kidney or bladder cancer can cause this symptom.
- Thickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere: This is a hallmark symptom of breast cancer. Any new or changing growths in the breasts or elsewhere shouldn’t be neglected. Sometimes, the lump may be painful and contain blood or fluid.
- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing: A constant feeling of a lump in the throat when it is hard can signal esophageal cancer. Individuals should seek urgent medical attention for such conditions because these may restrict the airway.
- Extreme fever with night sweats and tiredness: This is a warning sign of cancer. A thorough medical examination may be required to find the cause of this symptom.
- Nagging cough or hoarseness: It may be a potential symptom of lung cancer along with or without chest pain, weight loss, hoarseness, fatigue and shortness of breath.
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Can an individual survive from cancer?
- When identified early, cancer is more likely to respond to effective treatment and can result in a greater probability of surviving.
- Early and periodic screening can identify individuals with abnormalities that are suggestive of specific cancer and help them with an improved treatment outlook.
- For example, a 50-year-old patient who is a heavy smoker should have regular checkups and, if necessary, should undergo a computed tomography (CT) scan of their lungs every six months to detect any early symptoms of lung cancer.
What is 5-year survival rates for lung cancer?
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer among both men and women. In general, the 5-year survival rates for lung cancer are:
- About 17% overall.
- 54% for cases when the disease is limited to the lungs.
- 27% if the lung cancer has spread to nearby organs or lymph nodes.
- 4% if cancer has spread to distant organs, such as the liver.
|Lung cancer spread/status||Survival rate|
|Spread to both lungs||54%|
|Spread to nearby organs or lymph nodes||27%|
|Spread to distant organs such as the liver||4%|
The 5-year survival rate for lung cancer when the disease is localized to one lung is about 60%. However, getting diagnosed at an early stage is extremely rare. Most lung cancers are diagnosed at a more advanced stage, where the survival rate is about 20%. More than half of lung cancer patients die within one year of being diagnosed because the cancer is aggressive, lethal, and often only detected at the advanced stages.
Chances of survival after lung cancer diagnosis depend on the type of lung cancer, age, staging, and whether there is a history of smoking or other comorbidities (presence of other diseases). Therefore, survival rates are determined on a case-by-case basis.
- If lung cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, the disease may be curable with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
- However, if diagnosed at an advanced stage, the disease is typically incurable, and chances of survival decrease if cancer has spread to other organs or lymph nodes.
What are the survival rates for each stage of lung cancer?
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for 80-90% of the cases. The 5-year survival rates for NSCLC are:
- Stage I
- Stage IA: 59-73%
- Stage IB: 43-58%
- Stage II
- Stage IIA: 36-46%
- Stage IIB: 25-36%
- Stage III
- Stage IIIA: 19-24%
- Stage IIIB: 7-9%
- Stage IV
- Survival rates of stage IV NSCLC are extremely low.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
SCLC makes up about 20% of all lung cancer cases and typically occurs in people who smoke or who used to smoke. The cancer forms in the airway, usually in a central location. SCLC is aggressive, spreading quickly throughout the body using the blood and lymphatic (lymph node) systems. The 5-year survival rates for SCLC are:
- Stage I
- Stage IA: 40%
- Stage IB: 20%
- Stage II
- Stage IIA: 40%
- Stage IIB: 20%
- Stage III
- Stage IIIA: 15%
- Stage IIIB: 10%
- Stage IV
- Lung cancer tends to get diagnosed only in the late stages. At stage IV, cancer has usually already metastasized to a great extent.
In general, people diagnosed with NSCLC tend to have a slightly better outlook than people with SCLC.
Most people who die of lung cancer are middle-aged or older, and the percentage of lung cancer deaths is the highest among people 65-74 years of age. Overall health can also make a difference. For example, staying physically active and avoiding tobacco smoke after lung cancer treatment can lower the risk of cancer recurrence, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Though lung cancer remains an extremely deadly type of cancer, there is great hope on the horizon to reduce the fatalities associated with this disease.
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Warning Signs of Cancer: https://www.afro.who.int/news/7-warning-signs-cancer
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Bone CancerBone cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs in cells that make up the bones. Primary bone cancer that arises in bone cells is different than metastatic bone cancer, which is cancer that arises in another part of the body and then spreads to the bones. Hereditary and environmental factors likely contribute to the risk of bone cancer. Signs and symptoms of bone cancer may include pain, the presence of a mass or lump, and bone fractures. There are different types of bone cancer (osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pleomorphic sarcoma, fibrosarcoma). Treatment for bone cancer may include surgical removal of the tumor, chemotherapy, radiation, and/or a stem cell transplant. The prognosis for bone cancer depends on the type of cancer and the extent of spread.
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What you should know about breast cancer
- Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women.
- One in every eight women in the United States develops breast cancer.
- There are many types of breast cancer that differ in their capability of spreading (metastasize) to other body tissues.
- The causes of breast cancer are unknown, although medical professionals have identified a number of risk factors.
- There are many different types of breast cancer.
- Breast cancer symptoms and signs include
- a lump in the breast or armpit,
- bloody nipple discharge,
- inverted nipple,
- orange-peel texture or dimpling of the breast's skin (peau d'orange),
- breast pain or sore nipple,
- swollen lymph nodes in the neck or armpit, and
- a change in the size or shape of the breast or nipple.
- Breast cancer can also be symptom free, which makes following national screening recommendations an important practice.
- Breast cancer is diagnosed during a physical exam, by a self-exam of the breasts, mammography, ultrasound testing, and biopsy.
- Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of cancer and its stage (0-IV) and may involve surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
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Can Liver Cancer Be Detected by a Blood Test?Liver cancer is not detected by blood tests alone. Certain substances present in the blood called the blood markers may be elevated in patients with liver cancer. Raised levels of a tumor marker called alpha fetoprotein (AFP) can indicate diseases of the liver, including liver cancer.
Cancer Risk Factors and CausesThough it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person's odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
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Head and Neck Cancer Symptoms and TreatmentsHead and neck cancers include cancers of the throat, lips, nose, mouth, larynx, and salivary glands. They are more likely to affect men over the age of 50. Head and neck cancer treatments include radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and hyperfractionated radiation therapy.
Is Any Stage IV Cancer Curable?Stage IV cancer is rarely curable. However, not all stage IV cancers are terminal, and survival rates vary depending on the specifics of each case and available treatment options.
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