What is nasogastric intubation procedure?
Nasogastric intubation is the insertion of a flexible tube into the nasal passage, through the throat and esophagus into the stomach. It is a minor procedure that provides access to the esophageal passage and the stomach.
For what is nasogastric intubation used?
Nasogastric intubation may be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
- Evaluation of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract bleeding
- Extraction of gastric fluid content for testing
- Identification of the esophagus and stomach on a chest radiograph
- Administering radiographic contrast dye in the upper GI tract
- Identification of cancer cells in patients with gastric cancer
- Gastric decompression to decrease abdominal pressure and prevent esophageal regurgitation during or after a surgery with general anesthesia
- Relief of symptoms, and bowel rest in case of small bowel obstruction or pancreatitis
- Stomach pumping (gastric lavage) after recent ingestion of toxic substances
- Bowel irrigation to prevent the absorption of ingested toxic matter
- Administration of medication
- For feeding before or after certain surgeries
- To enable the development of an open tract in the esophagus after ingestion of corrosive material
- Nasogastric intubation cannot be performed in patients with
- Severe injury in the middle of the face
- Recent nasal surgery
- Nasogastric intubation may be performed with due precautions in patients with
- Coagulation disorder
- Enlarged veins in the esophagus (esophageal varices)
- Recent banding for esophageal varices
- Anastomosis in the esophagus or stomach (creation of a connection between unconnected parts of GI tract)
- Ingestion of alkaline substance
How is nasogastric intubation performed?
The nasogastric intubation is mostly performed with topical anesthesia, while the patient is awake. The patient needs to follow instructions as the doctor performs the procedure. The procedure may also be performed when a patient is under general anesthesia or unconscious from an ingested substance or trauma.
- There usually is no requirement of any preparation by the patient before the procedure.
- The patient is seated in an upright position, if conscious.
- The doctor first examines the patient’s nose for presence of septal deviation before deciding which nostril to insert the tube in.
- The patient sniffs and swallows a local anesthetic which numbs the nasal passage and the throat.
- The doctor may also spray the anesthetic inside the nasal passage and the throat.
- The doctor inserts the lubricated tube through the nostril gently.
- As the tube is slowly advanced through the nasal passage and the throat, the patient follows instructions from the doctor.
- Typically, the patient has to flex the neck and swallow sips of water through a straw.
- The doctor continues to advance the tube into the esophagus until it reaches into the stomach.
- In sedated or unconscious patients the doctor uses direct or video-assisted laryngoscope (a device to view the throat and voice box [larynx]) for guidance.
- The doctor verifies the correct placement of the nasogastric tube with a chest X-ray.
- If the nasogastric intubation is done for diagnostic purposes, the patient will be able to leave shortly after completion of the procedure.
- In therapeutic situations, the removal of the tube and recovery of the patient will depend on the reason for the nasogastric intubation, and the condition of the patient.
Is nasogastric intubation painful?
Nasogastric intubation is not painful for most people though it does cause a certain amount of discomfort. Pain is usually prevented with local anesthesia and gel lubrication of the nasogastric tube. In some people, the insertion may cause
- Irritation of nose and throat
- Gagging sensation
- Watery eyes
What are the complications of nasogastric intubation?
Nasogastric intubation is a commonly performed procedure and complications are rare. There are a few mild side effects such as
These side effects usually resolve in a short while, and throat lozenges and salt water gargle help with throat irritation.
There may be a few rare complications such as
Top What Is Nasogastric Intubation Used For Related Articles
Anectine (succinylcholine chloride)Anectine is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Neuromuscular Blockade. Anectine may be used alone or with other medications. Serious side effects include cardiac arrest, life threatening elevation in body temperature, abnormal heart rhythms, fast or slow heart rate, high or low blood pressure, high blood potassium, prolonged slow breathing, increased eye pressure, muscle twitching, jaw rigidity, postoperative muscle pain, breakdown of muscle tissue (rhabdomyolysis), excessive salivation, and rash.
Bridion (sugammadex)Bridion (sugammadex) Injection is indicated for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium bromide and vecuronium bromide in adults undergoing surgery. Common side effects of Bridion include vomiting, pain, nausea, low blood pressure (hypotension), headache, abdominal pain, gas, dry mouth, fever, chills, dizziness, mouth or throat pain, cough, pain in extremities, muscle pain, insomnia, anxiety, reduced sense of touch, and others.
What Is Gastritis? Causes, Symptoms and TreatmentGastritis (acute and chronic) is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach Some people have no gastritis symptoms, but when they do occur they may include bloating, belching, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. H. pylori infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the two main causes of gastritis. Alcohol, caffeine, and high-fat foods also can cause gastritis. Fried, fatty, and spicy foods, and alcohol aggravate gastritis symptoms. Other stomach lining irritants that aggravate symptoms include cigarette smoking, acidic juices, caffeine, tomato products, peppers, and chili powder. Foods that sooth gastritis symptoms, and that help reduce and stop H. pylori infection growth in the stomach include apples, onions, garlic, teas, green leafy vegetables, coconut water, and wheat bran. Gastritis is diagnosed with endoscopy, blood tests, or stool tests. Some people get relief from gastritis symptoms with prescription and non-prescription antacids, histamine blockers like famotidine (Pepcid AC) or ranitidine (Zantac 75), or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) like omeprazole (Prilosec) and esomeprazole (Nexium). These drugs will not cure gastritis. Complications of gastritis include gastric cancers, MALT lymphoma, renal problems, and death.
Gastroesophageal Junction AdenocarcinomaGastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma is cancer that forms in the area where the esophagus joins the stomach. Having GERD and Barrett's esophagus increases one's odds of developing gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Symptoms and signs of GE junction adenocarcinoma include dysphagia, weight loss, black stool, cough, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy.
GERD (Acid Reflux, Heartburn)Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also called acid reflux, can cause symptoms like heartburn, chest pain, regurgitation, and nausea. Learn about causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
GastroparesisGastroparesis is a medical condition in which the muscle of the stomach is paralyzed by a disease of either the stomach muscle itself or the nerves controlling the muscle. As a consequence, food and secretions do not empty normally from the stomach. Gastroparesis symptoms are nausea and vomiting; abdominal bloating, and pain can result.
lidocaine topicalLidocaine topical is used as a local anesthetic to numb and lubricate various parts of the body for medical procedures. It is also used to delay premature ejaculation and relieve minor skin irritations (sunburn, insect bites, minor burns, cuts, and scrapes). Side effects of lidocaine topical include allergic skin reactions, slow heartbeat (bradycardia), low blood pressure (hypotension), cardiovascular collapse, cardiac arrest, drowsiness, light-headedness, dizziness, and others. Lidocaine topical may be used in pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and must be used with caution in nursing women.
What Are Lighted Stylet-Assisted Tracheal Intubation Devices?Intubation or endotracheal intubation is a medical procedure in which a tube (endotracheal tube) is placed into the windpipe (trachea) through the mouth or nose. In most emergencies, endotracheal intubation is performed through the mouth. The main indication is in patients with a difficult airway for whom a direct laryngoscopy (a procedure for visualization of the vocal cords) has failed, for example, a trauma patient with bleeding in the area behind the mouth (oropharynx).
How Long Does It Take to Recover from A Partial Gastrectomy?A partial gastrectomy is usually performed with the patient under general anesthesia by a gastrointestinal surgeon. The surgery is performed in an operation theater, and may take up to five hours and require up to two weeks of recovery in the hospital.
What Is Gastric (Stomach) Cancer? Signs, Symptoms, CausesWhat are the common signs and symptoms of stomach cancer? Learn about gastric cancer diagnosis, treatment, and their risks, how Heliobacter pylori affects the stomach, what the risk factors are, and how clinical trials have helped determine cancer risks. Guard your gastrointestinal health with reliable medical information.
What Are Video Laryngoscopy and Fiberoptic-Assisted Tracheal Intubation?Tracheal intubation, also called intubation, involves placing a flexible plastic tube (endotracheal [ET] tube) into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway, ventilate the lungs, or administer certain drugs. Video laryngoscopy is a form of indirect laryngoscopy in which the physician does not directly inspect the larynx. Fiberoptic intubation involves inserting an ET tube over the shaft of a flexible fiberoptic scope for visualization. Video laryngoscopy and fiberoptic laryngoscope aid in tracheal intubation.
What Is Bag Valve Mask Ventilation (BVM) Used For?Bag-valve-mask (BVM) or the Ambu bag is a self-inflating bag used to provide ventilation to the person not breathing normally. BVM ventilation is a critical skill for emergency providers. BVM ventilation is a technique that restores breathing in patients who are not spontaneously breathing. BVM ventilation is indicated in the respiratory (lung) failure, failed intubation (insertion of an artificial ventilation tube into the trachea), patients undergoing anesthesia for elective surgery, and apnea (slowed or stopped breathing).
What Is Distal Gastrectomy Surgery?Antrectomy (distal gastrectomy) is a procedure that involves surgical removal of the lower 30% of the stomach (antrum). Surgeons follow removal by creating an attachment with an opening (anastomosis) from the remaining portion of the stomach to the duodenum (gastroduodenostomy) or the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy) of the small intestine. This surgery treats severe gastric ulcers and stomach tumors.