What are the four types of middle ear surgery?
There are four different surgeries carried out to treat middle ear disorders, which include:
- Myringoplasty: It is a surgery to repair a hole in the eardrum.
- Ossiculoplasty: It involves rectification of the middle ear bone problems. These bones are responsible for transmitting sound from the eardrum to the inner ear.
- Tympanoplasty: It involves repairing the hole in the eardrum and rectifying any injury to the tiny bones that play a key role in the hearing.
- Mastoidectomy: It refers to the surgical removal of the flat air cavities in the mastoid bone behind the ear.
The normal ear has three parts. Each part has an important function. They are:
- The outer ear (pinna and ear canal) gathers and directs sound, causing the eardrum to vibrate.
- The middle ear comprises the tympanic membrane, ossicles, mastoid, and eustachian tube. The sound vibration is magnified and conducted to the inner ear.
- The inner ear (cochlea) transforms the vibration into electrical signals and drives it to the brain.
What are the common conditions affecting the middle ear?
Several conditions can affect the middle ear. This may include:
- Eustachian tube dysfunction: The eustachian tube balances the pressure between the middle ear and outside pressure. Damage to the eustachian tube can damage the eardrum and affect the hearing.
- Ear infections: Middle ear infections may cause pressure, pain, hearing loss, rupture of the eardrum, and ear discharge.
- Tympanic membrane perforation: It refers to a hole in the eardrum, leading to hearing loss, drainage, and pain.
- Cholesteatoma: It is characterized by abnormal skin growth in the middle ear.
- Conductive hearing loss: It results when the sound waves do not transmit to the inner ear.
What does middle ear surgery involve?
The middle ear surgery may involve:
- Removing any dead tissue or infected matter.
- Placing the graft to reconstruct the tympanic membrane.
- Introducing a prosthesis to replace a damaged bone.
Before the procedure:
You should do the following:
- You shouldn’t eat or drink anything 6 hours before the surgery. Your stomach should be empty on the day of the procedure.
- The physician will detail the procedure, its risk, and benefits to you. Clarify your doubts by asking questions to the physician before consenting.
- You may have to sign an informed consent form before the procedure. Inform the physician regarding any specific allergies.
- Stop taking blood thinners a week before the surgery.
During the procedure:
You may be put under anesthesia before the procedure and the following is done:
- The physician makes an incision in the front or behind the ears to view the eardrum.
- In the case of tympanoplasty, the physician uses a tissue near the ear to close any hole in the eardrum.
- In ossiculoplasty, the physician uses an artificial bone to replace the damaged tiny middle ear bones.
- Finally, in a mastoidectomy, the physician explores the mastoid to treat infections.
After the procedure:
You should avoid:
Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Repair of the Middle Ear. NHS Foundation Trust. https://www.gosh.nhs.uk/medical-information/procedures-and-treatments/repair-middle-ear#:~:text=A%20tympanoplasty%20is%20an%20operation,part%20in%20the%20hearing%20process
Ear Surgery Information Center. Tympanoplasty Surgery. earsurgery.org/surgery/tympanoplasty-surgery/
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Common Medical Abbreviations & Terms
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- cap: Capsule.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- HA: Headache
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
- JT: Joint
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
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propofolPropofol is an intravenous anesthetic drug used for general anesthesia and sedation during surgical procedures. Common side effects of propofol include injection site burning, stinging or pain; low blood pressure (hypotension), reduced cardiac output, elevated blood pressure (hypertension), pause in breathing (apnea), lung impairment (respiratory acidosis), impaired movement, high level of emulsified fats in the blood (hyperlipidemia), and high triglyceride level in blood (hypertriglyceridemia). Abuse of propofol can cause death and other injuries.
A perforated (ruptured, punctured) eardrum (tympanic membrane) is a hole or tear in the eardrum. The eardrum separates the ear canal and middle ear. Most ruptured eardrums do not cause pain, however, the condition can be uncomfortable. Bacteria, viral, and fungal infections are the most common causes a ruptured eardrum. Earwax removal attempts, changes in air pressure, and trauma are other causes of a ruptured eardrum.
If you have a ruptured eardrum you may have symptoms like:
- Ear pain
- Partial or full hearing loss
- A mucousy or pus-like blood-tinged discharge from you ear
- Bleeding from the ear
- Ringing in the ear
- Middle ear infection
Most people do not need medical treatment for a ruptured eardrum, however, some may need surgery depending upon the cause and size of the hole in the eardrum.
REFERENCE: Cleveland Clinic. "Ruptured Eardrum (Perforated Tympanic Membrane)." Updated: Aug 208, 2014.
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