Tubal ligation or tying tubes is a permanent birth control surgical procedure
Tubal ligation or tying tubes is a permanent birth control surgical procedure

Tubal ligation or tying tubes is a permanent birth control surgical procedure for women who no longer want children.

In this surgery, both of your fallopian tubes (the tubes on either side of your womb that collect eggs from the ovaries and transport to the womb) are tied or blocked so that the sperms and eggs cannot be met for fertilization.

When tubal ligation is performed with a laparoscope (a flexible tube with a camera), it requires only three to four small keyhole-sized cuts on your lower belly near your navel to reach up to your tubes.

The procedure can be done in hospital settings. You can go home on the same day and resume your normal activities within a few days. This method is effective immediately with a very low failure rate of 0.5%.

What happens during this surgery?

What happens:
  1. Before the surgery, you will be given anesthesia for sedation.
  2. Two to three small keyhole incisions are made on your belly near naval.
  3. A laparoscope (a thin flexible tube with a camera) is inserted into your belly, usually at the sight of your navel through small keyhole incisions.
  4. Air will be used to inflate the belly for a better view and to create more space.
  5. Both the fallopian tubes are cut and the ends are folded back and then tied off.
  6. The laparoscope is withdrawn, and incisions are closed with stitches or a special tape.
  7. The wound is bandaged.

What should I expect after surgery?

After the procedure,

  • You will be monitored for a short time.
  • You will be discharged within two to four hours after the surgery.
  • You will need someone to take you home.
  • You can return to your normal routines within one week of surgery.
  • You may have other symptoms that can last a few days such as
  1. Dizziness,
  2. Discomfort
  3. Soreness in your navel and belly
  4. Bruises
  5. Weakness
  6. Tiredness
  7. Nausea
  8. Shoulder and back pain (because of gas used during the procedure)
  9. Belly cramps
  10. Gassy or bloated feeling
  11. A sore throat (from the breathing tube if given general anesthesia)
  12. Some vaginal discharge or spotting
  • Your incisions will be closed with skin adhesives and bandages that will be removed after 24 hours.
  • Stitches will get dissolved on their own.
  • You can take a bath the next day. However, do not soak your incision in a bathtub or go swimming.
  • You can gradually increase your activity level with short walks and light activity.
  • You can start sexual activity when you feel comfortable.

QUESTION

Which of the following are methods for contraception? See Answer

What are the benefits of laparoscopic tubal ligation?

Benefits include:
  • Permanent birth control
  • Most effective
  • Immediately effective
  • Minimum invasive
  • Safe
  • Convenient
  • Less failure rate
  • Quicker recovery
  • Fewer complications
  • Outpatient surgery
  • Short hospital stay (same-day discharge)
  • Resume to work shortly
  • Do not cause any change in your menses or cause menopause
  • After the procedure, no further steps, little or nothing to do or remember

What are the risks?

There is a small risk of

  • General anesthesia-related issues.
  • Injury and damage to the surrounding organs such as the bladder, gut, and womb.
  • Bladder infection.
  • Surgical site infection.
  • Bleeding.
  • Failure of birth control (very rare).
  • Ectopic pregnancy (the baby grows outside the womb).
  • The possible need for further surgery.

Can you get pregnant after laparoscopic tubal ligation?

After tubal ligation, if you want to reverse the surgery, it may not work. Even after reversing tubal ligation, many women are still not able to get pregnant. Additionally, the risk of ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the womb) is increased.

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Medically Reviewed on 11/3/2020
References
Medscape https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1848429-technique

University of Michigan https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hw7496

Clevelandclinic https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/treatments/4933-sterilization-by-laparoscopy

Emory University school of Medicine https://med.emory.edu/departments/gynecology-obstetrics/patient-care/patient-education/bilateral-tubal-ligation/index.html

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/sterilization-by-laparoscopy

US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Population Affairs https://opa.hhs.gov/reproductive-health?pregnancy-prevention/sterilization/female-sterilization/index.html