What is a gastrojejunostomy procedure?
Gastrojejunostomy is a surgical procedure to create a direct connection (anastomosis) from the stomach to the middle part of the small intestine (jejunum), bypassing or removing the beginning part of the small intestine (duodenum).
What are the types of gastrojejunostomy?
Depending on the individual requirement, a doctor may perform one of the following types of gastrojejunostomy:
- Open surgery: The surgeon accesses the nerve with a long, midline incision and surgical tools typical for open abdominal surgeries.
- Laparoscopic surgery: The surgeon makes a single or several tiny incisions. The surgeon then performs the procedure with tiny surgical tools inserted through a flexible, lighted, viewing tube (laparoscope)
- Robotic laparoscopic surgery: A robot operates the tiny surgical tools in the laparoscope. The surgeon uses a computer terminal to direct and control the robot.
- Percutaneous gastrojejunostomy: A minimally invasive procedure to place a feeding tube through the stomach wall and the stomach’s interior through the duodenum into the jejunum.
- Endoscopic gastrojejunostomy: A recently developed procedure to place a stent in the jejunum using a flexible tube (endoscope) passed through the nose, through the upper digestive tract.
A percutaneous gastrojejunostomy may also be performed along with an endoscopy as a hybrid procedure.
Why is a gastrojejunostomy performed?
A gastrojejunostomy is most often performed as a treatment for obstruction in the terminal part of the stomach (pylorus) and the duodenum (gastric outlet obstruction). It may or may not involve removal of the bypassed parts of the digestive system.
Surgical gastrojejunostomy maybe performed in a patient who
- Undergoes gastric bypass surgery for weight loss
- Undergoes removal of part of the stomach (gastrectomy) and/or the duodenum for benign or malignant obstruction
- Undergoes removal of vagus nerve (vagotomy) as a treatment for peptic ulcers
- Experiences delayed emptying of stomach contents (gastroparesis) due to a gastric surgery or diabetes
A laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy may also be performed as a palliative treatment on people with malignant conditions.
The procedure may also be useful for patients
- during recovery from major abdominal surgeries
- as a palliative treatment for inoperable malignancies of the stomach, duodenum or the pancreas.
- A percutaneous gastrojejunostomy may be temporary or permanently in place depending on the individual’s requirements.
Endoscopic gastrojejunostomy is still a developing technique and may not be suitable for all patients. This procedure is performed in patients with less severe conditions, who are able to feed orally. It is a safer, effective and less invasive alternative to surgery. Its efficacy may be of short duration in some who may later require a surgery, however.
Gastrojejunostomy should be performed with caution in patients
- At high risk for developing leaks in the anastomosis due to
- fluid in the abdomen (ascites)
- low albumin count
- secondary malignant cancers
- With inflammation of the stomach lining (peritonitis) along with sepsis
- With swollen veins in the abdomen (gastric varices)
- With adhesions from previous abdominal surgeries
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Top What Is a Gastrojejunostomy Procedure Related Articles
CancerCancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Cancer Risk Factors and CausesThough it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person's odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Cancer PainCancer pain results from the tumor pressing on nerves or invading bones or organs. Cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery can also cause pain. Over-the-counter pain relievers, prescription medications, radiation, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques are just some treatments for cancer pain.
Cancer PreventionCertain behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental factors contribute to cancer. Cancer prevention involves modifying these factors to decrease cancer risk. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, and obesity increase the risk of certain cancers. Vaccines, genetic testing, and cancer screening also play a role in cancer prevention.
What Is Gastritis? Symptoms, Treatment, and DietGastritis (acute and chronic) is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach Some people have no gastritis symptoms, but when they do occur they may include bloating, belching, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. H. pylori infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the two main causes of gastritis. Alcohol, caffeine, and high-fat foods also can cause gastritis. Fried, fatty, and spicy foods, and alcohol aggravate gastritis symptoms. Other stomach lining irritants that aggravate symptoms include cigarette smoking, acidic juices, caffeine, tomato products, peppers, and chili powder. Foods that sooth gastritis symptoms, and that help reduce and stop H. pylori infection growth in the stomach include apples, onions, garlic, teas, green leafy vegetables, coconut water, and wheat bran. Gastritis is diagnosed with endoscopy, blood tests, or stool tests. Some people get relief from gastritis symptoms with prescription and non-prescription antacids, histamine blockers like famotidine (Pepcid AC) or ranitidine (Zantac 75), or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) like omeprazole (Prilosec) and esomeprazole (Nexium). These drugs will not cure gastritis. Complications of gastritis include gastric cancers, MALT lymphoma, renal problems, and death.
Gastroesophageal Junction AdenocarcinomaGastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma is cancer that forms in the area where the esophagus joins the stomach. Having GERD and Barrett's esophagus increases one's odds of developing gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Symptoms and signs of GE junction adenocarcinoma include dysphagia, weight loss, black stool, cough, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy.
GastroparesisGastroparesis is a medical condition in which the muscle of the stomach is paralyzed by a disease of either the stomach muscle itself or the nerves controlling the muscle. As a consequence, food and secretions do not empty normally from the stomach. Gastroparesis symptoms are nausea and vomiting; abdominal bloating, and pain can result.
Stomach CancerThough the cause of stomach cancer is unknown, risk factors for stomach cancer include diet, H. pylori infection, smoking age, gastritis, stomach surgery, family history, and pernicious anemia. Symptoms include stomach discomfort, feeling full after a small meal, nausea and vomiting, and weight loss. Treatment depends upon staging and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
What Is Gastric (Stomach) Cancer? Signs, Symptoms, CausesWhat are the common signs and symptoms of stomach cancer? Learn about gastric cancer diagnosis, treatment, and their risks, how Heliobacter pylori affects the stomach, what the risk factors are, and how clinical trials have helped determine cancer risks. Guard your gastrointestinal health with reliable medical information.
What Is a Partial Gastrectomy?A partial gastrectomy is the surgical removal of a portion of the stomach, as opposed to a total gastrectomy in which the entire stomach is removed. This may be done for people with stomach cancer or severe gastric ulcer disease.
What Is Distal Gastrectomy Surgery?Antrectomy (distal gastrectomy) is a procedure that involves surgical removal of the lower 30% of the stomach (antrum). Surgeons follow removal by creating an attachment with an opening (anastomosis) from the remaining portion of the stomach to the duodenum (gastroduodenostomy) or the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy) of the small intestine. This surgery treats severe gastric ulcers and stomach tumors.
What Is the Surgical Procedure for Pyloroplasty?The pylorus is the lowermost part of the stomach, where it connects to the beginning of the small intestine (duodenum). Pyloroplasty is a surgical procedure to widen the pylorus by cutting and relaxing the pyloric sphincter muscle of the stomach.