What are the seven most common causes of vomiting?
Vomiting is a reflex directed by the brain toward the intestines to reverse their peristaltic movements to force the contents of the stomach out through the mouth. It is usually a symptom of an underlying disease. Excessive vomiting may dehydrate a person and make them weak, which can turn out to be life-threatening for an individual. There are many causes of vomiting. The most common reasons include the following
- Gastroenteritis/stomach flu: This is one of the most common causes of vomiting. It is a condition in which viruses, bacteria and parasites cause inflammation in the lining of the stomach. It usually spreads by coming into contact with an infected person or with contaminated food or water.
- Food poisoning: In food poisoning, the body tries to eliminate a toxic substance by vomiting. Food poisoning occurs by consuming unhygienic food or eating dairy products that have been left out of the refrigerator for too long. It also spreads via cooking and eating utensils that haven’t been properly cleaned.
- Pregnancy/morning sickness: Vomiting is the most common symptom in pregnant women. Morning sickness usually begins during the first month of pregnancy and ends between weeks 14 and 16, but some women experience it for the entire gestation period. This type of vomiting may be caused by rapid hormonal changes taking place in the body, such as increasing estrogen levels.
- Motion sickness: Motion sickness is common and may occur when traveling by car, train, airplane and boat. This problem can happen to anyone but tends to happen more frequently to children and pregnant women. This happens when the brain receives conflicting signals from the eyes, inner ear and sensory receptors, causing irritable symptoms leading to vomiting.
- Indigestion: Indigestion is one of the most common causes of vomiting seen in all age groups. It is a feeling of burning or discomfort in the upper abdomen caused by overeating or eating high-fat foods or spicy foods rather quickly. Individuals may also complain of heartburn.
- Medications: Vomiting is usually a common side effect of many different types of medications, which include antibiotics, over-the-counter medications, antidepressants and sometimes even cancer drugs.
- Stress and anxiety: A few people develop vomiting as a symptom of excess stress or anxiety. The body produces a higher amount of stress chemicals such as adrenaline and cortisol as part of the fight-or-flight response. This triggered response may interfere with the gastrointestinal tract to cause nausea and vomiting.
Below are few more common causes of vomiting
- Infection: Vomiting is known to be the most common symptom of any type of infection in the body. It is the body’s response to flush out waste during an infection.
- Migraine: Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms of migraines. Migraines are severe headaches caused by abnormal brain activity that can be triggered by numerous factors, including loud noises, bright lights, perfumes, cigarette smoke, dairy foods and foods that contain MSG.
- Alcohol poisoning: Recurrent vomiting is a known symptom when a person consumes a lethal dose of alcohol. It may sometimes lead to a fatal condition if not treated appropriately.
- Gastrointestinal diseases: Diseases such as pancreatitis, gallbladder disease and irritable bowel syndrome may cause severe vomiting that can dehydrate an individual.
What are the common ways to treat vomiting?
Treatment for vomiting varies depending on the underlying cause
- Patients may need to drink fluids with electrolytes to stay hydrated. In severe cases, patients may be admitted to a hospital for intravenous fluids.
- In case of food poisoning, patients may be advised to eat bland crackers, dry toast or white rice to soothe the stomach. Over-the-counter medications such as Pepto-Bismol or Imodium can also help with vomiting due to food poisoning and a stomach bug.
- Treatment for vomiting caused by motion sickness includes medicines classified as H1 blockers such as Dramamine. Sometimes, carbonated beverages and fresh air might also provide relief.
- Apart from these measures, patients need sufficient rest and may sometimes be required to not to eat for hours. Such patients may be placed on clear fluids or intravenous fluids.
- If the infection causes vomiting, it may go away within three to seven days and patients may be given antibiotics and electrolyte fluids.
- In case of indigestion, patients may take antacids and make a few lifestyle changes to reduce vomiting episodes.
- Practicing deep breathing exercises and calming techniques may help relieve symptoms of stress.
- Eating a healthy diet containing foods prepared with safe food handling techniques and exercising regularly may help relieve the underlying causes of vomiting.
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Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach Pain)Indigestion (dyspepsia) can be caused by diseases or conditions that involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and also by some diseases and conditions that do not involve the GI tract. Indigestion can be a chronic condition in which the symptoms fluctuate in frequency and intensity. Signs and symptoms that accompany indigestion include pain in the chest, upper abdominal pain, belching, nausea, bloating, abdominal distention, feeling full after eating only a small portion of food, and rarely, vomiting.
Food PoisoningFood poisoning is common, but can also be life threatening. The symptoms for food poisoning are fever, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Food poisoning has many causes, for example, chemicals (from toxic fish or plants) and bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella). Treatment of food poisoning depends upon the cause.
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Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis) Symptoms, Signs Treatment Remedies, DietStomach flu (gastroenteritis) is a term referred used to describe a variety of gastrointestinal problems. The most common signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The most common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States is Norovirus. Other causes of gastroenteritis include Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Adenovirus, and Sapovirus. There are bacterial causes of gastroenteritis such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter Aeromonas, E. coli, Clostridium, Vibrio, Campylobacter, and Yersinia spp. Parasites that cause gastroenteritis include Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Entamoeba. Treatment for gastroenteritis is generally home remedies such as keeping hydrated to prevent dehydration. At times, hospitalization may be necessary if dehydration occurs.
How Long Does the Stomach Flu Last?Stomach flu or viral gastroenteritis is an infection caused by a virus that infects your stomach. Although the term has flu in it, it is not a true flu. Symptoms that include vomiting and diarrhea, fever and stomach pain can last for one to three days depending on the cause. Diarrhea may persist longer, for up to 10 days, after the disappearance of other symptoms.
Is the Stomach Flu Contagious?The stomach flu (gastroenteritis) refers to variety infections that occur in the GI (gastrointestinal tract). The stomach flu is caused by viruses (for example, Norovirus or "Cruise Ship Virus), bacteria (for example, Salmonella and E. coli), parasites (for example, Giardiasis or Giardia lamblia), medications like antibiotics, food allergies, and toxins.
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Motion SicknessMotion sickness is a feeling of unwellness caused by the inner ear and balance systems. Motion sickness can include sea sickness, car sickness, and train or plane sickness. Symptoms include, headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, cold sweats, and pale skin. Treatment for motion sickness includes home remedies such as ginger, avoiding large or fatty meals prior to traveling, and OTC and prescription medications.
Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions. There are numerous cases of nausea and vomiting. Some causes may not require medical treatment, for example, motion sickness, and other causes may require medical treatment by a doctor, for example, heart attack, lung infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Some causes of nausea and vomiting may be life-threatening, for example, heart attack, abdominal obstruction, and cancers.
Treatment of nausea and vomiting depends upon the cause.
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Stomach Flu vs. Food Poisoning
The stomach flu (viral gastroenteritis) and food poisoning are not the same infections. However, they do have a few similar symptoms, for example:
- Abdominal (stomach) pain and cramping.
Symptoms and signs of food poisoning show up earlier (2 hours up to a couple of days) in comparison to the stomach flu in which symptoms may take 4 hours up to 48 hours (2 days) before symptoms begin. Medical treatment for the stomach flu and food poisoning generally is not necessary. A bland diet, drinking plenty of fluids, and rest may be the only treatment necessary.
Stomach Flu: Types, Symptoms, and TreatmentStomach flu symptoms need treatment if vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration are severe. Stomach flu is contagious and some cases may be due to food poisoning. Stomach flu remedies include hydration, electrolytes, and bland diet. You may need medicine if stomach flu duration is too long or you have severe symptoms.
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