- 14 Risk Factors
- 3 Types
- 5 Stages
14 Risk factors for bladder cancer
Bladder cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in the lower abdomen that is responsible for the storage of urine filtered by the kidneys. Bladder cancer is a common urologic cancer that has the highest recurrence rate of any malignancy. Bladder cancer is more common in men compared to women. However, the causes and risk factors of bladder cancer are the same in women and men.
Bladder cancer is caused when deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the cells of the bladder mutates or changes, disabling the functions that control cell growth. This results in uncontrolled, abnormal growth and multiplication of cells in the bladder. The exact cause of the mutations is unknown. Several factors can increase the risk of bladder cancer in men and women.
14 Risk factors for bladder cancer
Smoking cigarettes, cigars, or pipes cause harmful chemicals to accumulate in the urine. These harmful chemicals may damage the lining of the bladder, increasing the risk of developing cancer. Other risk factors include
- Exposure to cancer-causing chemicals, especially the industrial solvents
- Chronic bladder infections
- Low fluid consumption
- Male gender
- In old age, the majority of bladder cancers occur in people older than 55 years
- High-fat diet
- Family history of bladder cancer
- Previous treatment with a chemotherapy drug called Cytoxan
- Previous radiation therapy to treat cancer in the pelvic area
What are the three types of bladder cancer?
Three different types of cells in the bladder can become cancerous. The type of cell where cancer begins determines the type of bladder cancer. They include
- Urothelial carcinoma: Urothelial carcinoma, previously called transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common type of bladder cancer that occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder.
- Squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder caused by an infection or long-term use of a urinary catheter. Squamous cell bladder cancer is more common in parts of the world where the parasitic infection, schistosomiasis, is a common cause of bladder infections.
- Adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinoma begins in cells that make up mucus-secreting glands in the bladder. Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is rare.
What are the five stages of bladder cancer?
Doctors assign the stage of bladder cancer by combining the T, N, and M classifications.
- Tumor (T): The size and location of the tumor.
- Node (N): The tumor spread to the lymph nodes.
- Metastasis (M): Determines cancer spread to other parts of the body.
The five stages of bladder cancer indicate the following.
- Stage 0 bladder cancer hasn’t spread past the lining of the bladder.
- Stage I bladder cancer has spread past the lining of the bladder, but it hasn’t reached the layer of muscle in the bladder.
- Stage II bladder cancer has spread to the layer of muscle in the bladder.
- Stage III bladder cancer has spread into the tissues that surround the bladder.
- Stage IV bladder cancer has spread past the bladder to the neighboring areas of the body.
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What are the signs and symptoms of bladder cancer?
Many people with bladder cancer at first may have painless, bloody urine. Most often, bladder cancer is diagnosed after a person finds blood in the urine. Several symptoms might indicate bladder cancer, such as fatigue, weight loss, and bone tenderness; these can indicate a more advanced disease. The common symptoms include
- Blood or blood clots in the urine
- Pain or burning sensation during urination
- Frequent urination
- Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night
- Feeling the need to urinate but not being able to pass urine
- Lower back pain on one side of the body
How is bladder cancer diagnosed?
Bladder cancer can be diagnosed in the following procedures.
- An internal examination
- Cystoscopy involves inserting a narrow tube that has a small camera on it through the urethra to visualize the bladder
- Biopsy uses a small tool that is inserted through the urethra to take a small sample of tissue from the bladder to test for cancer
- A computed tomography (CT) scan
- An intravenous pyelogram
- X-ray imaging
How is bladder cancer treated?
The doctor will work with the patient to decide what treatment to provide based on the symptoms, type, and stage of the bladder cancer, as well as the patient’s overall health. In general, the five main treatment options for bladder cancer are
- Immunotherapy (local and systemic)
- Targeted therapy
- Radiation therapy
How can bladder cancer be prevented?
Although there is no guaranteed way to prevent bladder cancer, taking certain steps can help reduce the risk, such as
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Lotan Y, Choueiri TK. Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Staging of Bladder Cancer. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-staging-of-bladder-cancer?search=bladder-cancer&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1
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Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options for treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.
Bladder Cancer SlidesBladder cancer occurs when cancerous cells, often from the lining of the bladder, begin to multiply. Find more information about bladder cancer, the stages of bladder cancer, and available treatment options.
Can Bladder Cancer Be Detected With a Urine Test?Bladder cancer is often detected when a person develops signs and symptoms. It is a highly treatable type of cancer when detected early. Although screening tests for bladder cancer are not conducted routinely, the following tests may be used to diagnose and learn more about bladder cancer:
Can Gallbladder Cancer Be Cured?Gallbladder cancer can be cured if it is treated before the cancer spreads, making the prognosis of early diagnosis generally favorable.
How Can You Tell If You Have Gallbladder Cancer?Gallbladder cancer, also known as malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder, is a disease caused by the abnormal growth of cells in the tissues of the gallbladder.
How Long Will You Live if You Have Bladder Cancer?The survival rate depends on the stage of cancer at diagnosis and other health issues. Overall, 70 to 90 percent of people with localized bladder cancer will live for at least five years or more. The physician calculates this with the help of survival rates. Survival rates indicate the percentage of people who live with a certain type of cancer for a specific time.
Is Bladder Cancer Common in Females?Bladder cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in the lower abdomen that is responsible for the storage of urine filtered by the kidneys. The disease is caused when deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the cells of the bladder mutate or change.
Is Gallbladder Cancer Aggressive?Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is one of the aggressive cancers of the biliary tract. The gallbladder generates and concentrates bile that aids in the digestion of fats. GBC is a rare, yet deadly cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.
What Medications Are Given to Patients With Bladder Cancer?Many people with bladder cancer are prescribed medication as part of their treatment regimen. Learn the five most common types of medication therapies used to treat bladder cancer.
Foods that Make You GoWhat causes overactive bladder (OAB)? A natural remedy is to avoid caffeine, alcohol, and these foods. Learn the foods and drinks to avoid. Urinary incontinence can be stimulated by soda and fizzy drinks. These are foods and beverages that irritate your bladder.
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What Are the 5 Warning Signs of Bladder Cancer?The term cancer means an uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. When cancer begins in the urinary bladder, it is called bladder cancer. The urinary bladder, often simply called the bladder, is a balloon-like organ present in the lower abdomen near the pelvis.
What Are the Different Stages of Bladder Cancer?
Bladder cancer is staged according to the TNM classification. TNM stands for
T (tumor): It refers to the size of the original tumor.
N (node): It describes whether cancer is present in the lymph nodes.
M (metastasis): It refers to cancer spread to other parts of the body.
What Does Gallbladder Cancer Feel Like?Gallbladder cancer is generally hard to diagnose at an early stage. This is because it does not cause any specific signs or symptoms at an earlier stage. Also, the gallbladder being hidden behind other organs makes cancer less likely to get detected.
What Is the Main Cause of Bladder Cancer?Bladder cancer refers to the uncontrolled cell growth that begins in the bladder. This happens when an abnormal change (a mutation) in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) causes the DNA to malfunction.