Orthopedic surgery is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system and, at times, trauma.
Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat the following:
- Musculoskeletal trauma
- Spine diseases
- Sports injuries
- Degenerative diseases
- Congenital disorders
There are various types of orthopedic surgeries that address different parts of the body, including musculoskeletal ailments, arthritis, trauma, and congenital deformities.
Learn the most common types of orthopedic surgeries below.
What are the most common orthopedic surgeries?
Some of the most common orthopedic surgeries include:
- Knee replacement: The knee is one of the most used joints in the body, often overused to the point of injury.
- Hip replacement: The hip is made up of the acetabulum (the socket) and femoral head (the ball).
- The cartilage in the hip (like that in the knee) can wear over time, especially if damaged due to trauma, poor bone health, or congenital issues.
- There are two types of hip replacement surgeries: either the entire joint is replaced or there is the replacement of only the damaged part of the joint (Birmingham hip resurfacing).
- Shoulder replacement: The shoulder joint is a shallow joint, which endures a lot of stress regularly, thus making it liable for damage and movement restriction.
- Typically, the upper part of the humerus (bone in the upper arm) is removed and replaced with a metal ball (prosthesis). A plastic replacement is then inserted to replace the damaged part of the socket.
- Joint fusion: Generally performed on the feet, ankles, spine, or fingers.
- During this surgery, cartilage is taken from an uninjured part of the body and grafted into an area where the cartilage has been damaged.
- Once this is done, the bones on either side are fused to help stabilize the joint.
- Spinal fusion: Performed to join the vertebrae together to provide more stability to the spine or to repair damage to the spine.
- Revision joint surgery: Often required when the patient has a defective implant or when an older implant has failed.
- Implants fail for a variety of reasons, such as polyethylene (plastic) wearing, loosening, dislocation, or deep infection.
- Internal fixation of bones: Helps place fragments of bones together and keeps them in place using pins, screws, or plates so that they can heal.
- Osteotomy: Helps correct the deformity in children, thus allowing bone growth.
- Rotator cuff repair: The rotator cuff plays a key role in shoulder movement. A tear in the cuff can limit the range of motion and cause pain.
- These tears can be repaired with surgery to relieve pain and improve the strength and functioning of the shoulder.
- Autograft (bone grafting): Biologic tissue, such as bone marrow, skin biopsy, cartilage, and bone, from the patient’s own body, is used to surgically replace damaged tissues.
- Used to repair complex bone fractures or fractures that fail to heal properly and to treat bone tumors.
- Laminectomy: A surgical procedure in which part of the posterior bony arch or lamina, of a vertebra, is removed allowing access to the disk.
- Performed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots that emerge from the spinal canal and to treat a slipped or herniated disk and spinal stenosis.
- Patellectomy: Surgical removal of the patella or kneecap after a bad kneecap fracture.
- Reduction: A procedure that involves the manipulation of a fractured bone or dislocated joint to the correct alignment. The procedure is often called reduction with internal/external fixation.
- Resection: A surgical procedure in which the surgeon removes part or all of a bone to ease pain and improve movement when diseased joints in the feet make walking extremely difficult.
- Synovectomy: Involves the removal of the diseased synovium, the joint lining that can become inflamed in rheumatoid arthritis, causing pain, swelling, and disability.
Orthopedic Procedure Definitions. Canadian Orthopedic Foundation: https://whenithurtstomove.org/my-surgery/types-of-orthopaedic-surgery/
What Are the Most Common Orthopedic Surgeries? AICA Orthopedics: https://aica.com/what-are-the-most-common-orthopedic-surgeries/
Types of Orthopedic Surgery. Allegra Orthopedics: http://www.allegraortho.com/types-of-orthopedic-surgery/
Top What Are the Types of Orthopedic Surgeries Related Articles
Back Pain: Common Spine ProblemsThat stack of little bones along the center of your back has a key role to support and control your body. What happens when something's not right with your spine?
What Is the Best Treatment for Degenerative Disc Disease?Learn what medical treatments can help ease your degenerative disc disease symptoms and speed up your recovery.
Degenerative Disc Disease and SciaticaDegenerative disc disease makes the disc more susceptible to herniation (rupture) which can lead to localized or radiating pain. The pain from degenerative disc or joint disease of the spine is usually treated conservatively with intermittent heat, rest, rehabilitative exercises and medications to relieve pain, muscle spasm and inflammation.
Does Walking Help Degenerative Disc Disease?Degenerative disc disease is a term used to describe conditions in which there is progressive damage to the intervertebral discs. Walking can help treat degenerative disc disease since it's a mild form of physical therapy, which is good for your spine and joints.
How Long Does It Take to Recover From Knee Replacement?In most cases, it takes about 6 weeks to resume normal activities after knee replacement surgery, while full recovery may take 4-6 weeks or even a whole year.
How Serious Is Degenerative Bone Disease?Degenerative bone and joint disease, also called osteoarthritis, can be disabling in some cases and lead to serious injuries. Learn about symptoms and treatment.
Lower Back Pain (Lumbar Spine Pain)There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis, and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area.
What Is Spinal Stenosis? Causes of Lumbar & Cervical Spine StenosisSpinal stenosis causes back pain, leg pain, difficulty walking and clumsiness. Learn the symptoms of lumbar spinal stenosis and cervical spinal stenosis and what surgeries are used for spinal stenosis treatment. Discover tips for relieving spinal stenosis pain without surgery, as well as useful medications.
Sports Injuries: Types, Treatments, and PreventionWeekend warriors and professionals alike all experience sports injuries. See how to prevent strains, sprains, and tears with proper form, stretching, and more.
Sprains and StrainsAn injury to a ligament is called a sprain, and an injury to muscle or tendon is called a strain. Sprains and strains may be caused by repetitive movements or a single stressful incident. Symptoms and signs include pain and swelling. Though treatment depends upon the extent and location of the injury, rest, ice, compression, and elevation are key elements of treatment.
What Are the 10 Most Common Sports Injuries?What to know about the 10 most common sports injuries. Learn more about how to prevent injuries while playing sports.
Knee Replacement Surgery and Recovery TimeDuring total knee replacement surgery, the diseased knee joint is replaced with artificial material. The risks include blood clots in the legs, urinary tract infection, nausea and vomiting, chronic knee pain, nerve damage, and infection.
What Are the 10 Common Types of Sports Injuries?Sports injuries are those that occur when participating in sports or exercising. Learn the ten most common types of sports injuries, as well as their causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention.
What Are the 10 Most Common Sports Injuries?Whether you are a professional athlete or simply playing sports for fun, there is always a chance you could get injured. Here are 10 of the most common sports injuries.