What is breast cancer?
Breast cancer is the disease in which cells in the breast grow out-of-control, displacing normal breast cells. When breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it is called metastasized breast cancer. Breast cancer and its complications can affect nearly every part of the body. Although breast cancer predominantly occurs in women, it can also affect men.
What are the four types of breast cancer?
Breast cancer may be called lobular carcinoma if it begins in glands that make milk, or ductal carcinoma if it begins in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple. The cancer may grow and invade other areas around the breast, such as skin or chest wall.
Different types of breast cancer grow and spread at different rates. Both types of breast cancer may be invasive or non-invasive.
- Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): DCIS is a noninvasive condition. With DCIS, the cancer cells are confined to the ducts in the breast and have not invaded the surrounding breast tissue.
- Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS): LCIS is cancer that grows in the milk-producing glands of the breast. Like DCIS, the cancer cells do not invade the surrounding tissue.
- Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC): It is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of breast cancer begins in the milk ducts and then invades nearby tissue in the breast. Once the breast cancer has spread to the tissue outside milk ducts, it can spread to other nearby organs and tissue.
- Invasive lobular carcinoma first develops in lobules of the breast (milk glands) and then invades nearby tissues.
Apart from above four types, below are few less-common types of breast cancer:
- Paget disease of the nipple: This type of breast cancer begins in the ducts of the nipple, but as it grows, it begins to affect the skin and area of the nipple.
- Phyllodes tumor: This very rare type of breast cancer grows in the connective tissue of the breast. Most of these tumors are benign, but some are cancerous.
- Angiosarcoma: This cancer that grows on the blood and lymph vessels in the breast.
What are the common warning signs and symptoms of breast cancer?
- Lump in the breast or armpit discovered during bathing may be the first symptom of breast cancer
- Changes to the nipple and the surrounding area like nipple retraction and inverted nipple.
- Bloody discharge from nipple: If an individual notices blood stains on the bra, and if the secretions are unusual, they may need urgent medical attention.
- Change in color and/or thickening of skin on the breast, dimpling or thickening of breast skin that resembles an orange rind is a warning sign of breast cancer. If the breast skin changes color, typically to a pink or reddish hue that covers more than half the breast, that may also be a warning sign.
- A non-healing sore anywhere on the breast, including the nipple: A red, scaly, flaky nipple, and any persistent skin change, including blood or fluid from the nipple with non-healing sore, may be a warning sign of breast cancer.
- Increased warmth in the breast
- Pain, itching or tenderness in the breast
What are the treatment options for breast cancer?
Below are some common treatment options to combat breast cancer:
- Lumpectomy is when the doctor removes the tumor while leaving the breast intact.
- Mastectomy is when the doctor surgically removes all the breast tissue including the tumor and connecting tissue and the lymph nodes.
- Chemotherapy is the most common cancer treatment, and it involves the use of anticancer drugs. These drugs interfere with the ability of the cells to reproduce.
- Radiation uses X-rays to treat cancer directly.
- Hormone and targeted therapy can be used when either genes or hormones play a part in the growth of cancer cells. The therapy targets a specific protein on the tumor cells.
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Bone Marrow Transplantation for Breast CancerBone marrow transplantation may be performed after a woman undergoes high-dose chemotherapy for breast cancer. High-dose chemotherapy kills blood cells as well as cancer cells. Bone marrow transplantation involves harvesting stem cells from the bone marrow and infusing them back into the patient to stimulate the growth of new blood cells. The patient must remain isolated until the new bone marrow begins to grow.
Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms, breast self-examination (BSE), biopsy, and specialized testing on breast cancer tissue. Treatment of breast cancer may involve surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Breast cancer risk may be lowered by managing controllable risk factors.
What you should know about breast cancer
- Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women.
- One in every eight women in the United States develops breast cancer.
- There are many types of breast cancer that differ in their capability of spreading (metastasize) to other body tissues.
- The causes of breast cancer are unknown, although medical professionals have identified a number of risk factors.
- There are many different types of breast cancer.
- Breast cancer symptoms and signs include
- a lump in the breast or armpit,
- bloody nipple discharge,
- inverted nipple,
- orange-peel texture or dimpling of the breast's skin (peau d'orange),
- breast pain or sore nipple,
- swollen lymph nodes in the neck or armpit, and
- a change in the size or shape of the breast or nipple.
- Breast cancer can also be symptom free, which makes following national screening recommendations an important practice.
- Breast cancer is diagnosed during a physical exam, by a self-exam of the breasts, mammography, ultrasound testing, and biopsy.
- Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of cancer and its stage (0-IV) and may involve surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
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