What Are the 5 Types of Bipolar Disorder? Symptoms

Medically Reviewed on 6/17/2022
What Are the 5 Types of Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression

Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression. Extreme happiness or excitement (mania) and melancholy (depression) are typical symptoms of mood episodes. People with bipolar disorder may have normal moods in between the manic or depressive episodes.

The five types of bipolar disorder are bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymic disorder, other specified bipolar and related disorder, and unspecified bipolar and related disorder:

  1. Bipolar I: Characterized by alternating episodes of severe depression and intense mania. Intense manic episodes may last for 7 or more days and need immediate medical attention. Depressive symptoms may last for about 2 weeks 
  2. Bipolar II: Involves severe depression but less intense mania (hypomania or hypomanic episodes). People with bipolar II tend to get more depressive episodes than those with hypomania.
  3. Cyclothymic disorder: Characterized by a less severe form of mania and depression. Depression and mania are not as severe as full manic and depressive episodes. Symptoms may last for 2 years.
  4. Other specified bipolar and related disorder: Refers to a type of bipolar disorder in which there are symptoms that do not fit into the other categories. For example, rapid cycling may occur, where four or more mood episodes occur within 12 months. These episodes must last for some time to be considered distinct episodes. The person may experience four or more episodes of mania or depression in one year.
  5. Unspecified bipolar and related disorder: Similar to other specified bipolar and related disorder but used when there is not enough information to make a specific diagnosis. The person may experience symptoms of mania and depression at the same time. 

What are symptoms of bipolar disorder?

Bipolar disorder does not have a set pattern of symptoms and differs on an individual basis. Patients may feel a particular emotion several times before switching to another state.

Symptoms of mania

  • Symptoms are severe enough to interrupt the daily activities of the patient:
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • Unusual sexual drive
  • Patients may feel that they are on the top of the world
  • Highly irritable
  • Gets distracted easily
  • Being loquacious 
  • Increased energy
  • Excessive happiness and excitement
  • Perceiving oneself as grand
  • Being impulsive
  • Making an unrealistic plan
  • Drug and alcohol abuse
  • Multitasking many activities at once
  • Highly risky behavior or reckless thoughts

Symptoms of depression

  • Intense melancholy, feeling hopeless and worthless
  • Lack of interest in the activities once enjoyed
  • Feeling extreme tiredness and fatigue
  • Feeling restless
  • Sleep problems
  • Eating disorder
  • Lack of concentration
  • Thoughts of suicide and even attempting it

In addition to the above states, there’s a third category known as hypomania, which exhibits symptoms such as mania but with less intensity and duration.

Table: Symptoms of manic vs. depressive episodes
Manic episode Depressive episode
Feel high, elated, irritable, or touchy Feel sad, down, empty, worried, or hopeless
Feel fidgety or hyper Feel stuck or restless
Have a decreased need for sleep Have trouble falling asleep, waking up too early, or sleeping too much
Having a loss of appetite May have an increased appetite and weight gain, or may have a reduced appetite
Talk in hurry about a lot of different things Talk very slowly, feel like they have nothing to say, and forget a lot
Feel like their thoughts are racing Have difficulty concentrating or making decisions
Think they can do a lot of things at once Feel unable to do even simple things

Do risky things that show poor judgment, such as:

  • Eating and drinking excessively
  • Spending or giving away a lot of money
  • Having reckless sex

Have little interest in almost all activities such as:

  • Decreased or absent sex drive
  • Inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia)
Feel like they are unusually important, talented, or powerful Feel hopeless or worthless or think about death or suicide

SLIDESHOW

What Is Bipolar Disorder? Symptoms, Manic Episodes, Testing See Slideshow

How is bipolar disorder treated?

Management of bipolar disorder involves a combination of medications and psychotherapy or counseling. Treatment depends on the type of bipolar disorder.

Medications used to treat bipolar disorders include:

In some cases, psychotherapy has proven beneficial in treating mood episodes. Another therapy is psychoeducation in which patients and their families are educated regarding symptoms and importance of medication compliance.

In the case of failed medication and psychotherapy, other methods such as electroconvulsive therapy may be used, in which a small electric current is passed through the brain to treat the disorder.

Recognizing and treating symptoms early are crucial to prevent complications such as addictions and suicide.

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Medically Reviewed on 6/17/2022
References
Image Source: iStock image

https://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/guide/bipolar-disorder-forms

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286342-treatment#d13

https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/bipolar-disorders/what-are-bipolar-disorders

https://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/mental-health-bipolar-disorder#3

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder