There are various types of hemophilia depending on which clotting factor is affected. The three main types of hemophilia are:
- Hemophilia A: It is also called classic hemophilia. It is due to the deficiency of clotting factor VIII (eight) in the blood. It is the commonest type of hemophilia. About half of the people with hemophilia A develop severe disease.
- Hemophilia B: It is also called Christmas disease named after Stephen Christmas who was the first person diagnosed with this disease. Hemophilia B is due to the deficiency of the clotting factor IX (nine) in the blood. It is four times less common than hemophilia A.
- Hemophilia C: It is also known as Rosenthal syndrome. Hemophilia C occurs due to the deficiency of clotting factor XI (eleven) in the blood. This factor XI is also called plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA. Hemophilia C generally manifests as a mild disease. It is rarer than hemophilia A and B.
What is hemophilia?
Hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder in which the blood doesn't clot normally. It mainly affects males and is rare in females. Hemophilia is sometimes called “the royal disease.” Several royal families of England, Germany, Russia, and Spain in the 19th and 20th centuries had members afflicted with hemophilia. The reason could have been the consanguineous marriages in the royal families. Hemophilia is usually an inherited condition. People start to see symptoms in their middle age or old age. Sometimes, the condition becomes apparent in young women who recently gave birth or are in the later stages of pregnancy.
The inability of the blood to clot usually results in excessive blood loss after an injury or during surgery. There can also be spontaneous bleeding at various sites in the body. Bleeding at vital sites, such as in the brain, can lead to serious and potentially fatal complications. In this condition, there is a deficiency of certain proteins called clotting factors in the blood. These clotting factors are responsible for the normal blood clotting in response to an injury. They are designated by Roman numbers (for example, factor VIII and factor IX). The severity of this disease depends on the amount of clotting factors present in the blood. Thus, the lower the concentration of clotting factors, the severe will be the bleeding tendencies.
Treatment depends on the type and severity of hemophilia. The treatment aims to prevent bleeding episodes mainly inside the head and the joints. The use of gene therapy to replace the defective genes is currently under study. Blood transfusions may be required in case of significant blood loss.
What are the signs and symptoms of hemophilia?
The symptoms of hemophilia may vary depending on the disease severity and cause. The symptoms generally include:
Bleeding into the joints leading to swollen and painful joints. Bleeding can occur spontaneously in severe cases or after a minor injury. It can affect any joint; the knees, elbows, and ankles are more commonly affected.
- Bleeding from the mouth or gums after a dental procedure, which is difficult to stop. It may also occur after brushing.
- Skin bruises may appear spontaneously or after minor injuries.
- Hematoma formation (collection of blood in tissues) may occur in the muscles, soft tissues, and organs in the body. An intracranial hematoma (formed around the brain) may be life-threatening.
- Excessive bleeding after minor surgical procedures, such as removal of a skin tag or circumcision (a surgery done to remove the hood of skin, called the foreskin, covering the head of the penis).
- Prolonged bleeding after receiving injections or vaccine shots.
- Blood in the urine.
- Blood in stool.
- Heavy menstrual bleeding.
- Frequent and excessive nosebleeds.
- A difficult delivery due to bleeding in the head of a newborn may be a sign of hemophilia in the baby.
Bleeding in and around the brain may manifest as:
- Severe headache
- Excessive sleepiness or loss of consciousness
- Double vision
- Change in behavior
- Neck stiffness or pain
These symptoms need urgent medical intervention.
- Alzheimer's Genes Might Also Raise Odds for Epilepsy
- Ketamine Beats Shock Therapy in Easing Tough-to-Treat Depression
- Most Americans Don't Know What 988 Suicide Crisis Hotline Is For: Poll
- Nowhere Safe to Play: 'Play Deserts' Keep Kids from Fun Physical Activity
- Hi-Tech Implant Helps Paralyzed Man Walk Naturally Again
- More Health News »
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What is Hemophilia? https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/facts.html
Top What Are the 3 Types of Hemophilia? Related Articles
Adynovate (Antihemophilic Factor)Adynovate [Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant)] is an injectable medicine that is used to help treat and control bleeding in children and adults with hemophilia A (congenital Factor VIII deficiency). Side effects of Adynovate include allergic reaction, headache, and nausea.
Afstyla (Antihemophilic Factor)Afstyla, Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), Single Chain is a medicine used to replace clotting Factor VIII that is missing in patients with hemophilia A, a blood disorder that causes difficulty in the blood clotting. Side effects of Afstla include allergic reactions and dizziness.
Bedbug BitesBedbugs (from the insect family Cimicidae) are small, reddish-brown tick-like insects that feed by sucking the blood of mammals. They are often found in poorly sanitized areas or in crowded living quarters.
Blood Clot PictureBlood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. See a picture of Blood Clot and learn more about the health topic.
Blood Disorders: Types, Symptoms, and TreatmentsSome blood disorders are forms of cancer. Others are benign. Find out what happens and why.
Common Medical Abbreviations & Terms
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- cap: Capsule.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- HA: Headache
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
- JT: Joint
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
Empaveli (pegcetacoplan)Empaveli (pegcetacoplan) is indicated for the treatment of adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a rare blood disease. Serious side effects of Empaveli include potentially fatal meningococcal infections and infusion-related reactions. Common side effects include injection-site reactions, infections, diarrhea, abdominal pain, respiratory tract infection, viral infection, and fatigue.
factor VIIIFactor VIII, human plasma-derived is a specialized protein in blood that plays a role in the clotting (coagulation) process. Human plasma-derived factor VIII is used to maintain the necessary levels of the particular factor in individuals with hemophilia A, a hereditary bleeding disorder caused by deficiency in factor VIII. Common side effects of factor VIII, human plasma-derived include increased factor VIII inhibitors, stinging at the injection site, inflammation at the injection site, chest tightness, headache, fever, chills, lethargy, blurred vision, taste disorder (dysgeusia), and hypersensitivity reactions.
Feiba Vh (Anti-Inhibitor Coagulant Complex)Feiba is an Anti-Inhibitor Coagulant Complex indicated for use in hemophilia A and B patients with inhibitors for control and prevention of bleeding episodes, perioperative management, or routine prophylaxis to prevent or reduce the frequency of bleeding episodes. Feiba is not indicated for the treatment of bleeding episodes resulting from coagulation factor deficiencies in the absence of inhibitors to coagulation factor VIII or coagulation factor IX.
granulocytesGranulocytes are types of white blood cells (leukocytes) that are part of the immune system and help fight infections. Granulocyte transfusions are administered to patients with low neutrophil count (neutropenia) and refractory bacterial or fungal infection. Common side effects of granulocytes include fever, chills, allergic reactions, and hemolytic transfusion reactions. Consult your doctor if pregnant or breastfeeding.
Hemophilia A and B (Bleeding Disorders)Hemophilia is defined as one of a group of inherited bleeding disorders. Hemophilia A and hemophilia B are inherited in an X-linked recessive genetic pattern. Symptoms of hemophilia include bleeding into the:
- GI or urinary tract,
- or brain or skull.
Hemophilia QuizWhat happens within the body in a person who has hemophilia? Take this quiz to learn about this rare blood disorder.
hetastarchHetastarch, with the chemical name of hydroxyethyl starch, is a starch derived from corn, used to increase the fluid volume of blood when other adequate treatments are not available. Do not use hetastarch in the following conditions severe congestive heart failure (CHF), severe bleeding disorders, and severe kidney failure. Common side effects of hetastarch include hypersensitivity reactions, circulatory overload, congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, intracranial bleeding, and others.
irradiated blood and componentsIrradiated blood and blood components are cellular blood products that have been subjected to radiation with gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiated blood and components are used for transfusion in patients at risk for transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). Common side effects of irradiated blood and components include hemolytic transfusion reactions that destroy red blood cells, feverish (febrile) non-hemolytic reactions, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), allergic reactions, and others.
Obizur antihemophilic factor (recombinant), porcine sequenceObizur [antihemophilic factor (recombinant), porcine sequence] is a recombinant DNA derived, antihemophilic factor indicated for the treatment of bleeding episodes in adults with acquired hemophilia A. Common side effects of Obizur include development of inhibitors to porcine factor VIII, flushing of the face, headache, nausea, fast heartbeat, and injection site reactions (burning, redness, or irritation), fever, and chills.
potassium phosphate/sodium phosphatePotassium phosphate/sodium phosphate is a medication used to correct lower than normal levels of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia) and in the urine, and to acidify the urine. Potassium phosphate is a combination salt of potassium and phosphorus and sodium is a combination of sodium and phosphorus. Common side effects of potassium phosphate/sodium phosphate include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, gas (flatulence), diarrhea, tingling and numbness in the mouth (oral paresthesia), sore throat, swelling (edema), lower extremity edema, chest pain, irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia), excessively slow or rapid heart rate (bradycardia or tachycardia), shortness of breath (dyspnea), and others.
sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetateSodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate is a medication used in the treatment of excessive ammonia levels in the blood (hyperammonemia) and associated brain damage (encephalopathy) in patients with urea cycle disorders. The combination medication reduces the ammonia levels in the blood and is administered by intravenous (IV) infusion as an adjunct treatment in addition to appropriate dietary and other supportive measures. Common side effects of sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate include high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), high ammonia levels in the blood (hyperammonemia), low blood potassium levels (hypokalemia), low blood calcium (hypocalcemia), excessive acidity of body fluids (acidosis), metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, convulsions, brain swelling (edema), coma, mental impairment, psychiatric disorders, agitation, injection site reactions, fever (pyrexia), and others.
whole bloodWhole blood is the entire blood collected from donors that contains all the blood components. Whole blood is primarily used for transfusion in adults with massive blood loss and active bleeding, who generally require all the blood components. Whole blood may also be reconstituted using stored plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets, usually used for cardiovascular surgeries and exchange transfusions in newborn babies. Common side effects of whole blood include hemolytic transfusion reactions, hives (urticaria), itching (pruritus), wheezing, shortness of breath (dyspnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), and serious allergic (anaphylactic) reactions.