Medical diagnosis is the process of identifying a disease, condition, or injury based on the signs and symptoms presented. Types of medical diagnosis are:
- Provisional: Based on physical exam and clinical findings
- Histopathological: Done by a pathologist after examining sample tissue under a microscope
- Final: Done based on provisional diagnosis and investigations
Accurate diagnoses require data from the following sources:
- Medical history
- Physical examination
- Tests such as blood tests, imaging tests, and biopsies
5 of the most common medical diagnoses
1. Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia that can severely impair day-to-day function. Symptoms of Alzheimer’s include:
- Memory loss
- Problems with judgment and thinking
Tests used to make a medical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease include:
- Fluttering in the chest
- Pounding heartbeat
- Slow heartbeat
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
Tests used to make a medical diagnosis of arrhythmias include:
There are five types of arthritis:
Tests used to make a medical diagnosis of arthritis include:
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
- C-reactive protein (CRP)
- Complete blood cell count
- Rheumatoid factor assay
- Antinuclear antibody assay
- Joint aspiration
4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Chronic kidney disease is a condition in which the kidneys do not filter out waste from the blood, leading to the accumulation of waste in the body. Symptoms of CKD include:
- Loss of appetite
- Fatigue and weakness
- Sleep problems
- Little or no urination
- Decreased mental sharpness
- Muscle cramps
- Swelling of feet and ankles
- Dry and itchy skin
- Uncontrollable hypertension
- Shortness of breath if fluid builds up in the lungs
- Chest pain if fluid builds up around the lining of the heart
Tests used to make a medical diagnosis of CKD include:
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Imaging tests
- Kidney biopsy
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss
- Numbness or pins and needles sensation in the legs and feet
- Blurred vision
- Yeast infection over the skin and genitals
- Slow wound healing
- Polydipsia (increased thirst)
- Polyphagia (increased hunger)
- Dry mouth
- Itchy skin
- Blurred vision
- Skin infections
Tests used to make a medical diagnosis of diabetes include:
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Mayo Clinic. Diabetes. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20371451
Mayo Clinic. Chronic kidney disease. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-kidney-disease/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354527
Mayo Clinic. Heart arrhythmia. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-arrhythmia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350674
Top What Are Examples of Medical Diagnosis Related Articles
What Are the 7 Diagnostic Criteria for Rheumatoid Arthritis?Defined in 1987 and followed until 2010, the seven diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis are no longer in use. Instead, doctors rely on a new set of classification criteria for diagnosing RA.
Alzheimer's Disease Symptoms & Early DiagnosisMemory loss and confusion can be signs of normal aging, but also warning signs of Alzheimer's disease. The early stages of Alzheimer's disease can affect problem solving, vision, and more.
Alzheimer's DiseaseAlzheimer's disease is a common cause of dementia. Symptoms and warning signs of Alzheimer's disease include memory loss, difficulty performing familiar tasks, disorientation to time and place, misplacing things, and more. The biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is increased age. Treatment for Alzheimer's is often targeted toward decreasing the symptoms and progression of the disease.
ArrhythmiaAn arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm. With an arrhythmia, the heartbeats may be irregular or too slow (bradycardia), to rapid (tachycardia), or too early. When a single heartbeat occurs earlier than normal, it is called a premature contraction.
Arthritis (Joint Inflammation)Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness and pain. There are over 100 types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus, gout, and pseudogout.
Diabetes and Kidney DiseaseIn the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
Diabetes QuizTake the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do with obesity and diet? Learn about life as a diabetic.
Kidney Disease QuizKidney disease is common. Take this kidney disease quiz to test your knowledge and learn the symptoms, causes and types of kidney disease and what foods to eat and avoid!
What Do Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyography Diagnose?Nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography (EMG) are tests performed to assess the health of nerves and muscles. A neurophysiologist stimulates specific nerves and muscles and studies the resulting activity to evaluate if the nerves and muscles are functioning normally.
Osteoarthritis SlideshowOsteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease most often affecting major joints such as knees, hands, back, or hips. Osteoarthritis symptoms include pain, swelling and joint inflammation.
Diabetes Urine TestsUrine tests for individuals with diabetes is important to check for diabetes-related kidney disease and severe hypoglycemia. With proper monitoring of blood glucose levels, diabetic-kidney disease can be avoided.
What Can a Liver Biopsy Diagnose?A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves inserting a small needle into the liver to collect a tissue sample. The tissue is then analyzed in a lab to help the doctors diagnose a variety of disorders and diseases of the liver. A liver biopsy is usually performed to help identify the cause of liver ailments, and estimate the degree of liver damage, grade and stage of hepatitis B and C. Complications include internal bleeding, pain, infections, leak of bile from the liver or gallbladder, and pneumothorax.
What Is an EGD Used to Diagnose?EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) is a procedure for examining the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A flexible tube with a lighted camera (endoscope) is introduced through the mouth or nose passing through the esophagus and stomach up to the top part of the small intestine (duodenum). An EGD is also known as an upper endoscopy, and may diagnose GERD, stomach cancer and other upper GI problems.
What is Fluoroscopy Used to Diagnose?Fluoroscopy can diagnose or aid in diagnosis of many conditions. It refers to using X-rays from a CT scanner to bounce off a mildly radioactive tracer, whether swallowed, administered as an enema or injected into veins. The X-rays make the tracer glow or “fluoresce,” showing the structure and real-time function of the organ or system on a screen.