- A Visual Guide to Heart Disease
- Medical Illustrations of the Heart Image Collection
- Take the Heart Disease Quiz!
- What is warfarin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for warfarin?
- Is warfarin available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for warfarin?
- What are the uses for warfarin?
- What are the side effects of warfarin?
- What is the dosage for warfarin?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with warfarin?
- Is warfarin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about warfarin?
What is warfarin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant, a drug that inhibits the clotting of blood. It prevents the formation of blood clots by reducing the production of factors by the liver that promote clotting, factors II, VII, IX, and X, and the anticoagulant proteins C and S. The production of these factors by the liver are dependent on adequate amounts of vitamin K. Warfarin reduces the production of the factors because it antagonizes vitamin K. Blood clots can occur in the veins of the lower extremities (deep venous thrombosis [DVT]), often after periods of immobility. These clots can break off and become lodged in the blood vessels of the lung (pulmonary embolism), causing shortness of breath, chest pain, and even life-threatening shock. Blood clots can also occur in the atria of the heart during atrial fibrillation and around artificial heart valves. These clots also can break off and obstruct blood vessels in the brain, causing an embolic stroke with paralysis. Warfarin is important in preventing the formation of blood clots, preventing extension of clots already formed, and minimizing the risk of embolization of blood clots to other vital organs such as the lungs and brain.
- The FDA approved warfarin in June 1954.
What are the uses for warfarin?
- Warfarin is used in treating patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to prevent extension of the clot, and to reduce the risk of pulmonary embolism.
- Patients with pulmonary embolism are treated with warfarin to prevent further emboli.
- Warfarin also is used in patients with atrial fibrillation or artificial heart valves to reduce the risk of strokes, and after a heart attack.
- It also is helpful in preventing blood clots from forming in certain orthopedic surgeries such as knee or hip replacements.
- Warfarin is used in preventing closure of coronary artery stents due to clotting.
What are the side effects of warfarin?
The two most serious side effects of warfarin are:
- Necrosis (gangrene) of the skin
Bleeding can occur in any organ or tissue. Bleeding around the brain can cause severe headache and paralysis. Bleeding in the joints can cause joint pain and swelling. Bleeding in the stomach or intestines can cause weakness, fainting spells, black tarry stools, vomiting of blood, or coffee ground material. Bleeding in the kidneys can cause back pain and blood in urine.
Other side effects include:
Quick GuideHeart Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Causes
What is the dosage for warfarin?
- Warfarin may be taken with or without food.
- Since warfarin is metabolized (inactivated) by the liver and then excreted by the kidneys, dosages need to be lowered in patients with liver and kidney dysfunction.
- Frequent blood tests (INR test) are performed to measure the effect of warfarin and to adjust dosing.
- There are published INR ranges for the various uses of warfarin.
- Treatment usually is started at 2 to 5 mg once daily and the dose is adjusted based in INR tests.
- Patients typically require 2 to 10 mg of warfarin daily.
Which drugs or supplements interact with warfarin?
- Many drugs, both prescription and nonprescription (OTC), can affect the anticoagulant action of warfarin or increase the risk of bleeding. Patients on warfarin should regularly consult their doctor before instituting any medications on their own.
- It also is advisable for patients on warfarin to carry identification such as bracelets to alert other health professionals to the presence of anticoagulation.
- A few examples of drugs that interact with warfarin are:
- Drugs that increase the effect of warfarin by reducing the breakdown of warfarin include amiodarone (Cordarone), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), fluvastatin, fluvoxamine, metronidazole miconazole, voriconazole (Vfend), zafirlukast (Accolate), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), cimetidine, atorvastatin (Lipitor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), fluoxetine (Prozac), indinavir (Crixivan), and ritonavir (Norvir).
- Drugs that may reduce the effect of warfarin by increasing its breakdown include St. John's wort, carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Equetro, Carbatrol), rifampin, bosentan (Tracleer), and prednisone.
- Bleeding is increased by other anticoagulants such as heparin, argatroban (Acova), dabigatran (Pradaxa), and others; antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, ibuprofen [Motrin], naproxen [Alleve]), clopidogrel (Plavix), and prasugrel (Effient); serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac) and paroxetine (Paxil). Garlic and ginkgo also increase the risk of bleeding because they cause bleeding when taken alone.
- Foods with high vitamin Ka> content (for example, green leafy vegetables) reduce the effect of warfarin. Maintenance of a consistent intake of vitamin K containing foods is important to avoid fluctuations in the effect of warfarin.
Is warfarin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
What else should I know about warfarin?
What preparations of warfarin are available?
- Tablets: 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg.
- Powder for Injection: 5 mg/vial
How should I keep warfarin stored?
Warfarin should be stored at room temperature, 59 F to 86 F (15 C to 30 C), in tight, light resistant container.
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
Quick GuideHeart Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Causes
Warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) is an anticoagulant drug that inhibits the blood from clotting, thus preventing blood clots. It is prescribed for the treatment of patients with deep vein thrombosis, the reduction of pulmonary embolism, and in patients with atrial fibrillation to reduce the risk of strokes and heart attack. Common side effects of warfarin include:
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Heart Disease: Causes of a Heart Attack
Learn about heart disease and heart attack symptoms and signs of a heart attack in men and women. Read about heart disease...
DVT in Pictures: Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis, Beyond Leg Pain and More
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous and sometimes fatal blood clot that occurs deep within the lower leg or thigh....
Heart Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Causes
What is heart disease (coronary artery disease)? Learn about the causes of heart disease. Symptoms of heart disease include chest...
Atrial Fibrillation: Heart Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Afib Treatment
Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of abnormal heart rhythm. Atrial fibrillation or AF can lead to serious heart...
Lower Your Cholesterol, Save Your Heart
Need to lower your cholesterol levels? Use these smart diet tips to quickly and easily lower your blood cholesterol levels....
Am I Having a Heart Attack? Symptoms of Heart Disease
Heart attacks symptoms vary greatly for men and women, from anxiety and fatigue to nausea and sweating. Learn the warning signs...
Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib) Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Learn the causes, symptoms, and treatments of the common heart abnormality known as atrial fibrillation (A-fib)....
Heart Disease Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take our Heart Disease Quiz to get answers and facts about high cholesterol, atherosclerosis prevention, and the causes,...
Stroke Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the Stroke Quiz to learn about stroke risks, causes, treatment, and most importantly, prevention....
Picture of Heart Detail
The heart is composed of specialized cardiac muscle, and it is four-chambered, with a right atrium and ventricle, and an...
Picture of Blood Clot
Blood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. See a picture of Blood Clot and learn more about the health topic....
Picture of Heart
The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. See a picture of the Heart and learn more...
Heart-Healthy Diet: 25 Foods to Protect Your Cardiovascular System
See 25 foods loaded with heart-healthy nutrients that help protect your cardiovascular system. Plus, find easy meal/recipes and...
Slideshow: High-Fiber Super Foods: Whole Grains, Fruits, & More
Learn about high-fiber foods. From fresh fruits to whole grains, these fiber-rich foods can lower cholesterol, prevent...
Food Swaps for Meals and Snacks for Heart Health in Pictures
Explore 10 food swaps for heart-wise dining. Learn what food to buy and how to cook in order to make a big difference for your...
12 Reasons to Love the Mediterranean Diet in Pictures
The Mediterranean diet is a delicious way to eat healthy. We show you how to get the most from this diet with foods like olive...
Related Disease Conditions
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Symptoms, Stages, and Prognosis
Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease,...
12 Heart Attack Symptoms and Early Warning Signs
Recognizing heart attack symptoms and signs can help save your life or that of someone you love. Some heart attack symptoms,...
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) refers to diseases of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) located outside the heart and...
Stroke (Signs, Symptoms, Warning Signs)
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...
Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to...
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT, Blood Clot in the Legs)
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in the deep veins, and can be caused by broken bones, trauma to a limb, immobility,...
Internal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the...
How the Heart Works
The heart is a very important organ in the body. It is responsible for continuously pumping oxygen and nutrient-rich blood...
Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins,...
Pulmonary Embolism (Blood Clot in the Lung)
A pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a piece of a blood clot from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) breaks off and travels to an artery...
Marfan syndrome is hereditary (genetic) condition affecting connective tissue. A person with Marfan syndrome may exhibit the...
Phlebitis is the inflammation of a vein. Thrombophlebitis is when a blood clot causes the inflammation. Phlebitis can be...
Heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack...
Aortic valve stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve of the heart. The causes of aortic stenosis are wear and tear...
Gangrene may result when blood flow to a tissue is lost or not adequate to keep the tissue alive. There are two types of...
Stress and Heart Disease
The connection between stress and heart disease is not clear. Stress itself may be a risk factor, or high levels of stress may...
Abnormal Heart Rhythms (Heart Rhythm Disorders)
Heart rhythm disorders vary from minor palpitations, premature atrial contractions (PACs), premature ventricular contractions...
Atrial Fibrillation (AF, AFib)
Atrial fibrillation (AF or AFib) is an abnormality in the heart rhythm which involves irregular and often rapid beating of the...
Atrial flutter is a problem with the atria of the heart. In atrial flutter the atria of the heart rapidly and repeatedly beat...
Concussion is a short-lived loss of brain function that is due to head trauma. There are two types of concussion, simple and...
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Superior vena cava syndrome is compression of the superior vena cava vein located in the upper chest. Causes of superior vena...
Antiphospholipid syndrome (phospholipid antibody syndrome or Hughes syndrome) is an immune system disorder with symptoms that...
Heart Disease in Women
Heart disease in women has somewhat different symptoms, risk factors, and treatment compared to heart disease in men. Many women...
Heart Attacks in Women
Heart disease, particularly coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart attacks. Women are more likely to die from a...
Heart Attack Treatment
A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to...
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Benefits, Uses, Foods)
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fats that help decrease one's cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as reduce the risk of...
Smoking and Heart Disease
Smoking increases the risk of heart disease in women and men. Nicotine in cigarettes decrease oxygen to the heart, increases...
Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series
Vitamins and exercise can lower your risk for heart attack and heart disease. Folic acid, vitamins, and homocysteine levels are...
Heart Attack Prevention Overview
Heart attacks are the major causes of unexpected, sudden death among men and women. A heart attack also is a significant cause...
Heart Attack Prevention
Heart disease and heart attacks can be prevented by leading a healthy lifestyle with diet, exercise, and stress management....
Heart Disease Treatment in Women
Heart disease treatment in women should take into account female-specific guidelines that were developed by the American Heart...
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Heart Disease FAQs
- Stroke FAQs
- Atrial Fibrillation A-Fib FAQs
- Nosebleeds: First Aid
- Herbs: Toxicities and Drug Interactions
- Head Injury Symptoms
- How To Reduce Your Medication Costs
- Pharmacy Visit, How To Get The Most Out of Your Visit
- Indications for Drugs: Approved vs. Non-approved
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Medication Disposal - What to Do with Old or Unusable Medication
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
- Genetic Testing May Help Make Blood Thinner Safer
- Are Blood Thinners Overused in Patients With Irregular Heartbeat?
- Pradaxa Beats Warfarin After Heart Rhythm Procedure: Study
- Many With Irregular Heartbeat Not on Meds They Need: Study
- Study Tracks Bleeding Risk From Common Blood Thinners
- One-Third With Common Irregular Heartbeat Don't Take Blood Thinners
- Pradaxa Blood Thinner May Beat Warfarin After Bleeding Episode: Study
- These Medicines Often Send Americans to ERs
- Statins Often Interact With Other Heart Drugs
- Some Increased Bleeding Risk Seen With Blood Thinner Xarelto Vs. Pradaxa
- Experts Weigh In On Newly Released Health Information From Clinton, Trump
- Over 100 Drugs Pose Risk to Heart Failure Patients
- Aspirin Often Wrongly Prescribed for Atrial Fibrillation
- Is Daily Blood Thinner Needed for Irregular Heartbeat?
- Widely Used Heart Drug Tied to Dementia Risk
- Warfarin Can Be Safe, Effective for People With Irregular Heartbeat
- 1 in 6 Seniors Takes Dangerous Combos of Meds, Supplements: Study
- Many With Irregular Heartbeat Missing Out on Stroke-Preventing Treatments
- Blood Thinner, Certain Diabetes Drugs Are a Bad Combo
- Heart Valve Patients Who Manage Their Own Blood Thinners May Do Better
- Most Don't Need 'Bridging' When They Stop Warfarin Temporarily
- Prescription Meds: Too Common in Pregnancy?
- Antibiotic May Lower Effect of Some Blood Thinners
- How Long Do Patients With Clots in the Lung Need Blood Thinners?
- Drug May Be Antidote to Bleeding Tied to Blood Thinner Pradaxa
- Blood Thinner Warfarin May Pose Greater Bleeding Risk for Obese: Study
- Pharmacists Key to Whether Patients Take Blood Thinners
- FDA OKs New Anti-Clotting Drug for Heart Rhythm Disorder
- Blood-Thinning Drug Savaysa Approved
- Heart Device May Cut Stroke Risk in Those With Irregular Heartbeat: Study
- Could Too Much Medication for Irregular Heartbeat Raise Dementia Risk?
- FDA: Supplements, Meds Can Be Dangerous Mix
- Prescribe Blood Thinner Pradaxa With Caution, Study Warns
- Irregular Heartbeat Doubles Risk for 'Silent Strokes,' Review Suggests
- Study: Aspirin Might Work Instead of Warfarin for Deep Vein Clots
- Heart Medication Digoxin Linked to Higher Risk of Death for Some
- Orbactiv Approved for Drug-Resistant Skin Infections
- Blood-Thinner Pradaxa: What You Should Know
- Taking Blood Thinners With Certain Painkillers May Raise Bleeding Risk
- Doctors' Groups Issue New Guidelines on Treating Common Irregular Heartbeat
- Early Promise for a Blood Thinner Without the Bleeding Risk
- Warfarin May Up Stroke Risk in Those With Irregular Heartbeat: Study
- Studies Suggest Better Approaches to Staying Clot-Free
- Antidote Might Reverse Complication From Blood Thinner Pradaxa
- Blood Thinner Dangerous for Patients With Artificial Heart Valves, Study Finds
- Irregular Heartbeat May Speed Memory Loss in Seniors
- Blacks With Certain Gene Need Lower Doses of Warfarin: Study
- Comparing the New Blood Thinners to Warfarin
- Kcentra Approved to Stop Severe Bleeding in Heart Patients
- Blood Thinners May Boost Survival for Prostate Cancer Patients: Study
- New Blood Thinner Beats Older Drug for Vein Clots: Study
- Doctors: Clinton Should Recover Fully From Clot
- FDA Approves New Blood Thinner Eliquis
- FDA: Don't Use Pradaxa Blood Thinner in Patients With Artificial Heart Valves
- New Blood Thinner May Help Prevent Leg Clots, Study Finds
- Common Antidepressants Tied to Higher Bleeding Risk in Warfarin Users: Study
- New Anti-Clotting Drug Beats Warfarin, Study Says
- Year of Taking Risky Blood Thinners May Be Unnecessary After Stent Surgery
- Study Assesses Blood Thinner Use After Gastrointestinal Bleeding
- Can Cranberries Fight Urinary Tract Infections?
- Daily Aspirin May Help Fight Prostate Cancer, But Not Breast Cancer
- Clot-Busting Stroke Drug Safe for Many Who Take Warfarin
- FDA Delays Decision on Blood Thinner Eliquis
- FDA Rejects New Use for Blood Thinner Xarelto
- Quick-Reversal Method May Be at Hand for New Blood Thinner
- Aspirin May Prevent Recurrence of Deep Vein Blood Clots
- FDA Panel Votes Against New Use for Blood Thinner Xarelto
- New Blood Thinner May Lower Chances of Clots in High-Risk Heart Patients: FDA
- FDA Approves Generic Versions of Plavix
- Plavix's New Generic Status Could Be Boon for Patients
- Clot-Buster Doesn't Raise Bleeding Risk in Warfarin Patients: Study
- Irregular Heartbeat Poses Greater Stroke Risk for Women Than Men
- Aspirin as Effective as Warfarin for Heart Failure: Study
- Stopping Blood Thinners Raises Stroke Risk for Patients With Irregular Heartbeat
- Warfarin Helps Cut Stroke Risk, Researchers Report
- Aspirin, Warfarin Fare Equally for Heart Failure Patients
- New Anti-Clotting Drug May Cut Brain Bleeding Risk: Study
- Experimental Drug Might Beat Aspirin in Preventing Repeat Strokes: Study
- New Blood Thinner Linked To Higher Heart Attack Risk
- Aspirin May Reduce Risk of Repeat Blood Clots
- Low-Dose Aspirin After Lung Clot Could Prevent Recurrence
- Most Drug-Related Hospitalizations Due to Handful of Drugs
- FDA Advisory Panel Backs Xarelto to Prevent Strokes
- Anti-clotting Drug Warfarin May Be Safe for Elderly
- FDA Warning on Atrial Fibrillation Drug Multaq
- Report: Some Drugs Sold Without Safety Information
- Coumadin Recalled Over Potency Concern
- New Drug Helps Patients With Atrial Fibrillation
- $1,000 Personal Genome Coming: Are We Ready?
Daily Health News
Healthy Heart Resources
Subscribe to MedicineNet's Heart Health Newsletter
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Top warfarin Related ArticlesComplete List
Atrial Fibrillation QuizLearn the causes, symptoms, and treatments of the common heart abnormality known as atrial fibrillation (A-fib).
A-Fib SlideshowAtrial fibrillation is the most common type of abnormal heart rhythm. Atrial fibrillation or AF can lead to serious heart complications like stroke. Risks associated with AFib are related to heart rhythm changes. Treating atrial fibrillation addresses these changes in heartbeat.
BronchoscopyBronchoscopy is a procedure during which a patient's lung, airways, voice box, vocal cord, trachea, and many branches of the bronchi may be evaluated. There are two types of bronchoscopies: a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope and a rigid bronchoscope. Bronchoscopy can be used for diagnosis and treatment. Some indications for bronchoscopy include:
- persistent unexplained cough,
- bloody sputum,
- abnormal chest x-ray,
- evaluation of possible lung infection,
- remove foreign bodies in the airway,
- place a stent to open a collapsed lung,
- or to remove a mass or growth blocking the airway.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) OverviewCongestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in the deep veins, and can be caused by broken bones, trauma to a limb, immobility, medications, smoking, cancer, genetic predisposition, and cancer. Symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis in a leg are
- warmth, and
Treatment for DVT include medications and surgery.
DVT SlideshowDeep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous and sometimes fatal blood clot that occurs deep within the lower leg or thigh. Understand the symptoms, treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
Heart Attack Symptoms and Early Warning SignsRecognizing heart attack symptoms and signs can help save your life or that of someone you love. Some heart attack symptoms, including left arm pain and chest pain, are well known but other, more nonspecific symptoms may be associated with a heart attack. Nausea, vomiting, malaise, indigestion, sweating, shortness of breath, and fatigue may signal a heart attack. Heart attack symptoms and signs in women may differ from those in men.
Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease)
Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to the heart. Heart disease can lead to heart attack. Risk factors for heart disease include:
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Family history
Angina, shortness of breath, and sweating are just a few symptoms that may indicate a heart attack. Treatment of heart disease involves control of heart disease risk factors through lifestyle changes, medications, and/or stenting or bypass surgery. Heart disease can be prevented by controlling heart disease risk factors.
CAD SlideshowWhat is heart disease (coronary artery disease)? Learn about the causes of heart disease. Symptoms of heart disease include chest pain and shortness of breath. Explore heart disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
Heart Disease SlideshowLearn about heart disease and heart attack symptoms and signs of a heart attack in men and women. Read about heart disease diagnostic tests, treatments, and prevention strategies.
Heart Disease QuizTake our Heart Disease Quiz to get answers and facts about high cholesterol, atherosclerosis prevention, and the causes, symptoms, treatments, testing, and procedures for medically broken hearts.
Illustrations of the HeartThe muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. See a picture of the Heart and learn more about the health topic.
Heart: How the Heart WorksThe heart is a very important organ in the body. It is responsible for continuously pumping oxygen and nutrient-rich blood throughout your body to sustain life. It is a fist-sized muscle that beats (expands and contracts) 100,000 times per day, pumping a total of five or six quarts of blood each minute, or about 2,000 gallons per day.
Internal BleedingInternal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the body. Internal bleeding can be caused by a variety of situations such as blunt trauma, deceleration trauma, medications, fractures, and spontaneous bleeding. Treatment of internal bleeding depends on the cause of the bleeding.
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) refers to diseases of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) located outside the heart and brain. While there are many causes of peripheral vascular disease, doctors commonly use the term peripheral vascular disease to refer to peripheral artery disease (peripheral arterial disease, PAD), a condition that develops when the arteries that supply blood to the internal organs, arms, and legs become completely or partially blocked as a result of atherosclerosis. Peripheral artery disease symptoms include:
- Intermittent Leg pain while walking
- Leg pain at rest
- Numbness in the
Treatment for peripheral artery disease includes: lifestyle measures, medication, angioplasty, and surgery.
Take the Stroke QuizTake the Stroke Quiz to learn about stroke risks, causes, treatment, and most importantly, prevention.
Stroke Symptoms and Treatment
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic). Symptoms of a stroke may include
- double vision or vision loss,
- vertigo, and
- difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
A physical exam, imaging tests, neurological exam, and blood tests may be used to diagnose a stroke. Treatment may include administration of clot-busting drugs, supportive care, and in some instances, neurosurgery. The risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and stopping smoking.
Total Hip ReplacementDuring total hip replacement, diseased hip cartilage and bone is replaced with artificial materials. Risks of the surgery include blood clots in the lower extremities, difficulty with urination, infection, bone fracture, scarring, limited range of motion, and prosthesis failure.