Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets, cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe asthma in children and cognitive impairment in older adults. Causes include not ingesting enough of the vitamin over time, having limited exposure to sunlight, having dark skin, and obesity. Symptoms include bone pain and muscle weakness. Treatment for vitamin D deficiency involves obtaining more vitamin D through supplements, diet, or exposure to sunlight. Read more: Vitamin D Deficiency Article
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Related Disease Conditions
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Pregnancy (Week by Week, Trimesters)
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy vary by stage (trimester). The earliest pregnancy symptom is typically a missed period, but others include breast swelling and tenderness, nausea and sometimes vomiting, fatigue, and bloating. Second trimester symptoms include backache, weight gain, itching, and possible stretch marks. Third trimester symptoms are additional weight gain, heartburn, hemorrhoids, swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face, breast tenderness, and trouble sleeping. Eating a healthy diet, getting a moderate amount of exercise, also are recommended for a healthy pregnancy. Information about the week by week growth of your baby in the womb are provided.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are more than 20% over their ideal weight. That ideal weight must take into account the person's height, age, sex, and build.
Constipation (Relief, Home Remedies, Treatment Medications)
Constipation is defined medically as fewer than three stools per week and severe constipation as less than one stool per week. Constipation usually is caused by the slow movement of stool through the colon. There are many causes of constipation including medications, poor bowel habits, low fiber diets, laxative abuse, and hormonal disorders, and diseases primarily of other parts of the body that also affect the colon.
Osteopenia is a bone condition characterized by bone loss that is not as severe as in osteoporosis. Bone fracture is the typical symptom of osteopenia, though the condition may be present without symptoms. Treatment involves lifestyle modifications (quitting smoking, not drinking in excess) and ensuring an adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium.
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also known as degenerative arthritis. Osteoarthritis can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease.
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large intestine, but which can affect other parts of the digestive system as well. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss are common symptoms.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Life Expectancy
Multiple sclerosis or MS is an autoimmune disorder in which brain and spinal cord nerve cells become demyelinated. This damage results in symptoms that may include numbness, weakness, vertigo, paralysis, and involuntary muscle contractions. Different forms of MS can follow variable courses from relatively benign to life-threatening. MS is treated with disease-modifying therapies. Some MS symptoms can be treated with medications.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Signs, Causes, Diet, and Treatment
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and 40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.
Learn about osteoporosis, a condition characterized by the loss of bone density, which leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. Unless one experiences a fracture, a person may have osteoporosis for decades without knowing it. Treatment for osteoporosis may involve medications that stop bone loss and increase bone strength and bone formation, as well as quitting smoking, regular exercise, cutting back on alcohol intake, and eating a calcium- and vitamin D-rich balanced diet.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease leaves the body malnourished, with bulky and fouls smelling stools, vitamin insufficiency, gas, painful or swollen abdomen, infertility, susceptible to heat emergencies, and respiratory failure. There is no cure for cystic fibrosis, treatment of symptoms is used to manage the disease.
Skin cancers occur when skin cells undergo malignant transformations and grow into tumors. The most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are highly curable when they are diagnosed and treated early. Sun exposure, tanning beds, depressed immune system, radiation exposure, and certain viral infections are risk factors for skin cancer. Skin cancers are treated with surgery or radiation. The prognosis of nonmelanoma skin cancers is generally very good.
An allergy refers to a misguided reaction by our immune system in response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances. When these allergens come in contact with the body, it causes the immune system to develop an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to it. It is estimated that 50 million North Americans are affected by allergic conditions. The parts of the body that are prone to react to allergies include the eyes, nose, lungs, skin, and stomach. Common allergic disorders include hay fever, asthma, allergic eyes, allergic eczema, hives, and allergic shock.
Fatty Liver (NASH)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NASH occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes. Symptoms of fatty liver disease are primarily the complications of cirrhosis of the liver; and may include mental changes, liver cancer, the accumulation of fluid in the body (ascites, edema), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment for fatty liver includes avoiding certain foods and alcohol. Exercise, weight loss, bariatric surgery, and liver transplantation are treatments for fatty liver disease.
Vitamin D Deficiency
Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. The principal types of depression are major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disease (also called manic-depressive disease).
Rickets is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. Infants and children who are exclusively breastfed, have dark skin, and infants born to mothers who are vitamin D deficient are most at risk for developing rickets. Symptoms and signs of rickets include bone pain, delayed teeth formation, short stature, skeletal deformities (bowlegs, abnormally shaped skull), and decreased muscle strength. Treatment of rickets depends upon the cause, but the first step usually involves correcting any abnormal levels of calcium, phosphate, or vitamin D with supplements.
Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Causes of asthma include genetics, environmental factors, personal history of allergies, and other factors. Asthma is diagnosed by a physician based on a patient's family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms.
Erectile Dysfunction (ED, Impotence)
Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) is the failure to achieve or maintain an erection. There are many potential underlying causes of erectile dysfunction, including stress and emotional problems, brain dysfunction, problems with blood supply to the penis, and structural problems with the penis. Erectile dysfunction is diagnosed by taking the patient's history and physical exam. Blood tests measuring kidney function and blood sugar, cholesterol, hormone, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels may be ordered. Urinalysis, ultrasound, and other more sophisticated tests may be required. The treatment of erectile dysfunction depends on the underlying cause. Medications, penile injections, penile implants, and vacuum devices may be used. Treatment for erectile dysfunction is usually successful. The patient should manage heart disease risk factors (high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes) as they are related to erectile dysfunction risk.
Cancer Risk Factors
Though it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person's odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Celiac disease is a condition in which a person has inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa when exposed to gluten in the diet. Symptoms of celiac disease include bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. Treatment is a gluten free diet. Some individuals may have refractory celiac disease in which they do not respond to a gluten free diet.
Vitamins and Calcium Supplements
Vitamins are organic substances that are essential for the proper growth and functioning of the body. Calcium is a mineral essential for healthy bones and is also important for muscle contraction, heart action, and normal blood clotting.
Learn more about cavities including symptoms, treatment, and prevention. See how tooth decay, plaque, and bacteria contribute to the creation of cavities and how regular brushing and flossing can help prevent dental caries.
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Treatment (PBC)
Primary biliary sclerosis (PBC) is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that involves the deterioration of the liver's small bile ducts. These ducts are crucial to transport bile to the small intestine, digesting fats and removing wastes. Symptoms of PBC are: Edema Itching Elevated cholesterol Malabsorption of fat Liver cancer Gallstones Urinary tract infections (UTIs) Hypothyroidism Treatments include ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA); colchicine (Colcrys); and immunosuppressive medications, such as corticosteroids; obeticholic acid (Ocaliva); and medications that treat PBC symptoms. For PBC that is associated with cirrhosis of the liver, liver transplantation may be indicated in extreme cases.
Sunscreens are crucial for sun protection. Sun damage to the skin from exposure to ultraviolet rays is a risk factor for skin cancer and melanoma. To avoid sunburn, people should limit sun exposure during the peak hours of 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., wear protective clothing, and use a sunscreen. People with sensitive skin should use a sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or more.
Asthma in Children
Asthma in children manifests with symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Rates of asthma in children are increasing. Asthma in children is usually diagnosed based on the description of symptoms. Lung function tests may also be used. A variety of medications are used for the treatment of childhood asthma.
Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series
Vitamins and exercise can lower your risk for heart attack and heart disease. Folic acid, vitamins, and homocysteine levels are interconnected and affect your risk for heart disease or heart attack. For better heart health, avoid the following: fried foods, hard margarine, commercial baked goods, most packaged and processed snack foods, high fat dairy, and processed meats such as bacon, sausage, and deli meats. Antioxidants and exercise also play a key role in heart attack and heart disease prevention. Lower your risk factors for heart disease and heart attack by: lowering cholesterol, lowering blood pressure, diabetes prevention, and smoking cesssation. Here are a few things you can do to prevent heart attacks: Eat whole, natural, fresh foods, eat five to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, eat more omega-3 fatty acids, drink water, tea, non-fat dairy and red wine, eat lean proteins, limit glycemic foods, and exercise daily.
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Prevention & Wellness
- How to Keep Your Bones Strong and Prevent Fractures
- AHA News: Stroke May Lead to Lower Vitamin D
- How Does Sunshine During Pregnancy Affect Learning?
- Low Vitamin D at Birth Linked to Kids' High Blood Pressure Risk
- Vitamin D Supplements May Not Help Your Heart
- For One Man, Too Much Vitamin D Was Disastrous
- Health Tip: Build Stronger Bones
- Daily Vitamin D Could Be a Lifesaver for Some COPD Patients
- Could You Be Short on Vitamin D?
- Healthful Diet & Healthy Bones
- Health Tip: Get More Vitamin D
- Vitamin D Supplements Won't Build Bone Health in Older Adults: Study
- Vitamin D No Panacea for Brain Diseases
- No Proof Vitamin D Lowers Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: Study
- Could More Vitamin D Help Prevent Breast Cancer?
- Vitamin D Deficiency Could Be Lung Disease Risk
- Vitamin D May Guard Against Colon Cancer
- Vitamin D May Lower Miscarriage Risk
- Lower Vitamin D Levels Linked to More Belly Fat
- First Drug for Rare Form of Rickets Approved by FDA
- The Dynamic Duo: Calcium and Vitamin D
- Vitamin D3 May Benefit Heart Surgery Patients
- Lack of Vitamin D Can Sideline College Football Players
- Vitamin D Supplements May Make Arteries Healthier
- Seniors Don't Need Calcium, Vitamin D Supplements: Review
- When Treating Infertility, Vitamin D Levels May Be Key
- Could Fish Oil, Vitamin D Help Ease Lupus?
- Higher Doses of Vitamin D May Boost Preemies' Bone Health
- Exercise, Not Vitamin D, Recommended to Prevent Falls
- High-Dose Vitamin D May Not Curb Kids' Colds
- Could Your Office Job Rob You of Vitamin D?
- Many Americans May Be Taking Too Much Vitamin D
- Vitamin D Fails the Asthma Test
- Exercise and Vitamin D: A Heart-Healthy Combo
- Health Tip: How to Get Enough Vitamin D
- High-Dose Vitamin D Failed to Curb Heart Disease in Study
- High Doses of Vitamin D Fail to Cut Cancer Risk, Study Finds
- Many College Football Players Lack Vitamin D: Study
- Older Bones Benefit From Dairy Plus Vitamin D
- Don't Skip Veggies in Winter
- Vitamin D Pumps Up Muscles
- Vitamin D Linked to Lower Risk of Respiratory Infections
- Could Low Vitamin D Levels at Birth Mean Higher MS Risk?
- Vitamin D May Affect Breast Cancer Survival
- Low Vitamin D Levels May Raise Bladder Cancer Risk: Study
- Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking Birth Control
- Vitamin Deficiencies Common in Young Migraine Sufferers
- Men Miss Out on Bone Loss Screening
- Tanning May Limit Skin's Ability to Produce Vitamin D: Study
- Vitamin D Boosts Heart Function in Study
- Vitamin D a No Go for Arthritic Knees, Study Finds
- Low Prenatal Vitamin D Linked to Later MS in Offspring
- Low Vitamin D Levels May Signal More Aggressive Prostate Cancer
- Vitamin D While Pregnant Won't Boost Most Infants' Bone Health, Study Says
- Prenatal Diet Rich in Vitamin D May Cut Allergy Risk in Kids: Study
- Prenatal Vitamin D Supplements May Not Lower Baby's Asthma Risk: Study
- Could Higher Vitamin D Doses Harm Seniors Prone to Falls?
- Could High-Dose Vitamin D Help Fight Multiple Sclerosis?
- When and Where of Weight-Loss Surgery May Affect Vitamin D Levels
- IBS Linked to Low Vitamin D
- Vitamin D Won't Guard Against Colds in People With Asthma
- Vitamin D Deficiency Might Be Tied to Erectile Dysfunction
- Scientists Pinpoint What Level of Vitamin D Promotes Heart Health
- Vitamin D, Calcium May Not Prevent Colon Cancer After All
- Too Little Vitamin D May Hasten Mental Decline
- Fewer Seniors Fall While Taking Vitamin D: Study
- Vitamin D Supplements Little Help for Obese Teens, Study Finds
- Vitamin D Supplements Won't Strengthen Older Women's Bones: Study
- Health Tip: Get Enough Vitamin D
- Vitamin D, Calcium Don't Reduce Menopause Symptoms
- Vitamin D Levels Tied to Survival in Seriously Ill Cats
- Vitamin D Supplements Might Help Some Lose Weight
- Little Risk of Vitamin D Toxicity, Study Says
- Exercise, But Not Vitamin D, Cuts Injuries From Falls in Older Women: Study
- Vitamin D Supplements Might Slow Prostate Cancer, Study Suggests
- Vitamin D Won't Help Fight High Blood Pressure, Researchers Say
- Low Levels of Vitamin D Linked to Type 2 Diabetes Risk
- Low Vitamin D Levels in Stroke Survivors a Bad Sign, Study Finds
- Low Vitamin D Levels in Childhood May Raise Heart Risks: Study
- Vitamin D May Boost Colon Cancer Survival, Study Finds
- Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Risk of Preterm Birth in Study
- Low Levels of Vitamin D May Raise Early Death Risk: Study
- Health Tip: Think You're Getting Enough Calcium?
- Vitamin D May Not Prevent Return of Women's Infection After All
- Vitamin D Might Help Kids With Eczema
- Could Vitamin D Make Childbirth Less Painful?
- Gene Study Finds No Proof Vitamin D Guards Against Type 2 Diabetes
- Women's Vitamin D Levels May Play Role in IVF Success
- Low Vitamin D Levels May Boost Alzheimer's Risk, Study Finds
- Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to High Blood Pressure
- Vitamin D: A Key to a Longer Life?
- Prom Isn't a Good Reason to Hit the Tanning Salon
- Vitamin D Supplements May Not Help Ease Asthma
- Vitamin D May Not Lower Seniors' Fall Risk
- Too Little Vitamin D May Add to Obesity's Burden
- Jury Still Out on Benefits of Vitamin D
- Vitamin D Deficiency May Be Linked to Heart Disease
- Low Vitamin D Could Up Risk for Birth Complication: Study
- Vitamin D Supplements: FAQ
- Vitamin D Supplements Don't Help Your Health: Review
- Vitamin D Levels Linked to Parkinson's Symptoms
- Vitamin D May Slow Multiple Sclerosis, Study Suggests
- Vitamin D Supplements May Help Ease Fibromyalgia Pain: Study
- Vitamin D Supplements Won't Help Prevent Disease: Review
- Vitamin D Deficiency Might Be Overdiagnosed in Blacks, Study Suggests
- Low Vitamin D Tied to Anemia Risk in Kids
- Study: Vitamin D Supplements May Not Raise Risk for Kidney Stones
- No Sign That Vitamin D Supplements Help Aging Bones: Study
- Vitamin D Alone Doesn't Boost Bone Health, Study Says
- Vitamin D Deficiency Often Seen in Traumatic Bone Breaks
- Calcium Plus Vitamin D Won't Cure Joint Pain, Study Finds
- Vitamin D Supplements Don't Lower Blood Pressure: Study
- Too Little Vitamin D May Hasten Disability as You Age
- Heart Dangers of Low Vitamin D Levels May Vary
- Women on Hormone Therapy May Benefit From Extra Calcium, Vitamin D
- Vitamin D Levels Vary by Season
- Extra Vitamin D May Ease Crohn's Symptoms, Study Finds
- Study Looks at Vitamin D Needs in Breast-Fed Babies
- Vitamin D May Help Prevent Uterine Fibroids
- Vitamin D Important During Pregnancy, Study Suggests
- Vitamin D Levels in Pregnancy May Not Affect Kids' Future Bone Health
- Healthy Older Women Advised Against Taking Calcium
- Women's Vitamin D Needs Don't Vary By Race, Study Finds
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- Vitamin D Loss Attributed to Obesity
- Vitamin D Doesn't Improve Knee Arthritis, Study Finds
- Low Vitamin D in Early Pregnancy Tied to Lower Birth Weight
- Low Vitamin D More Common in Overweight Kids
- Vitamin D Levels Linked to Daytime Sleepiness
- Vitamin D in Pregnancy May Be Key to Women's Risk for MS, Study Says
- Obese Children Struggle With Joint Pain: Study
- Health Issues Add to Risk of Vitamin D Deficiency, Study Says
- Millions May Be Taking Vitamin D Unnecessarily, Analysis Suggests
- Strike Vitamin D Off the List for Cold Prevention?
- Vitamin D in Pregnancy May Be Key for Baby's Brain
- Vitamin D in Pregnancy Critical for Brain Development, Study Says
- Vitamin D Supplements Won't Help Cholesterol Levels: Study
- Vitamin D May Thwart Kids' Winter Colds
- Calcium, Vitamin D Supplements May Pose Risks for Men With Prostate Cancer
- Vitamin D Deficiency Common in Sick Kids
- Low Vitamin D Levels May Raise Death Risk in Older Adults: Study
- Vitamin D May Delay Deterioration of Smokers' Lungs: Study
- Higher Doses of Vitamin D Prevent Fractures in Older Women
- Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Depression
- Low Vitamin D Linked to Weight Gain in Older Women
- Could Sunlight Lower Your Odds for Pancreatic Cancer?
- Vitamin D With Calcium May Boost Survival
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- Exercise, Vitamin D Can Lower Fall Risk in Elderly
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- More Insight on Possible Role of Vitamin D Against Alzheimer's
- Vitamin D May Cut Stress Fracture Risk in Girls
- Lack of Vitamin D May Harm Older Women's Health
- Vitamin D May Ease Painful Periods
- Vitamin D May Not Boost Heart Health in Kidney Patients
- Low Vitamin D in Pregnancy Linked to Language Problems in Children
- Sunny Skies Linked to Lower Stroke Risk
- Study: Vitamin D Has No Clear Benefit for COPD Patients
- Too Much Vitamin D Could Be Harmful to Heart
- Low Levels of Vitamin D May Be Linked to Depression
- Are the Benefits of Vitamin D Overhyped?
- Tanning Booths Increase Risk of Most Common Skin Cancer
- Low Vitamin D May Raise Diabetes Risk in Kids
- Southerners May Be Less Likely to Have Crohn's
- Research Sheds Light on Vitamin D's Role in Immunity
- Pale People at Risk for Vitamin D Deficiency
- Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Advanced Cancers
- Pregnant Women Don't Need Vitamin D Screening
- New Guidelines Suggest Higher Doses of Vitamin D
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- Low Vitamin D at Birth Linked to Lung Infections
- Use of Dietary Supplements on the Rise
- Low Vitamin D Linked to Allergy Risk in Kids
- Women With MS More Likely to Have Gene Mutation
- Vitamin D May Improve Asthma Control
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