- What other names is Verbena known by?
- What is Verbena?
- How does Verbena work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Verbena.
Blue Vervain, Common Verbena, Common Vervain, Eisenkraut, Enchanter's Plant, European Vervain, Herb of Grace, Herb of the Cross, Herba Verbenae, Herbe aux Enchantements, Herbe du Foie, Herbe Sacrée, Herbe aux Sorciers, Herbe à Tous les Maux, Herbe du Sang, Herbe de Vénus, Holywort, Juno's Tears, Ma Bian Cao, Pigeon's Grass, Pigeonweed, Simpler's Joy, Turkey Grass, Veine de Vénus, Verbenae Herba, Verbena officinalis, Vervain, Verveine, Verveine Commune, Verveine des Champs, Verveine Officinale, Yerba de Santa Ana.
Verbena is a plant. The parts that grow above ground are used to make medicine.
Some people apply verbena directly to the skin to treat poorly healing wounds, abscesses and burns; for arthritis, joint pain (rheumatism), dislocations, bone bruises (contusions), and itching. Verbena is also used as a gargle for cold symptoms and other conditions of the mouth and throat.
In combination with gentian root, European elder flower, cowslip flower, and sorrel, verbena is used for maintaining healthy sinuses and treating inflamed or swollen sinuses (sinusitis).
In manufacturing, verbena flowers are used as a flavoring agent in alcoholic beverages.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Nasal swelling (sinusitis). Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing verbena, gentian root, elderflower, cowslip flower, and sorrel (SinuComp, Sinupret) by mouth along with antibiotics and nasal decongestants helps treat sudden or ongoing sinusitis better than the standard medications alone.
- Sore throat.
- Whooping cough.
- Chest pain.
- Other conditions.
Verbena contains chemicals that might reduce inflammation.
Verbena is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in food amounts and POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in small amounts as part of a combination product containing gentian root, elderflower, sorrel, and cowslip flower (SinuComp, Sinupret). There isn't enough information to know if verbena is safe when used in medicinal amounts other than as part of the combination product. The combination product can cause digestive system upset and occasionally allergic skin rash.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking verbena if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Verbena might slow down how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking verbena along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects from some medications. Before taking verbena, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking medications that are changed by the liver.
Medications that might be affected include cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, barbiturates, bromobenzene, and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For sinus infections: the combination of 36 mg of verbena plus 12 mg of gentian root and 36 mg each of elderflower, sorrel, and cowslip flower three times daily.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Carnat, A., Carnat, A. P., Chavignon, O., Heitz, A., Wylde, R., and Lamaison, J. L. Luteolin 7-diglucuronide, the major flavonoid compound from Aloysia triphylla and Verbena officinalis. Planta Med 1995;61(5):490. View abstract.
Castro-Gamboa, I. and Castro, O. Iridoids from the aerial parts of Verbena littoralis (Verbenaceae). Phytochemistry 2004;65(16):2369-2372. View abstract.
De Oliveira, A. C., Ribeiro-Pinto, L. F., and Paumgartten, J. R. In vitro inhibition of CYP2B1 monooxygenase by beta-myrcene and other monoterpenoid compounds. Toxicol Lett 6-16-1997;92(1):39-46. View abstract.
De Oliveira, A. C., Ribeiro-Pinto, L. F., Otto, S. S., Goncalves, A., and Paumgartten, F. J. Induction of liver monooxygenases by beta-myrcene. Toxicology 12-26-1997;124(2):135-140. View abstract.
el Hela, A. A., Sowinski, P., and Krauze-Baranowska, M. Iridoids and phenylethanoids of Verbena bipinnatifida nutt. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2000;57(1):65-68. View abstract.
Grases, F., Melero, G., Costa-Bauza, A., Prieto, R., and March, J. G. Urolithiasis and phytotherapy. Int Urol Nephrol 1994;26(5):507-511. View abstract.
Guarrera, P. M., Forti, G., and Marignoli, S. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy). J Ethnopharmacol. 1-15-2005;96(3):429-444. View abstract.
Kawashty, S. A. and El Garf, I. A. The flavonoid chemosystematics of Egyptian Verbena species. Biochem.Syst.Ecol. 11-1-2000;28(9):919-921. View abstract.
KING, N. M., CHATTERJEE, A., and PARKS, L. M. A note on the isolation of ursolic acid from Verbena stricta, Vent. J Am.Pharm.Assoc.Am.Pharm.Assoc. 1950;39(10):595. View abstract.
Li, Y. and Ohizumi, Y. Search for constituents with neurotrophic factor-potentiating activity from the medicinal plants of paraguay and Thailand. Yakugaku Zasshi 2004;124(7):417-424. View abstract.
Li, Y. S., Matsunaga, K., Ishibashi, M., and Ohizumi, Y. Littoralisone, a novel neuritogenic iridolactone having an unprecedented heptacyclic skeleton including four- and nine-membered rings consisting of glucose from Verbena littoralis. J Org.Chem. 3-23-2001;66(6):2165-2167. View abstract.
Li, Y. S., Matsunaga, K., Kato, R., and Ohizumi, Y. Potentiation of nerve growth factor-induced elongation of neurites by gelsemiol and 9-hydroxysemperoside aglucone in PC12D cells. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53(6):915-919. View abstract.
Li, Y. S., Matsunaga, K., Kato, R., and Ohizumi, Y. Verbenachalcone, a novel dimeric dihydrochalcone with potentiating activity on nerve growth factor-action from Verbena littoralis. J Nat.Prod. 2001;64(6):806-808. View abstract.
Li, Y., Ishibashi, M., Chen, X., and Ohizumi, Y. Littorachalcone, a new enhancer of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, from Verbena littoralis. Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo) 2003;51(7):872-874. View abstract.
Li, Y., Ishibashi, M., Satake, M., Chen, X., Oshima, Y., and Ohizumi, Y. Sterol and triterpenoid constituents of Verbena littoralis with NGF-potentiating activity. J Nat.Prod. 2003;66(5):696-698. View abstract.
Li, Y., Ishibashi, M., Satake, M., Oshima, Y., and Ohizumi, Y. A new iridoid glycoside with nerve growth factor-potentiating activity, gelsemiol 6'-trans-caffeoyl-1-glucoside, from Verbena littoralis. Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo) 2003;51(9):1103-1105. View abstract.
Liu, C. H. and Liu, Y. [Determination of ursolic acid in herba of Verbena officinalis by HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2002;27(12):916-918. View abstract.
Mangion, I. K. and MacMillan, D. W. Total synthesis of brasoside and littoralisone. J Am Chem Soc 3-23-2005;127(11):3696-3697. View abstract.
Michael, H. N., Salib, J. Y., and Ishak, M. S. New methoxyflavone glycosides from Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. Pharmazie 2001;56(4):348-349. View abstract.
Miyazawa, M., Sugie, A., and Shimada, T. Roles of human CYP2A6 and 2B6 and rat CYP2C11 and 2B1 in the 10-hydroxylation of (-)-verbenone by liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003;31(8):1049-1053. View abstract.
Paumgartten, F. J., De Carvalho, R. R., Souza, C. A., Madi, K., and Chahoud, I. Study of the effects of beta-myrcene on rat fertility and general reproductive performance. Braz.J Med Biol Res 1998;31(7):955-965. View abstract.
Potter, P. C., Mather, S., Lockey, P., and Knottenbelt, J. D. IgE-mediated contact hypersensitivity to a 62-kilodalton allergen in Verbena hybrida. S.Afr.Med J 1992;82(6):482. View abstract.
Potter, P. C., Mather, S., Lockey, P., Knottenbelt, J. D., Paulsen, E., Skov, P. S., and Andersen, K. E. Immediate and delayed contact hypersensitivity to verbena plants. Contact Dermatitis 1995;33(5):343-346. View abstract.
Prakash, A. O. [Biological evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for contraceptive efficacy in females]. Contracept.Fertil.Sex (Paris) 1985;13(4):649-655. View abstract.
Tian, J., Zhao, Y. M., and Luan, X. H. [Studies on the chemical constitutents in herb of Verbena officinalis]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30(4):268-269. View abstract.
WINDE, E., ECHAUST, I., and HAENSEL, R. [Verbena officinalis: occurrence of adenosine and beta-carotene. On the problem of "verbenin" described by Kuwajima.]. Arch Pharm. 1961;294/66:220-229. View abstract.
Zhang, T., Ruan, J. L., and Lu, Z. M. [Studies on chemical constituents of aerial parts of Verbena officinalis L.]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2000;25(11):676-678. View abstract.
Argento A, Tiraferri E, Marzaloni M. [Oral anticoagulants and medicinal plants. An emerging interaction]. Ann Ital Med Int. 2000;15:139-43. View abstract.
Auf'mkolk M, Ingbar JC, Amir SM, et al. Inhibition by certain plant extracts of the binding and adenylate cyclase stimulatory effect of bovine thyrotropin in human thyroid membranes. Endocrinology. 1984 Aug;115:527-34. View abstract.
Chiou WF, Lin LC, Chen CF. Acteoside protects endothelial cells against free radical-induced oxidative stress. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:743-8. View abstract.
Deepak M, Handa SS. Antiinflammatory activity and chemical composition of extracts of Verbena officinalis. Phytother Res 2000;14:463-5. View abstract.
Del Pozo MD, Gastaminza G, Navarro JA, et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from Verbena officinalis L. Contact Dermatitis 1994;31:200-1. View abstract.
Dudai N, Weinstein Y, Krup M, et al. Citral is a new inducer of caspase-3 in tumor cell lines. Planta Med 2005;71:484-8. View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Hernandez NE, Tereschuk ML, Abdala LR. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Tafi del Valle (Tucuman, Argentina). J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73:317-22. View abstract.
Hurrell RF, Reddy M, Cook JD. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr 1999;81:289-95. View abstract.
Lee KJ, Woo ER, Choi CY, et al. Protective effect of acteoside on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Life Sci 2004;74:1051-64. View abstract.
Marz RW, Ismail C, Popp MA. Action profile and efficacy of a herbal combination preparation for the treatment of sinusitis. Wien Med Wochenschr 1999;149:202-8. View abstract.
Nakamura T, Okuyama E, Tsukada A, et al. Acteoside as the analgesic principle of Cedron (Lippia triphylla), a Peruvian medicinal plant. Chem Pharm Bull 1997;45:499-504.
Neubauer N, Marz RW. Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, clincal trial with Sinupret sugar coated tablets on the basis of a therapy with antibiotics and decongestant nasal drops in acute sinusitis. Phytomedicine 1994;1:177-81.
Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1998;217:369-78. View abstract.