Vasculitis (Arteritis, Angiitis)

  • Medical Author:
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

  • Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Vasculitis facts

  • Vasculitis is the designation given to a group of uncommon diseases which result in inflammation of the blood vessels.
  • Symptoms of vasculitis vary greatly and depend upon the organs affected and the severity of the disease.
  • Diagnosis of vasculitis can be confirmed by a biopsy of involved tissue or angiography.
  • Treatment is directed toward decreasing the inflammation of the blood vessels and improving the function of affected organs.

What is vasculitis?

Vasculitis is a general term for a group of uncommon diseases that feature inflammation of the blood vessels. The blood vessels of the body are referred to as the vascular system. The blood vessels are comprised of arteries that pass oxygen-rich blood to the tissues of the body and veins that return oxygen-depleted blood from the tissues to the lungs for oxygen. Vasculitis is characterized by inflammation in and damage to the walls of various blood vessels.

Each of the vasculitis diseases is defined by certain patterns of distribution of blood vessel involvement, particular organ involvement, and laboratory test abnormalities. As a group, these diseases are referred to as vasculitides.

The word vasculitis is derived from the Latin "vasculum", vessel + "- itis", inflammation. Another term for vasculitis is angiitis. When arteries are the inflamed blood vessels, the condition is also referred to as arteritis. When the veins are inflamed, it is referred to as venulitis.

What causes vasculitis, and what are examples of diseases with vasculitis?

The actual cause of these vasculitis diseases is usually not known. However, immune system abnormality and inflammation of blood vessels are common features. Each form of vasculitis has its own characteristic pattern of symptoms, much of which depends on what particular organs are affected.

Examples of vasculitis include:

Vasculitis can also accompany:

Quick GuideRheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Symptoms & Treatment

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Vasculitis Symptoms

Numbness fingers, one of vasculitis symptoms

Numbness of the fingers typically is a result of conditions that affect the nerves and/or blood vessels that supply the hand. Numbness of the fingers is often associated with tingling.

What are the symptoms of vasculitis?

The symptoms of vasculitis vary greatly from person to person, and depend upon the organs affected and the severity.

How is vasculitis diagnosed?

Laboratory testing of blood or body fluids in a patient with active vasculitis generally indicates inflammation in the body. Depending on the degree of organ involvement, a variety of organ function tests can be abnormal.

The diagnosis of vasculitis is definitively established after a biopsy of involved tissue demonstrates the pattern of blood vessel inflammation. Examples of tissues used for biopsy include skin, sinuses, lung, nerve, and kidney. Depending upon the situation, an alternative to biopsy can be an X-ray test of the blood vessels called an angiogram, which can demonstrate characteristic patterns of inflammation in affected blood vessels.

How is vasculitis treated?

The treatment of the various forms of vasculitis is based on the severity of the illness and the organs involved. Treatments are generally directed toward stopping the inflammation and suppressing the immune system. Typically, cortisone-related medications, such as prednisone , are used. Additionally, other immune suppression drugs, such as cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) and others, are considered. Additionally, affected organs (such as the heart or lungs) may require specific medical treatment when the disease is active.

The management of vasculitis is an evolving field in medicine. The ideal programs for monitoring and treatment will continue to improve as disease patterns and causes are defined by medical research.

Medically reviewed by Robert J. Bryg, MD; Board Certified Internal Medicine with subspecialty in Cardiovascular Disease

REFERENCES:

Koopman, W. J., et al. Clinical Primer of Rheumatology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2003

Gary. S., et.al. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. Elsevier Saunders. Firestein, 2012

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Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Symptoms & Treatment

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Reviewed on 8/11/2016
References
Medically reviewed by Robert J. Bryg, MD; Board Certified Internal Medicine with subspecialty in Cardiovascular Disease

REFERENCES:

Koopman, W. J., et al. Clinical Primer of Rheumatology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2003

Gary. S., et.al. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. Elsevier Saunders. Firestein, 2012

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