Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Travel Health Slideshow: 25 Ways to Stay Well Abroad
Explore travel health tips and vaccines to prevent disease while abroad. Learn to protect yourself against malaria, hepatitis,...
Picture of Rubella 1
The constellation of abnormalities caused by infection with the rubella (German measles) virus before birth. See a picture of...
Picture of Measles
An acute and highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, and a spreading skin rash. See...
Picture of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection (Face)
Multiple, very pruritic, erythematous papules, vesicles (“dewdrops on a rose petal”), and crusted papules on erythematous,...
Picture of Rubella 2
Petechiae on the hard palate of the same individual (Forchheimer's sign). See a picture of Rubella and learn more about the...
Picture of Varicella (Chickenpox) Virus
A highly infectious viral disease, known familiarly as chickenpox. See a picture of the Varicella (Chicken Pox) Virus and learn...
Picture of Varicella Chicken Pox
Varicella Chickenpox is caused by a virus of the herpes group. The disease is highly contagious and is spread by droplet or...
Picture of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection on Chest Wall
Typical grouped vesicles and pustules with erythema and edema of three contiguous thoracic dermatomes on the posterior chest...
Picture of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection Close-Up
Grouped and confluent vesicles surrounding erythema on the chest wall. See a Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection: Close-Up and learn...
Related Disease Conditions
Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches are considered primary headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by disease. Headache symptoms vary with the headache type. Over-the-counter pain relievers provide short-term relief for most headaches.
Genital Warts (HPV) Infection in Women
Genital warts is a sexually transmitted infection (STI, STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). It is the most common STD in the US. The warts can appear anywhere on the skin where sexual contact has occurred. The warts look like raised, flesh-colored lumps or bumps that have a cauliflower-like appearance. Signs and symptoms of genital warts in women include vaginal, vulva, or groin pain, itching, and burning where the wart(s) is. Treatment can remove warts or lesions, but it does not prevent spread of the virus, and the warts usually grow back. Removing genital warts does not prevent the infection from spreading elsewhere on the body. There is no cure for genital warts, and there is no vaccine to prevent them; however, there is a vaccine to prevent infection from four common types of HPV. Gardasil vaccine available for female adolescents and teens to prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer.
Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a painful rash caused by the varicella zoster virus. Other shingles symptoms include headache, fever, nausea, and body aches. Treatment focuses on pain management and shortening the duration of the illness with antiviral medications.
Fever in Adults and Children
Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal; rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease-producing organisms.
Pregnancy (Week by Week, Trimesters)
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy vary by stage (trimester). The earliest pregnancy symptom is typically a missed period, but others include breast swelling and tenderness, nausea and sometimes vomiting, fatigue, and bloating. Second trimester symptoms include backache, weight gain, itching, and possible stretch marks. Third trimester symptoms are additional weight gain, heartburn, hemorrhoids, swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face, breast tenderness, and trouble sleeping. Eating a healthy diet, getting a moderate amount of exercise, also are recommended for a healthy pregnancy. Information about the week by week growth of your baby in the womb are provided.
An allergy refers to a misguided reaction by our immune system in response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances. When these allergens come in contact with the body, it causes the immune system to develop an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to it. It is estimated that 50 million North Americans are affected by allergic conditions. The parts of the body that are prone to react to allergies include the eyes, nose, lungs, skin, and stomach. Common allergic disorders include hay fever, asthma, allergic eyes, allergic eczema, hives, and allergic shock.
Chickenpox (chicken pox) is a contagious childhood disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Symptoms have an incubation period of 14 to 16 days and include a couple days of mild fever, weakness, and red, raised rash that progresses to blisters that eventually burst and crust over. Complications include bacterial infection of the open sores, scarring, encephalitis, nerve palsies, and Reye's syndrome.
Cervical Cancer (Cancer of the Cervix)
Cervical cancer is cancer of the entrance to the womb (uterus) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Regular pelvic exams, Pap testing and screening can detect precancerous changes in the cervix. Cervical cancer can be prevented by a vaccine. The most common signs and symptoms are an increase in vaginal discharge, painful sex, and postmenopausal bleeding. The prognosis and survival rate depends upon the stage at which the cancer was diagnosed.
Cholera is an infectious disease characterized by intense vomiting and profuse watery diarrhea and that rapidly lease to dehydration and often death. Cholera is caused by infection with the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, which may be transmitted via infected fecal matter, food, or water.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease leaves the body malnourished, with bulky and fouls smelling stools, vitamin insufficiency, gas, painful or swollen abdomen, infertility, susceptible to heat emergencies, and respiratory failure. There is no cure for cystic fibrosis, treatment of symptoms is used to manage the disease.
Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is typically caused by the consumption of contaminated foods. Symptoms of salmonellosis include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Salmonellosis typically resolves on its own in four to seven days. It's important to increase one's fluid intake to compensate for the fluid lost by vomiting and/or diarrhea.
Typhoid fever is an illness caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. The illness is contracted by ingesting the bacteria in contaminated water or food. Symptoms include headaches, fever, diarrhea, lethargy, aches and pains, and poor appetite. Treatment focuses on killing the Salmonella bacteria with antibiotics.
Measles (rubeola) is a highly contagious disease that's caused by a virus. Symptoms include a rash, high fever, cough, runny nose, and red eyes. Treatment focuses on symptom relief. The disease can be prevented with the measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox (varicella) vaccine (MMRV).
Mumps is an acute viral illness caused by the mumps virus. Symptoms and signs of mumps include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss of appetite, followed by swelling of the salivary glands.
Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes that cover the spinal cord and brain. Symptoms include fever, headache, and a stiff neck. Treatment of meningitis depends upon the cause of the infection and may include antibiotics or antiviral medications.
Mercury is a naturally occurring element found in water, soil, and the air. Mercury also is contained in some fish, some of the products we use in the home, school, or dentist. Mercury poisoning can cause cognitive problems, dermatitis, tremor and other symptoms. Information about sources of mercury exposure, potential health effects, symptoms of exposure, fish that may contain mercury, consumer products that contain mercury, and ways to reduce your exposure to mercury is important for the health of you, and your family.
Hepatitis A (HAV, Hep A)
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis A (HAV, Hep A) is one type of liver disease caused by a virus. Since hepatitis A is a virus, it can pass from person to person from eating or drinking contaminated food or coming into contact with contaminated materials containing the virus. Symptoms of hepatitis A include stomach pain, diarrhea, dark yellow urine, jaundice, and more. There is a vaccine to prevent contracting hepatitis A.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that affects a number of different areas of the body at one time, and can be fatal. Causes of anaphylaxis can be food allergy, latex allergy, allergy to insect or but stings/bites, asthma, or other materials or conditions. Symptoms include flushing, itching, hives, anxiety, rapid or irregular pulse. Severe symptoms may be throat and tongue swelling, swallowing, and difficulty breathing. Some disorders appear similar to anaphylaxis such as fainting, panic attacks, blood clots in the lungs, heart attacks, and septic shock. If you think that you may be having an anaphylactic reaction, seek emergency care or call 911 immediately.
Tetanus is an often-fatal disease caused by nerve toxins produced by the common bacteria Clostridium tetani. In a 7-day period after infection, a person experiences muscle spasms, restlessness, headache, irritability, then lockjaw, and the lungs stop functioning. Tetanus is treatable with antibiotics and drainage. Sedation is often give to stop muscle spasms.
Rabies is a viral disease that is transmitted via the bite of an infected animal. Symptoms include fever, headaches, and weakness. Treatment involves a series of injections: rabies immune globulin and four rabies vaccines administered over 2 weeks.
Influenza (flu) is a respiratory illness caused by a virus. Flu symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. The flu may be prevented with an annual influenza vaccination.
Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
Whooping cough (pertussis) is highly contagious respiratory infection that is caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis. There are an estimated 300,000 plus deaths annually from whooping cough (pertussis). Whooping cough commonly affects infants and young children but can be prevented with immunization with the vaccine. First stage whooping cough symptoms are a runny nose, sneezing, low-grade fever, a mild cough with the cough gradually becoming more severe. After one to two weeks, the second stage of whooping cough begins.
What Is Lyme Disease in Humans?
Lyme disease is a bacterial illness, which is spread by ticks when they bite the skin. Initially the disease affects the skin causing a reddish rash associated with flu-like symptoms. It takes weeks to months after the initial redness of the skin for its effects to spread throughout the body. Lyme disease can be treated with antibiotics. Lyme disease can be prevented by using tick avoidance techniques.
Anthrax is a deadly infectious disease that may be transmitted to humans by infected animals or by biological warfare. There are three types of anthrax: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Symptoms of cutaneous anthrax include a swollen glands, muscle ache, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and a red-brown raised spot that enlarges, blisters, and hardens, forming an ulcer crater with black crust. Symptoms of inhalation anthrax are flu-like and may progress to respiratory distress, shock, coma, and death. Symptoms of gastrointestinal anthrax include loss of appetite, bloody diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Treatment for cutaneous anthrax involves penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxin. Inhalation anthrax necessitates treatment with IV therapy with antibiotics.
A polio infection causes symptoms and signs such as paralysis, limb deformities, and even death. There is no curative treatment for polio. Treatment focuses on pain control, bed rest, and physical therapy.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children throughout the world. Almost all children have become infected with rotavirus by their third birthday. Repeat infections with different viral strains are possible, and most children have several episodes of rotavirus infection in the first years of life. Children between the ages of six and 24 months are at greatest risk for developing severe disease from rotavirus infection. Rotavirus symptoms include: fever, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Rotavirus infection can be associated with severe dehydration in infants and children.
Hepatitis B (HBV, Hep B)
The hepatitis B virus (HBV, hep B) is a unique, coated DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The course of the virus is determined primarily by the age at which the infection is acquired and the interaction between the virus and the body's immune system. Successful treatment is associated with a reduction in liver injury and fibrosis (scarring), a decreased likelihood of developing cirrhosis and its complications, including liver cancer, and a prolonged survival.
Adenovirus infections are common and often have no symptoms. Adenoviruses cause illnesses like bladder infections, diarrhea, pneumonia, bronchitis, pinkeye, colds, encephalitis, sore throat, and meningitis. Signs and symptoms of an adenovirus infection depend on the type of virus causing the infection. Treatment focuses on supportive care. A vaccine against adenovirus type 4 and 7 is available only to U.S. military personnel.
Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations
Hepatitis A and hepatitis B are the two most commnon viruses that infect the liver. Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B can be prevented and treated with immunizations (vaccinations) such as Havrix, Vaqta, Twinrix, Comvax, Pediarix, and hepatitis b immune globulin (HBIG).
Meningococcemia (Meningococcal Disease)
Meningococcemia is a bloodstream infection caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcemia symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and body aches. Meningococcemia is treated with intravenous antibiotics. There is an effective and safe vaccine to protect against most serogroups of meningococcus that cause meningococcemia.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (in Children and Adults)
Autism in children and adults is a developmental disorder, characterized by impaired development in communication, social interaction, and behavior. Autism is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), which is part of a broad spectrum of developmental disorders affecting young children and adults. There are numerous theories and studies about the cause of autism. The treatment model for autism is an educational program that is suitable to an individual's developmental level of performance. There is no "cure" for autism.
Uveitis is inflammation of the eye. Symptoms include blurred vision, eye pain, eye redness, photophobia, and floaters. Treatment may involve prescription eyedrops, antibiotics, and wearing dark glasses.
Diphtheria is a disease that causes symptoms and signs such as fever, enlarged lymph nodes, and swallowing problems. Erythromycin is the primary treatment for diphtheria. Vaccines that prevent diphtheria include the DTaP, Tdap, DT, and Td.
Monkeypox is a viral disease that causes symptoms such as fever, sweating, and a rash with papules and pustules on the face and chest. PCR, ELISA, or Western blot tests are used to diagnose monkeypox. Treatment usually involves administering a smallpox vaccination, cidofovir, and possibly vaccinia immune globulin.
Smallpox is a disease caused by the variola virus. Symptoms and signs include: a characteristic rash and high fever. Treatment focuses on supporting the patient. Smallpox may be prevented with the ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine.
Yellow fever is an infectious disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. Side effects are rare with the yellow fever vaccine. Symptoms include fever, chills, back pain, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms.
Travelers should prepare for their trip by visiting their physician to get the proper vaccinations and obtain the necessary medication if they have a medical condition or chronic disease. Diseases that travelers may pick up from contaminated water or food, insect or animal bites, or from other people include: malaria, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, polio, and cholera.
Asbestos (Exposure Dangers, Testing, Symptoms)
Asbestos is a mineral fiber that is found in soil and rock. Asbestos exposure occurs when asbestos fibers are disturbed and released into the air then and inhaled. Inhaling asbestos fibers causes three lung diseases; asbestosis, lung cancer, and noncancerous lung disease. In asbestosis, the asbestos fibers scar the lungs. Asbestosis and lung cancer have the same symptoms of cough and shortness of breath.Asbestosis progresses slowly, frequently even 20 to 40 years after asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure include can come from a variety of products, for example, drinking water due to the decay of asbestos cement in water mains and erosion of natural deposits (which increases your risk of developing benign intestinal polyps), insulation, vinyl floor tiles, some paints and patching compounds, oil and coal furnaces and doors, heat-resistant fabrics, and automobiles brakes and clutches. Some uses of asbestos are banned; however, most are not. Examples of products banned from using asbestos are commercial, corrugated, and specialty paper, flooring felt, and artificial fireplace embers that contain asbestos. Examples of products not banned from using asbestos include vinyl flooring, clothing, roof and non-roof coatings, friction materials, and some car components.Cancers of the larynx, throat, kidney, esophagusand gallbladder have been linked to asbestos exposure. Treatment is dependent upon the type of condition related to asbestos exposure.
Genital Warts in Men (HPV)
The HPV virus (genital warts) in men can cause health problems. Genital warts are confined primarily to the moist skin of the genitals or around the anus. Genital warts are caused by the human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are transmitted through sexual contact.
German Measles (Rubella)
German measles is a disease that's caused by a virus. Symptoms include rash and fever for two to three days. The MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine prevents this disease.
Is Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Contagious?
Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis. Whooping cough symptoms include severe coughing fits and whooping sound produced during inhalation. The bacteria spreads via airborne droplets produced during sneezing or coughing. There is a whooping cough vaccine that is typically administered during childhood vaccinations.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) FAQs
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are developmental disorders that do not appear to be linked to vaccines. More people than ever are being diagnosed with an ASD, including adults. Children with autism may receive special education services. A child with an ASD may or may not have a mitochondrial disease.
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
- Parent's Words Key to Young Kids' Fears Around Vaccination
- More Than 1 in 3 U.S. Pediatricians Dismiss Vaccine-Refusing Families
- Chief of U.S. Vaccine Initiative Says October Timeline 'Extremely Unlikely'
- Making a COVID-19 Vaccine Is Tough, Distributing It Might Be Tougher
- What If Many Americans Say No to a Coronavirus Vaccine?
- Pharmacists in All U.S. States Can Give Kids Childhood Shots
- Final Coronavirus Vaccine Trials Get Underway
- Childhood Vaccinations Decline During Coronavirus Pandemic
- What If a COVID-19 Vaccine Arrived and Many Americans Said No?
- AHA News: Here's What Doctors Know About Immunizations Right Now – You Still Need Them
- About 1 in 15 Parents 'Hesitant' About Child Vaccines: Survey
- Coronavirus Crisis Has Fewer Kids Getting Needed Vaccines
- Are Your Vaccinations Up to Date?
- The Damage of Vaccine Misinformation
- Vaping, Opioids and 'Anti-Vaxxers' Top Health Stories of 2019
- Vaccinations Rose After California Curbed Exemptions
- Special 'Invisible' Dye Could Serve as Skin's Vaccination Record
- As Disease Outbreaks Tied to 'Anti-Vaxxers' Rise, States Take Action
- Studies Confirm HPV Shot Is Safe
- Health Tip: Caring For Cats and Dogs While You're Pregnant
- Paid Family Leave Helps Keep Babies' Vaccines on Track: Study
- Most U.S. Parents Say Vaccination Should Be Requirement for School: Poll
- Many Parents Would Switch Doctors Over Vaccination Policy, Poll Finds
- Traveling Abroad? Make Sure Your Measles Shot Is Up to Date
- California Took on Anti-Vaxxers, and Won
- Faith in Vaccines Lowest in Wealthy Nations: Survey
- Whooping Cough Vaccine Effectiveness Fades With Time: Study
- U.S. Anti-Vaccination Controversy Boosted by Russian Trolls
- California Bill to Tighten Vaccine Exemptions Moves Forward
- High Measles Rates Mean Kids, Adults Need Proper Vaccination: CDC
- Egg Allergy? Don't Let That Stop You From Getting Vaccinated
- Health Tip: Responsibilities of Non-Vaccination
- N.Y. Judge Bans 50 Unvaccinated Students From School
- Need to Be Vaccinated? Try Your Local Pharmacy
- Teen Who Defied Mom to Get Vaccinated Testifies Before Congress
- FDA Head Says Feds May Intervene to Cut Vaccine Exemptions for Kids
- Teen Defies Mother, Gets Vaccinations
- Measles Outbreak Triggers Sharp Rise in Demand for Vaccine in Washington State
- Anti-Vaxxers a Major Global Health Threat: WHO
- Vaccine-Exempt Students Behind N.C. Chickenpox Outbreak
- What Kids -- and Parents -- Fear Most at the Doctor's Office
- More Young American Children Not Getting Recommended Vaccines: CDC
- Booster Shots Safe for Most Kids Who Have Vaccine Reaction: Study
- For School Kids, Vaccines Are Key
- Rising Number of Unvaccinated U.S. Kids Raises Risk of Disease Outbreaks
- Smart Steps for Safer International Travel
- Anti-Vaccine Movement Affecting Kids With Autism
- Waning Vaccine Protection May Be Driving Rise in U.S. Mumps Cases
- Tougher State Laws Curb Vaccine Refusers
- Vaccine Skeptic Robert Kennedy Jr. Asked to Head Trump 'Vaccination Safety' Committee
- Doctors Can 'Fire' Families Who Don't Vaccinate
- Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries
- Childhood Vaccinations Rarely Spur Seizures, Study Finds
- Vaccines Rarely Cause Life-Threatening Allergic Reactions: CDC
- Many Americans Traveling Abroad Lack Key Vaccinations: Study
- Childhood Vaccines Debate Rekindled at GOP Presidential Debate
- HPV Vaccination Tied to Drop in Precancerous Cervical Lesions in U.S.
- Widespread Vaccination Fights Serious Stomach Infection in Kids: CDC
- Infectious-Disease Expert Debunks Common Vaccine Myths
- Preteen Whooping Cough Vaccine Loses Strength Over Time, CDC Finds
- Another Study Finds No Vaccine-Autism Link
- Low Vaccination Rates Likely Behind Disney Measles Outbreak: Study
- More Americans Support Vaccines: HealthDay/Harris Poll
- Doctors Often Yield to Parents' Requests to Delay Kids' Vaccines
- Reminders From States May Boost Timely Vaccination Rates
- Should Vaccination Be a Personal Choice?
- Measles at Disneyland: What You Should Know
- Vaccine Opponents Often Cluster in Communities
- Vaccination Can Cut Rates of Common Infection in Infants
- Research Shows No Link Between Vaccinations, Risk for Multiple Sclerosis
- Childhood Vaccines Vindicated Once More
- Disease Outbreaks May Not Change Minds of Vaccine Opponents
- Vaccine Against Bird Flu Readied, Just in Case
- No-Fridge Nasal Vaccines on the Horizon
- Vaccines Prevent Millions of Infections, Save Billions in Costs: CDC
- States May Be Getting Stricter on Child Vaccine Exemptions
- Many U.S. Adults Not Getting Key Vaccines: CDC
- Vaccine With Drug Payload Shows Promise Against Tumors
- Too Few Adults Get Recommended Vaccines: CDC
- Study Finds Nearly Half of U.S. Kids Are Under-Vaccinated
- Thigh Is Safer Vaccination Site Than Arm for Toddlers, Study Finds
- Researchers Tackle Age-Related Decline in Immune Response
- Whooping Cough Vaccine Protection Wanes Fast
- Kids' Vaccine Exemptions Too Easy to Obtain: Study
- Are Kindergarten Kids Getting Their Vaccines?
- Vaccinations Belong on Parents' Back-to-School Checklists
- Hepatitis A Vaccine for Children Lasts for 10 Years: Study
- Infant Vaccination 'Delays' Triple in Oregon: Study
- From a Failed Vaccine, New Insights Into Fighting HIV
- Respiratory Virus Killed 8 Military Recruits After Vaccination Program Halted
- Too Few American Adults Getting Needed Vaccinations: CDC
- Infants May Sleep Better When Vaccinated in Afternoon
- Chickenpox Vaccination of Children Helps Protect Infants, Too
- U.S. Sets New Goals for a Healthier Nation
- Vaccines for Teens: Still Room for Improvement
- Antibody Finding Might Help in Search for HIV Vaccine
- Vaccination Rate for Kindergarten Kids Is Over 90%
- MMR Doctor 'Planned to Make Millions,' Journal Claims
- Whooping Cough Epidemic Hits California
- Seizure Risk Rises With MMRV Vaccine
- New Guidelines for Immunizations
- Sugar Water Eases Vaccine Pain for Babies
- No Ill Effects When Kids Get Vaccines on Time
- Breastfeeding Cuts Fever Risk After Vaccines
- 1 in 4 Americans Got Swine Flu Vaccine
- Refusing to Vaccinate Affects Other Kids, Too
- CDC Panel Calls for Flu Vaccine for All
- Next Year, Just 1 Flu Shot
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