Uremia refers to a clinical syndrome in which there are elevated amounts of urea in the blood. The syndrome causes fluid and electrolyte imbalances as well as hormonal imbalances.
Symptoms associated with uremia include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, appetite loss, weight loss, itching, muscle cramps, thirst, visual disturbances, and changes in mental status. Other associated symptoms and signs can include low urine output, confusion, hiccups, and high blood pressure. Serious complications can include seizure, cardiac arrest due to electrolyte imbalances, coma, and bleeding into the brain or gastrointestinal tract.
Causes of uremia
Chronic kidney disease or failure is the most common cause of uremia, but it can also occur in severe cases of acute or sudden damage to the kidneys.
Other Causes of Uremia Symptoms and Signs
- Altered Mental Status
- Appetite Loss
- Concentration Problems
- High Blood Pressure
- Low Urine Output
- Muscle Cramps
- Weight Loss
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
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