Typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a (Vivotif)

What is typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?

Typhoid vaccine is a live attenuated (weakened) oral typhoid vaccine. Typhoid disease is caused by ingestion of Salmonella typhi strains from contaminated food or water. Active immunity from vaccine is occurs when the body produces antibodies to typhoid in response to the weakened typhoid bacteria in the vaccine. Oral typhoid vaccine produces a local response in the intestines, boosting immunity.

What brand names are available for typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule?


Is typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule available as a generic drug?


Do I need a prescription for typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule?


What are the side effects of typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule?

Side effects of typhoid vaccine are abdominal pain, nausea, fever, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, and skin rash.


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What is the dosage for typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule?

The recommended dosing for adults and children 6 years of age and older is: Take 1 capsule by mouth one hour before a meal for 4 doses, on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Use cold or lukewarm water and should not exceed body temperature 37 C (98.6 F).

  • Dosing should be completed at least 1 week prior to potential exposure.
  • A booster dose of 4 capsules is needed every 5 years if re-exposure is expected.

Which drugs or supplements interact with typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule?

Typhoid vaccine is not recommended for use with belimumab (Benlysta), ceftaroline (Taflaro), certolizumab pegol (Cimzia), hydroxyurea (Droxia), and methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) because they significantly lower the effectiveness of typhoid vaccine.

Typhoid vaccine should be used with caution with medications like azathioprine (Imuran, Azasan), etanercept (Enbrel), amoxicillin, cefprozil (Cefzil), budesonide (Entocort, Uceris ER), hydrocortisone, and triamcinolone because they lower beneficial effect of typhoid vaccine.

Anti-malaria drugs, such as mefloquine (Lariam), chloroquine (Aralen), and proguanil (Maralone) have anti-bacterial activity which may interfere with the immunogenicity of typhoid vaccine.

Is typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?

There are no adequate studies done on typhoid vaccine to determine safe and effective use in pregnant women.

It is not known whether typhoid vaccine enters breast milk; therefore, it is best to be cautious before using while breastfeeding.

What else should I know about typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule?

What preparations of typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule are available?

Typhoid vaccine is an enteric-coated capsule, containing viable and non-viable strains of Salmonella typhi Ty21a. It is available in a blister package of 4 capsules.

How should I keep typhoid vaccine-oral enteric-coated capsule stored?

STORAGE: Store typhoid vaccine capsules between 2 C to 8 C (35.6 F to 46.4 F).


Typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a (Vivotif) is a live attenuated oral vaccine used to prevent typhoid fever. Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to receiving this vaccination.

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Medically reviewed by John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP; Board Certified Emergency Medicine


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