Generic drug: abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine
Brand name: Triumeq
What is Triumeq (abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine), and how does it work?
Triumeq contains the prescription medicines abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine.
- Triumeq is not for use by itself in people who have or have had resistance to abacavir, dolutegravir, or lamivudine.
It is not known if Triumeq is safe and effective in children who weigh less than 88 pounds (40 kg).
What are the side effects of Triumeq?
HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS, LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY, and EXACERBATIONS OF HEPATITIS B
Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions, with multiple organ involvement, have occurred with abacavir, a component of Triumeq (abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine). Patients who carry the HLA-B*5701 allele are at a higher risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir; although, hypersensitivity reactions have occurred in patients who do not carry the HLA-B*5701 allele.
Triumeq is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir and in HLA-B*5701-positive patients. All patients should be screened for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating therapy with Triumeq or reinitiation of therapy with Triumeq, unless patients have a previously documented HLA-B*5701 allele assessment. Discontinue Triumeq immediately if a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, regardless of HLA-B*5701 status and even when other diagnoses are possible.
Following a hypersensitivity reaction to Triumeq, NEVER restart Triumeq or any other abacavir-containing product because more severe symptoms, including death can occur within hours. Similar severe reactions have also occurred rarely following the reintroduction of abacavir-containing products in patients who have no history of abacavir hypersensitivity.
Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis
Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including abacavir, lamivudine, and other antiretrovirals. Discontinue Triumeq if clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity occur.
Exacerbations of Hepatitis B
Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and have discontinued lamivudine, a component of Triumeq. Hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who discontinue Triumeq and are co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted.
Triumeq can cause serious side effects including:
- Liver problems. People with a history of hepatitis B or C virus may have an increased risk of developing new or worsening changes in certain liver function tests during treatment with Triumeq. Liver problems including liver failure have also happened with Triumeq in people without a history of liver disease or other risk factors. Liver failure resulting in liver transplant has also been reported with Triumeq. Your healthcare provider may do blood tests to check your liver.
- Call your healthcare provider right away if you develop any of the signs or symptoms of liver problems listed below.
- Too much lactic acid in your blood (lactic acidosis). Too much lactic acidosis is a serious medical emergency that can lead to death. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms that could be signs of lactic acidosis:
- Lactic acidosis can also lead to severe liver problems, which can lead to death. Your liver may become large (hepatomegaly) and you may develop fat in your liver (steatosis). Call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the signs or symptoms of liver problems which are listed above under “Liver problems”.
- You may be more likely to get lactic acidosis or severe liver problems if you are female or very overweight (obese).
- Changes in your immune system (Immune Reconstitution Syndrome) can happen when you start taking HIV-1 medicines. Your immune system may get stronger and begin to fight infections that have been hidden in your body for a long time. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you start having new symptoms after you start taking Triumeq.
- Heart attack. Some HIV-1 medicines including Triumeq may increase your risk of heart attack.
- The most common side effects of Triumeq include:
These are not all the possible side effects of Triumeq.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What is the dosage for Triumeq?
Screening For HLA-B*5701 Allele Prior To Starting Triumeq
- Screen for the HLA-B*5701 allele prior to initiating therapy with Triumeq.
Pregnancy Testing Before Initiation Of Triumeq
- Perform pregnancy testing before initiation of Triumeq in adolescents and adults of childbearing potential.
- Triumeq is a fixed-dose combination product containing 600 mg of abacavir, 50 mg of dolutegravir, and 300 mg of lamivudine.
- The recommended dosage regimen of Triumeq in adults and in pediatric patients weighing at least 40 kg is one tablet once daily orally with or without food.
Dosage Recommendation With Certain Concomitant Medications
- The dolutegravir dose (50 mg) in Triumeq is insufficient when coadministered with medications listed in Table 1 that may decrease dolutegravir concentrations; the following dolutegravir dosage regimen is recommended.
Table 1: Dosing Recommendations for Triumeq with Coadministered Medications
|Coadministered Drug||Dosing Recommendation|
|Efavirenz, fosamprenavir/ritonavir, tipranavir/ritonavir, carbamazepine, or rifampin||The recommended dolutegravir dosage regimen is 50 mg twice daily. An additional dolutegravir 50-mg tablet, separated by 12 hours from Triumeq, should be taken.|
Not Recommended Due To Lack Of Dosage Adjustment
Because Triumeq is a fixed-dose tablet and cannot be dose adjusted, Triumeq is not recommended in:
- patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 mL per minute.
- patients with mild hepatic impairment. Triumeq is contraindicated in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment.
What drugs interact with Triumeq?
Effect Of Dolutegravir On The Pharmacokinetics Of Other Agents
- In vitro, dolutegravir inhibited the renal organic cation transporters (OCT)2 (IC50 = 1.93 microM) and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter (MATE)1 (IC50 = 6.34 microM).
- In vivo, dolutegravir inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine by inhibiting OCT2 and potentially MATE1.
- Dolutegravir may increase plasma concentrations of drugs eliminated via OCT2 or MATE1 (dofetilide, dalfampridine, and metformin).
- In vitro, dolutegravir inhibited the basolateral renal transporters, organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 (IC50 = 2.12 microM) and OAT3 (IC50 = 1.97 microM). However, in vivo, dolutegravir did not alter the plasma concentrations of tenofovir or para-amino hippurate, substrates of OAT1 and OAT3.
- In vitro, dolutegravir did not inhibit (IC50 greater than 50 microM) the following:
- cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A2,
- uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT)1A1,
- P-glycoprotein (P-gp),
- breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP),
- bile salt export pump (BSEP),
- organic anion transporter polypeptide (OATP)1B1,
- OCT1, or multidrug resistance protein (MRP)2, or
- In vitro, dolutegravir did not induce CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP3A4. Based on these data and the results of drug interaction trials, dolutegravir is not expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of these enzymes or transporters.
- In drug interaction trials, dolutegravir did not have a clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of the following drugs:
- Using cross-study comparisons to historical pharmacokinetic data for each interacting drug, dolutegravir did not appear to affect the pharmacokinetics of the following drugs:
Effect Of Other Agents On The Pharmacokinetics Of Dolutegravir
- Dolutegravir is metabolized by UGT1A1 with some contribution from CYP3A. Dolutegravir is also a substrate of UGT1A3, UGT1A9, BCRP, and P-gp in vitro. Drugs that induce those enzymes and transporters may decrease dolutegravir plasma concentrations and reduce the therapeutic effect of dolutegravir.
- Coadministration of dolutegravir and other drugs that inhibit these enzymes may increase dolutegravir plasma concentrations.
- Etravirine significantly reduced plasma concentrations of dolutegravir, but the effect of etravirine was mitigated by coadministration of lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir, and is expected to be mitigated by atazanavir/ritonavir (Table 5).
- In vitro, dolutegravir was not a substrate of OATP1B1 or OATP1B3.
- Darunavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, rilpivirine, tenofovir, boceprevir, daclatasvir, prednisone, rifabutin, and omeprazole had no clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir.
Established And Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions
- There were no drug-drug interaction trials conducted with the abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine fixed-dose combination tablets.
- Information regarding potential drug interactions with the individual components of Triumeq are provided below. These recommendations are based on either drug interaction trials or predicted interactions due to the expected magnitude of interaction and potential for serious adverse events or loss of efficacy.
Table 5: Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions for Dolutegravir: Alterations in Dose May Be Recommended Based on Drug Interaction Trials or Predicted Interactions
|Concomitant Drug Class: Drug Name||Effect on Concentration||Clinical Comment|
|HIV-1 Antiviral Agents|
|Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor: Etravirinea||↓Dolutegravir||Use of Triumeq with etravirine without coadministration of atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or lopinavir/ritonavir is not recommended.|
|Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor: Efavirenza||↓Dolutegravir||Adjust dolutegravir dose to 50 mg twice daily. An additional 50-mg dose of dolutegravir should be taken, separated by 12 hours from Triumeq.|
|Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor: Nevirapine||↓Dolutegravir||Avoid coadministration with Triumeq because there are insufficient data to make dosing recommendations.|
|Protease inhibitor: Fosamprenavir/ritonavira Tipranavir/ritonavira||↓Dolutegravir||Adjust dolutegravir dose to 50 mg twice daily. An additional dolutegravir 50-mg dose should be taken, separated by 12 hours from Triumeq.|
|Antiarrhythmic: Dofetilide||↑Dofetilide||Coadministration is contraindicated with Triumeq.|
|Potassium channel blocker: Dalfampridine||↑Dalfampridine||Elevated levels of dalfampridine increase the risk of seizures. The potential benefits of taking dalfampridine concurrently with Triumeq should be considered against the risk of seizures in these patients.|
|Carbamazepinea||↓Dolutegravir||Adjust dolutegravir dose to 50 mg twice daily. An additional dolutegravir 50-mg dose should be taken, separated by 12 hours from Triumeq.|
|Oxcarbazepine Phenytoin Phenobarbital St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum)||↓Dolutegravir||Avoid coadministration with Triumeq because there are insufficient data to make dosing recommendations.|
|Medications containing polyvalent cations (e.g., Mg or Al): Cation-containing antacidsa or laxatives
Sucralfate Buffered medications
|↓Dolutegravir||Administer Triumeq 2 hours before or 6 hours after taking medications containing polyvalent cations.|
|Oral calcium and iron supplements, including multivitamins containing calcium or irona||↓Dolutegravir||When taken with food, Triumeq and supplements or multivitamins containing calcium or iron can be taken at the same time. Under fasting conditions, Triumeq should be taken 2 hours before or 6 hours after taking supplements containing calcium or iron.|
|Metformina||↑Metformin||Refer to the prescribing information for metformin for assessing the benefit and risk of concomitant use of Triumeq and metformin.|
|Rifampina||↓Dolutegravir||Adjust dolutegravir dose to 50 mg twice daily. An additional 50-mg dose of dolutegravir should be taken, separated by 12 hours from Triumeq.|
|a See prescribing information for magnitude of interaction.|
- In a trial of 11 HIV-1-infected subjects receiving methadone-maintenance therapy with 600 mg of abacavir twice daily (twice the currently recommended dose), oral methadone clearance increased.
- This alteration will not result in a methadone dose modification in the majority of patients; however, an increased methadone dose may be required in a small number of patients.
- Coadministration of single doses of lamivudine and sorbitol resulted in a sorbitol dose-dependent reduction in lamivudine exposures. When possible, avoid use of sorbitolcontaining medicines with lamivudine-containing medicines.
- Coadministration with Triumeq resulted in increased riociguat exposure, which may increase the risk of riociguat adverse reactions.
- The riociguat dose may need to be reduced. See full prescribing information for ADEMPAS (riociguat).
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Is Triumeq safe to use while pregnant or breastfeeding?
- Data from a birth outcome surveillance study has identified an increased risk of neural tube defects when dolutegravir, a component of Triumeq, is administered at the time of conception compared with non-dolutegravir-containing antiretroviral regimens.
- As defects related to closure of the neural tube occur from conception through the first 6 weeks of gestation, embryos exposed to dolutegravir from the time of conception through the first 6 weeks of gestation are at potential risk.
- In addition, 2 of the 5 birth defects (encephalocele and iniencephaly), which have been observed with dolutegravir use, although often termed neural tube defects, may occur post-neural tube closure, the time period of which may be later than 6 weeks of gestation, but within the first trimester.
- Due to the limited understanding of the types of reported neural tube defects associated with dolutegravir use and because the date of conception may not be determined with precision, an alternative treatment to Triumeq should be considered at the time of conception through the first trimester of pregnancy.
- Initiation of Triumeq is not recommended in adolescents and adults actively trying to become pregnant unless there is no suitable alternative.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that HIV-1-infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection.
- Abacavir and lamivudine are present in human milk. When administered to lactating rats, dolutegravir was present in milk.
- There is no information on the effects of Triumeq or its components on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production.
- Because of the potential for
- (1) HIV-1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants),
- (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and
- (3) adverse reactions in a breastfed infant similar to those seen in adults, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving Triumeq.
Triumeq (abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine) is a prescription medicine used to treat HIV-1 infection in adults and children who weigh at least 88 pounds (40 kg). Serious side effects of Triumeq include hypersensitivity reactions, lactic acidosis, lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, and acute exacerbations of hepatitis B.
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Human immunodeficiency virus causes HIV infection. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition that results after HIV has extensively damaged a person's immune system. Risk factors for HIV and AIDS include use of contaminated needles or syringes, unprotected sex, STDs, receiving a blood transfusion prior to 1985 in the United States, having many sex partners, and transmission from a mother to her child.
HIV/AIDS Testing: Diagnosis and Monitoring
HIV/AIDS diagnosis and monitoring have come a long way from the days when a diagnosis was a death sentence. Crucial parts of the effective treatment regimens developed in the last 40 years are consistent monitoring of the viral load (the amount of virus in the blood), and the immune cell count, which function as biological markers of the disease’s progression. Doctors also must test for drug resistance.
HIV Early Signs and Stages
Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV, destroys important cells that fight disease and infection, which weakens a person's immune system. Some people with HIV don’t have any signs or symptoms. Early signs and symptoms of HIV infection include mononucleosis-like or flu-like symptoms, which include body aches, fever, and headache. Signs and symptoms begin around seven or eight years after HIV infection, which include weight loss, loss of energy and appetite, and swollen lymph nodes. There are 3 stages of HIV.
HIV Medications List and Drug Charts
The ultimate goal of HIV treatment is getting the viral load down below detectable levels. As long as those viral load and antibody levels are below a proscribed range, people with HIV can stave off AIDS and other serious symptoms. Antiviral treatment options usually include combinations of two NRTIs, often referred to as "nucs," and a third drug, typically being a boosted protease inhibitor, a NNRTI, often called "non-nucs," and integrase strand transfer inhibitors.
What Are the Side Effects of HIV Medications?
It’s important to know the potential side effects of all the drugs you take to control your HIV infection, as well as potential drug interactions. All of the NNRTIs (nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors), for example, are associated with important drug-drug interactions so they must be used with caution in patients on other medications. Learn more about the side effects of the drugs in standard treatment regimens.
HIV/AIDS Facts: What Is HIV?
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the precursor infection to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV is transmitted through blood and genital secretions; most people get it through sexual contact or sharing needles for illegal IV drug use. HIV can be controlled by a strict drug regimen, but left unchecked, it leads to AIDS. In AIDS, the immune system collapses and the body falls prey to secondary, opportunistic infections and cancers that typically kill the person.
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Nearly everyone who is infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) should start antiviral medication therapy as soon as they are diagnosed. Older guidelines recommended delaying treatment to help reduce the potential for drug side effects and viral resistance to treatment. Current thinking theorizes that early treatment may preserve more of the body's immune function.
HIV/AIDS Infection Transmission and Prevention
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is spread through contact with genital fluids or blood of an infected person. The spread of HIV can occur when these secretions come in contact with tissues such as those lining the vagina, anal area, mouth, eyes (the mucus membranes), or with a break in the skin, such as from a cut or puncture by a needle.
Can HIV be Cured Naturally?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If someone has HIV it means that they have been diagnosed with the HIV infection. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome); however, is the most advanced or final stage of the HIV infection. It is important to get tested for HIV in the early stages of infection to minimize the damage to the immune system. Successful treatment aims to reduce HIV load to a level that is harmless to the body.
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- lamivudine - oral, Epivir
- lamivudine-hbv - oral, Epivir HBV
- Combivir (lamivudine and zidovudine)
- lamivudine (3tc) (Epivir; Epivir HBV)
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- abacavir/lamivudine - oral, Epzicom
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