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What is anemia?
Anemia describes a condition in which you have a low red blood cell count and low hemoglobin levels. This is a serious condition as red blood cells and hemoglobin carry oxygen to all your cells, allowing them to burn energy. If you’re anemic, you’ll likely feel fatigued and short of breath, lacking physical stamina. You may develop heart problems and appear pale. Anemia is often a symptom or consequence of some other disease or condition, so treatment varies widely depending on the root cause.
What is the treatment for anemia?
The treatment of the anemia varies greatly. First, the underlying cause of the anemia needs to be identified and corrected. For example, anemia as a result of blood loss from a stomach ulcer should begin with medications to heal the ulcer. Similarly, surgery is often necessary to remove a colon cancer that is causing chronic blood loss and anemia.
Sometimes iron supplements will also be needed to correct iron deficiency. In severe anemia, blood transfusions may be necessary. Vitamin B12 injections will be necessary for patients suffering from pernicious anemia, a name for vitamin B-12 deficiency.
In certain patients with bone marrow disease (or bone marrow damage from chemotherapy) or patients with kidney failure, epoetin alfa (Procrit, Epogen) may be used to stimulate bone marrow in red blood cell production.
If a medication is thought to be the culprit for anemia, then it should be discontinued under the direction of the prescribing doctor.
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Anemia Symptoms and SignsAnemia is a disease marked by low numbers of red blood cells. Low iron or underlying disease, like cancer, may be to blame. Treatment can resolve anemia.
AnemiaAnemia is the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased. There are several types of anemia such as iron deficiency anemia (the most common type), sickle cell anemia, vitamin B12 anemia, pernicious anemia, and aplastic anemia. Symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, malaise, hair loss, palpitations, menstruation, and medications. Treatment for anemia includes treating the underlying cause for the condition. Iron supplements, vitamin B12 injections, and certain medications may also be necessary.
Hemoglobin vs. HematocritHemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells and hematocrit is a measurement of the amount of red blood cells as related to total blood cell count. Both hemoglobin and hematocrit are used to diagnose anemia. Both hemoglobin and hematocrit can be measured from standard blood tests, and both values are typically reported when a doctor orders a blood count.
Moyamoya DiseaseMoyamoya disease is an inherited (genetic) progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by arteries that are blocked at the base of the brain. Moyamoya means "puff of smoke" in Japanese. Signs and symptoms of Moyamoya disease in adults include fainting, and vision problems, and in children included may include headaches and speech problems. There are 6 stages of Moyamoya disease. Surgery is the preferred treatment for the disease, and there is no cure for Moyamoya disease, and it can be fatal.
Pernicious AnemiaPernicious anemia is a blood disorder in which the body does not make enough red blood cells due to a lack of vitamin B12 in the blood. Pernicious anemia can develop from a lack of a protein that helps the body absorb vitamin B12, not getting enough B12 in the diet, and certain intestinal conditions that interfere with the absorption of vitamin B12 such as Crohn's disease, celiac sprue, or ulcerative colitis. There is no cure for pernicious anemia, thus treatment is life-long.
Pernicious Anemia PicturePernicious anemia is a disease where large, immature, nucleated cells (megaloblasts, which are forerunners of red blood cells) circulate in the blood, and do not function as blood cells; it is a disease caused by impaired uptake of vitamin B-12 due to the lack of intrinsic factor (IF) in the gastric mucosa. It was termed "pernicious" because before it was learned that vitamin B-12 could treat the anemia, most people that developed the disease died from it.
Sickle Cell Disease (Anemia)Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease), a blood disease which shortens life expectancy, is caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin.
Symptoms of sickle cell anemia may include bacterial infections, painful swelling of the hands and feet, fever, leg ulcers, fatigue, anemia, eye damage, and lung and heart injury.
Treatment for sickle cell anemia aims to manage and prevent the worst manifestations of the disease and focuses on therapies that block red blood cells from stacking together, which can lead to tissue and organ damage and pain.
Side Effects of Dexferrum (iron dextran)Dexferrum (iron dextran) is an injectable form of iron used to treat iron-deficiency anemia, a condition in which the blood doesn't have enough healthy red blood cells because of a deficiency of available iron. Common side effects of Dexferrum include diarrhea, headache, cramps, dizziness, upset stomach, changes in taste, and pain and irritation or swelling where the injection was given. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Dexferrum in pregnant women. Small amounts of Dexferrum are excreted into human milk.
What Is Artificial Blood and Why Is it Used?While there is no synthetic substitute for human blood, current research largely focuses on developing substitute blood components, like platelets for clotting or red cells for oxygen/CO2 exchange. Currently, the only clinical product in use are saline solutions to expand the volume of blood, which maintains blood pressure and allows red cells to keep working and regenerating.