Tracheomalacia: This disorder is characterized by defects of the wall of the trachea, leading to collapse of the trachea at times of increased airflow like crying, feeding, or coughing. Tracheomalacia can be associated with different birth defects and conditions like cardiovascular defects, developmental delay, gastroesophageal reflux (GER), and tracheoesophageal fistula. It can be present at birth or can be acquired during life as a result of trauma, lung diseases, or compression of the trachea for long periods of time. Signs and symptoms of tracheomalacia in infants can include a crowing noise made on breathing out (also called laryngeal crow or expiratory stridor). This can appear worse when lying on the back, crying, and respiratory infections. Hoarseness, breathing problems, and feeding difficulties are other associated symptoms and signs.
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