- What is timolol ophthalmic solution, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for timolol ophthalmic solution?
- Is timolol ophthalmic solution available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for timolol ophthalmic solution?
- What are the side effects of timolol ophthalmic solution?
- What is the dosage for timolol ophthalmic solution?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with timolol ophthalmic solution?
- Is timolol ophthalmic solution safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about timolol ophthalmic solution?
What is timolol ophthalmic solution, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Timolol is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent. Like other beta-adrenergic blocking agents, it mainly blocks the action of the sympathetic (adrenergic) nervous system, for example, on the heart. In addition to its effect on the heart, timolol causes a reduction of the pressure within the eye (intraocular pressure). This effect is may result from a reduction in production of the liquid (aqueous humor) within the eye. The precise mechanism of this effect is not known. The reduction in intraocular pressure reduces the risk of damage to the optic nerve and loss of vision in patients with glaucoma. Timolol was approved by the FDA for ocular use in 1978.
What brand names are available for timolol ophthalmic solution?
Timoptic, Timoptic-XE, Timoptic in Ocudose
What are the side effects of timolol ophthalmic solution?
Common side effects include:
- blurred vision, and
- burning or stinging in the eye.
Ophthalmic timolol can cause irritation to the eye which may manifest as pain or dryness in some people.
Rarely, timolol eye drops can result in side effects that are seen with other oral beta adrenergic blockers. For example, persons can experience:
What is the dosage for timolol ophthalmic solution?
- Both hands should be washed before each use of timolol or any other eye medication.
- The head should be tilted back and the lower lid pulled down with the index finger to form a pouch.
- The tip of the dropper should not be touched to the eye or eyelid.
- The bottle should be squeezed slightly to allow the prescribed number of drops into the pouch.
- The eye is closed gently for 1 to 2 minutes without blinking.
- The usual dose is one drop into the affected eye twice daily.
- Timoptic-XE gel forming solution dose is one drop once per day.
Which drugs or supplements interact with timolol ophthalmic solution?
Combined use of oral beta-adrenergic blocking agents, for example, propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor) or carvedilol (Coreg) with ophthalmic timolol can result in additive effects. Thus, patients may experience excessively low blood pressure or reductions in heart rate.
Is timolol ophthalmic solution safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Although there are no human studies that have examined the effects of oral timolol on the fetus, animal studies have shown adverse effects. Therefore, the physician must weigh the potential risks to the fetus against the potential benefits to the mother. It is unknown if the small amount of timolol that penetrates into the blood after administration into the eye affects the fetus.
Concentrations of timolol in breast milk can be three times those in the mother's blood after oral administration. It is not known how much, if any timolol appears in breast milk after administration into the eye. Ideally, patients taking timolol should avoid breastfeeding.
What else should I know about timolol ophthalmic solution?
What preparations of timolol ophthalmic solution are available?
Ophthalmic solution: 0.25%, 0.5%. There is also a gel-forming solution (Timoptic-XE) in a 0.25% and 0.5% concentration.
How should I keep timolol ophthalmic solution stored?
Ophthalmic solution should be kept at room temperature, 15 C - 30 C (59 F - 86 F) and protected for direct light.
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
timolol ophthalmic solution (Timoptic, Timoptic-XE, Timoptic in Ocudose) is a prescription eye solution prescribed to treat glaucoma, high blood pressure, and angina. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing and storage information, and pregnancy safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Beta blockers are a class of drugs that block beta-adrenergic substances such as adrenaline (epinephrine), a key agent in the "sympathetic" portion of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system and activation of heart muscle. By blocking the action of the involuntary nervous system on the heart, beta blockers relieve stress on the heart.
Beta blockers are used for the treatment of irregular heart rhythms, chest pain, heart attack, hypertension, migraine headaches, social phobias, tremors, and glaucoma.
Common side effects of beta blockers are nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and weight gain if you are taking medicine for diabetes (type 1 and type 2). There are other important side effects and serious adverse effects of this drug class that include, blurred vision, insomnia, hair loss, disorientation, CNS system effects, and serious heart problems.
Beta blockers interact with several other drugs, for example, chlorpromazine (Thorazine), clonidine (Catapres), Phenobarbital, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin, and diabetes medications, including insulin.
Examples of generic and brand names available for beta blockers in the US include acebutolol (Sectral), atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta), metoprolol (Lopressor, Lopressor LA, Toprol XL), nadolol (Corgard), timolol (Blocadren). Talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other medical professional if you have questions about beta-blockers.
If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. In the US -Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
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GlaucomaGlaucoma is a common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eye rises because of slowed fluid drainage from the eye. If untreated, glaucoma may damage the optic nerve and other parts of the eye, causing the loss of vision or even blindness.
High Blood Pressure Medication
High blood pressure (hypertension) medications include drugs from a variety of different drug classes and types.
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Clonidine (Catapres) and minoxidil also are drugs prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure. Side effects, warnings and precautions, safety information, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent drug, which blocks the action of the sympathetic nervous system (a portion of the involuntary nervous system). Metoprolol is prescribed to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), heart pain (angina), heart rhythm disorders, and some neurological conditions. Side effects include:
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- Memory loss
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Drug interactions, dosing, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
nadololNadolol (Corgard) is in the drug class of beta blockers and is prescribed for the treatment of angina (heart pain, chest pain), high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, tremor, and the prevention of headaches and anxiety. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and safety during pregnancy information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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These drugs also cause central nervous system (CNS) effects like:
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Timolol (Blocadren and Timolide 10-25 brand names have been discontinued) is a first generation beta blocker drug. Timolol is prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure, angina, heart attacks, and migraine headache prevention. Off label uses include treatment for cardiomyopathy and mitral valve prolapse. Side effects include:
- Abdominal cramps
Drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.