- Understanding Stroke Slideshow Pictures
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- What is ticlopidine, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for ticlopidine?
- Is ticlopidine available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for ticlopidine?
- What are the side effects of ticlopidine?
- What is the dosage for ticlopidine?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with ticlopidine?
- Is ticlopidine safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about ticlopidine?
What is ticlopidine, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Ticlopidine is an oral drug that inhibits the ability of platelets to clump and form blood clots. It prevents blood clots by binding to the P2Y12 receptor on platelets, preventing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from activating platelets. It belongs to a class of drugs called P2Y12 inhibitors. Other drugs in this class include clopidogrel (Plavix), ticagrelor (Brilinta) and prasugrel (Effient). Clopidogrel is similar to ticlopidine (Ticlid) in chemical structure and in the way it works. Blood clots that form within the arteries of the brain or pieces of blood clots that break off from clots in other parts of the body and lodge in blood vessels in the brain cause strokes. Similarly, heart attacks occur when blood clots block an artery in the heart. In both cases the blood supply to part of the brain or heart is blocked, and that part of the brain or heart is damaged or dies. Ticlopidine works by making the blood less likely to clot, therefore, reducing the likelihood of a stroke or heart attack. The FDA approved ticlopidine in October 1991.
What are the side effects of ticlopidine?
Common side effects of ticlopidine include:
Ticlopidine has been associated with a severe reduction in white blood cell count. Ticlopidine also causes a condition called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). TTP is a serious condition in which blood clots form throughout the body. Blood platelets, which participate in clotting, are consumed, and the result can be bleeding because enough platelets are no longer left to allow blood to clot normally.
Quick GuideStroke Causes, Symptoms, and Recovery
What is the dosage for ticlopidine?
The recommended dose is 250 mg twice daily with food for stroke prevention. For preventing blood clots in stents, a single 500 mg loading dose is administered several hours before stent placement, and then 250 mg is administered twice daily for 10-14 days after successful stent placement.
Which drugs or supplements interact with ticlopidine?
Combining ticlopidine with other drugs that promote bleeding increases the risk of bleeding. Examples include aspirin, warfarin (Coumadin), and heparin. Ticlopidine may increase duloxetine (Cymbalta) levels by reducing the break down of duloxetine in the liver and thereby lead to side effects from duloxetine. The combination may also increase the risk of bleeding because duloxetine can interfere with platelet function. Ticlopidine may increase pimozide (Orap) levels by reducing the break-down of pimozide in the liver. Increased pimozide levels may cause abnormal heart rhythms.
Is ticlopidine safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Ticlopidine has not been adequately studied in pregnant women.
It is not known if ticlopidine is secreted in human breast milk.
What else should I know about ticlopidine?
What preparations of ticlopidine are available?
Tablets: 250 mg
How should I keep ticlopidine stored?
Ticlopidine should be stored at room temperature, 15 to 30 C (59 to 86 F).
Ticlopidine (Ticlid [discontinued brand in the US]) is a medication prescribed for preventing strokes or TIAs (mini-strokes), preventing blood clots in stents placed in the heart. Off-label uses include prevention of heart attacks in individuals with unstable angina, or experienced previous heart attacks, combination with aspirin for preventing blood clots in stents, and intermittent claudication. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and patient information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
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Stroke (Signs, Symptoms, Warning Signs)
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Internal Bleeding (Symptoms, Signs, Causes, Treatment)
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Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke)
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Treatment & Diagnosis
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Prevention & Wellness
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Top ticlopidine Related Articles
acetylsalicylic acidAspirin (Aspirin, Arthritis Foundation Safety Coated Aspirin, Bayer Aspirin, Bayer Children's Aspirin, Ecotrin, and many others) is a NSAID used to treat fever, pain, and inflammation in the body that results from forms of arthritis, and soft tissue injuries. Aspirin is also used for decreasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes. Side effects, drug interactions, pregnancy information, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins, bladder, urinary tract and uterus. Risk factors for causes of blood clots include
- high blood pressure and cholesterol,
- smoking, and
- family history.
Symptoms of a blood clot depend on the location of the clot. Some blood clots are a medical emergency. Blood clots are treated depending upon the cause of the clot. Blood clots can be prevented by lowering the risk factors for developing blood clots.
ClaudicationIntermittent claudication, or pain and cramping in the lower leg is caused by inadequate blood flow to the leg muscles. This lack of blood flow causes a decrease in oxygen delivered to the muscles of the legs. Claudication is generally felt when walking and decreases with rest. In severe cases, claudication may be felt at rest. Narrowing of arteries cause claudication. Treatment includes exercise, medication, and in some cases surgery.
Coronary AngioplastyBalloon angioplasty of the coronary artery and stents (percutaneous coronary intervention, PCI) is a non-surgical procedure that relieves narrowing and obstruction of the arteries to the muscle of the heart. PCI can relieve chest pain (angina), minimize or stop a heart attack, or improve the prognosis of patients with unstable angina. The availability of stainless steel stents have expanded the spectrum of patients suitable for PCI.
Drug InteractionsDrug interactions occur frequently. Get facts about the types of drug interactions, what substances or other things that may interact with drugs such as OTC drug and prescription drugs, vitamins, food(s) (grapefruit), and laboratory tests. Find out how to protect yourself from potential drug interactions.
Drugs: What You Should Know About Your DrugsImportant information about your drugs should be reviewed prior to taking any prescription drug. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precauctions, dosage, what the drug is used for, what to do if you miss a dose, how the drug is to be stored, and generic vs. brand names.
Fabry disease (Fabry's disease, alpha-galactosidase-A) is a genetic disorder with symptoms such as
- burning sensations in the hands,
- small-raised reddish-purplish blemishes on the skin,
- decreases sweating, and
- gastrointestinal (GI) difficulties.
Fabry disease patients are at increased risk of heart attack, heart disease, kidney failure, and stroke. Symptoms of Fabry disease can be treated with medication.
Heart AttackHeart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack can cause chest pain, heart failure, and electrical instability of the heart.
Heart Attack TreatmentA heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to prevent or stop this damage to the heart muscle. Heart attack treatments included medications, procedures, and surgeries to protect the heart muscle against injury.
Hemolytic Uremic SyndromeHemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a diseases in which blood clots within the capillaries. Causes associated with HUS include:
- E. coli,
- birth control pills,
- medications such as chemotherapy, Ticlid, and quinine.
- abdominal cramping,
- vomiting, and
- bloody diarrhea.
- medical history,
- physical examination, and
- medical tests.
- possible hospitalization for blood transfusion or complications due to kidney failure.
Internal BleedingInternal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the body. Internal bleeding can be caused by a variety of situations such as blunt trauma, deceleration trauma, medications, fractures, and spontaneous bleeding. Treatment of internal bleeding depends on the cause of the bleeding.
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) refers to diseases of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) located outside the heart and brain. While there are many causes of peripheral vascular disease, doctors commonly use the term peripheral vascular disease to refer to peripheral artery disease (peripheral arterial disease, PAD), a condition that develops when the arteries that supply blood to the internal organs, arms, and legs become completely or partially blocked as a result of atherosclerosis. Peripheral artery disease symptoms include intermittent leg pain while walking, leg pain at rest, numbness in the legs or feet, and poor wound healing in the legs or feet.
Treatment for peripheral artery disease include lifestyle measures, medication, angioplasty, and surgery.
Stroke PreventionStroke is the third leading killer in the United States. Some of the warning signs of stroke include sudden confusion, trouble seeing with one or both eyes, dizziness, loss of balance, and more. Stroke prevention and reatable risk factors for stroke include lowering high blood pressure, quit smoking, heart disease, diabetes control and prevention.
Stroke Symptoms and Treatment
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic). Symptoms of a stroke may include
- double vision or vision loss,
- vertigo, and
- difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
A physical exam, imaging tests, neurological exam, and blood tests may be used to diagnose a stroke. Treatment may include administration of clot-busting drugs, supportive care, and in some instances, neurosurgery. The risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and stopping smoking.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke)When a portion of the brain loses blood supply, through a blood clot or embolus, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke) may occur. If the symptoms do not resolve, a stroke most likely has occurred. Symptoms of TIA include: confusion, weakness, lethargy, and loss of function to one side of the body. Risk factors for TIA include vascular disease, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Treatment depends upon the severity of the TIA, and whether it resolves.