Thyroidectomy: Surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland. Thyroidectomy might be done to remove a tumor or to treat hyperthyroidism or goiter (enlarged thyroid gland). Complications of the surgery can include vocal cord paralysis and accidental removal of the parathyroid glands, which are located behind the thyroid gland. Because the parathyroid glands regulate calcium metabolism, their removal can result in low calcium levels.
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