There are four major types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Tumors on the thyroid are referred to as thyroid nodules. Symptoms of thyroid cancer include swollen lymph nodes, pain in the throat, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and a lump near the Adam's apple. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy, surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment or external radiation and depends upon the type of thyroid cancer, the patient's age, the tumor size, and whether the cancer has metastasized. Read more: Thyroid Cancer Article
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Related Disease Conditions
Swollen Lymph Nodes (Glands)
Lymph nodes help the body's immune system fight infections. Causes of swollen lymph nodes (glands) may include infection (viral, bacterial, fungal, parasites). Symptoms of swollen lymph nodes vary greatly, but may include fever, night sweats, toothache, sore throat, or weight loss. Causes of swollen lymph nodes also vary, but may include cancer, the common cold, mono, chickenox, HIV, and herpes. The treatment of swollen lymph nodes depends upon the cause.
Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Liver (Anatomy and Function)
The liver is the largest gland and organ in the body. There are a variety of liver diseases caused by liver inflammation, scarring of the liver, infection of the liver, gallstones, cancer, toxins, genetic diseases, and blood flow problems. Symptoms of liver disease generally do not occur until the liver disease is advanced. Some symptoms of liver disease include jaundice, nausea and vomiting, easy bruising, bleeding excessively, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, shortness of breath, leg swelling, impotence, and confusion. Treatment of diseases of the liver depends on the cause.
Hyperthyroidism is an excess of thyroid hormone due to an overactive thyroid gland. Symptoms can include increased heart rate, weight loss, heart palpitations, frequent bowel movements, depression, fatigue, fine or brittle hair, sleep problems, thinning skin, and irregular vaginal bleeding. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Many other health problems or taking excess thyroid hormone medication can cause an overactive thyroid gland. Treatment for the condition is with medication, radioactive iodine, thyroid surgery (rarely), or reducing the dose of thyroid hormone. No diet has been shown to treat hyperthyroidism or its symptoms and signs.
Chronic cough is a cough that does not go away and is generally a symptom of another disorder such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinus infection, cigarette smoking, GERD, postnasal drip, bronchitis, pneumonia, medications, and less frequently tumors or other lung disease. Chronic cough treatment is based on the cause, but may be soothed natural and home remedies.
Hair Loss (Alopecia)
There are many causes of scalp hair loss. This featured article covers the common ones such as patchy hair loss (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis), telogen effluvium, and androgenetic alopecia (male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness).
Thyroid Disorders Symptoms and Signs
Thyroid diseases and disorders are caused because the body either makes too much or too little thyroid hormones, which are necessary for vital functions of the body. Thyroid disease and disorder symptoms and signs depend on the type of the thyroid problem. Examples include heat or cold intolerance, sweating, weight loss or gain, palpitations, fatigue, dry skin, constipation, brittle hair, joint aches and pains, heart palpitations, edema, feeling bloated, puffiness in the face, reduced menstrual flow, changes in the frequency of bowel movements and habits, high cholesterol, hoarseness, brittle hair, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, a visible lump or swelling in the neck, tremors, memory problems, depression, nervousness, agitation, irritability, or poor concentration. Thyroid problems are more common in women.
Sore throat (throat pain) usually is described as pain or discomfort in the throat area. A sore throat may be caused by bacterial infections, viral infections, toxins, irritants, trauma, or injury to the throat area. Common symptoms of a sore throat include a fever, cough, runny nose, hoarseness, earaches, sneezing, and body aches. Home remedies for a sore throat include warm soothing liquids and throat lozenges. OTC remedies for a sore throat include OTC pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Antibiotics may be necessary for some cases of sore throat.
Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions. There are numerous cases of nausea and vomiting. Some causes may not require medical treatment, for example, motion sickness, and other causes may require medical treatment by a doctor, for example, heart attack, lung infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Some causes of nausea and vomiting may be life-threatening, for example, heart attack, abdominal obstruction, and cancers. Treatment of nausea and vomiting depends upon the cause.
Chest pain is a common complaint by a patient in the ER. Causes of chest pain include broken or bruised ribs, pleurisy, pneumothorax, shingles, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, angina, heart attack, costochondritis, pericarditis, aorta or aortic dissection, and reflux esophagitis. Diagnosis and treatment of chest pain depends upon the cause and clinical presentation of the patient's chest pain.
There are several types of thyroid disorders including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, goiters, thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer. Symptoms vary by condition. Diagnosis is made with blood tests, scans, ultrasound, or biopsy. Treatments depend on the disorder and can include medication or surgery.
Hypothyroidism is any state in which thyroid hormone production is below normal. Normally, the rate of thyroid hormone production is controlled by the brain by the pituitary gland. Hypothyroidism is a very common condition and the symptoms of hypothyroidism are often subtle, but may include, constipation, memory loss, hair loss, and depression. There are a variety of causes of hypothyroidism, and treatment depends on the cause.
Dry skin (xeroderma) may be caused by external factors, like cold temperatures, low humidity, harsh soaps, and certain medications, or internal factors, such as thyroid disease, diabetes, psoriasis, or Sjogren's syndrome. Symptoms and signs of dry skin include itching and red, cracked or flaky skin. The main treatment for dry skin is frequent, daily lubrication of the skin.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disorder causing inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of hypothyroidism, and is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US. Symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis may include dry skin, fatigue, weight gain, feeling cold, excessive sleepiness, dry skin, dry coarse hair, difficulty swallowing, a lump in the front of the throat, muscle cramps, mood changes, vague aches and pains, problems concentrating, leg swelling, constipation, and depression. There is no cure for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Diet changes, natural supplements, vitamins, or other natural products will not treat Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Treatment for the autoimmune disorder is with thyroid hormone replacement therapy, which will be necessary for the rest of the person’s life.
Neck Pain (Cervical Pain)
Neck pain (cervical pain) may be caused by any number of disorders and diseases. Tenderness is another symptom of neck pain. Though treatment for neck pain really depends upon the cause, treatment typically may involve heat/ice application, traction, physical therapy, cortisone injection, topical anesthetic creams, and muscle relaxants.
Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)
Dry mouth is a common side effect of many prescription and non-prescription drugs and certain medical conditions. Symptoms of dry mouth include a sticky, dry feeling in the mouth, frequent thirst, sores in the mouth; sores or split skin at the corners of the mouth, cracked lips, a dry feeling in the throat, a burning or tingling sensation in the mouth, and a dry, red, raw tongue.
Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine problem in the United States. The term thyroid nodule refers to any abnormal growth that forms a lump in the thyroid gland. The vast majority of thyroid nodules are benign.
Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung cancers are classified as either small-cell or non-small-cell lung cancers.
Cancer Risk Factors
Though it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person's odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Swallowing Problems (Dysphagia)
Dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing, swallowing problems. Dysphagia is due to problems in nerve or muscle control. It is common, for example, after a stroke. Dysphagia compromises nutrition and hydration and may lead to aspiration pneumonia and dehydration.
Tumor grade is a system used to classify cancer cells in how likely the tumor is to grow and how abnormal they look under a microscope. Tumor grade is not the same as tumor stage. A biopsy is taken to determine if the tumor is benign (non cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland. Pheochromocytomas are quite rare and the vast majority of them are entirely benign. Only very rarely is a pheochromocytoma malignant. People with pheochromocytoma usually show these three symptoms headache, sweating, and heart palpitations (a fast heart beat) in association with markedly elevated blood pressure (hypertension).
What Are the Warning Signs of Thyroid Cancer?
Thyroid cancer arises from the cells of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck, just below Adam's apple. Warning signs of thyroid cancer include a lump in the neck, trouble swallowing, trouble breathing, voice changes, cough, weight loss, and palpitations.
Certain behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental factors contribute to cancer. Cancer prevention involves modifying these factors to decrease cancer risk. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, and obesity increase the risk of certain cancers. Vaccines, genetic testing, and cancer screening also play a role in cancer prevention.
What Happens to Your Body When You Have Thyroid Cancer?
Thyroid cancer arises from the cells of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck, just below Adam's apple. Common symptoms and signs of thyroid cancer may include a lump in the neck, trouble swallowing, trouble breathing, voice changes, cough, weight loss, and palpitations.
Local ResourcesFind a local Oncologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Chest X-Ray
- Thyroid Peroxidase Test
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan)
- Thyroid Blood Tests
- Parathyroidectomy Surgery
- What Diseases Does an Endocrinologist Treat?
- CT Scan (Computerized Tomography)
- Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid
- Clinical Trials
- Radiation Therapy
- Thyroid Scan
- Screening Tests for Cancer
- Questions To Ask Before Surgery
- How Long Does Tracheal Resection Take?
- Loss of Appetite
- Mouth Sores
- Chest Pain
- Swollen Lymph Nodes (Lymphadenopathy)
- Neck Pain (Cervicalgia)
- Chronic Cough
- Hair Loss
- Dry Skin
- Dry Mouth
- Sore Throat (Pharyngitis)
- Thyroid Disorders: The Doctor Is In
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Thyroid Cancer
- Advance Medical Directives
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
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- Cancer Treatment: Writing to Heal with Margie Davis
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- Cancer: Living Well Despite with Win Boerckel
- Cancer: Journaling to Save Your Life
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- Thyroid Nodule Surgery - Tipper's Thyroid
- Coping with a Bad Disease - Community Counts
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- Roger Ebert and Thyroid Cancer
- Thyroid Cancer in Children and Teenagers
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- Does Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Cause Other Diseases?
- Thyroid Disease Types and Treatments
- Don't Be Afraid to Ask - Dr. Mathur
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- Complementary and Alternative Cancer Treatments
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- Hypothyroidism Symptoms
- Goiter Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
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- Ask The Experts - Thyroid
Medications & Supplements
- vitamin D (Drisdol (Vitamin D2), Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2), Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)
- Dilaudid vs. Fentanyl (Pain Strength Comparison and Side Effects)
- Side Effects of Synthroid (levothyroxine)
- Side Effects of Tapazole (methimazole)
- sodium iodide I 131, Iodotope, Sodium Iodide I 131 Therapeutic
- Side Effects of Propylthiouracil (PTU)
- Side Effects of Cytomel (liothyronine sodium)
- calcitonin (Miacalcin)
- Side Effects of Sodium Iodide I 131
- Cyramza (ramucirumab)
- Cometriq (cabozantinib)
- Lenvima (lenvatinib)
Prevention & Wellness
- Could Too Much Light at Night Raise Your Odds for Thyroid Cancer?
- Many Thyroid Cancer Ultrasound Scans Unnecessary
- FDA Approves Retevmo for Certain Lung, Thyroid Cancers
- Thyroid Surgery Complications Can Land Some Back in the Hospital
- Look for Early Signs of Thyroid Cancer, Experts Urge
- Thyroid Cancer Survivors at Risk for Heart Disease
- Drug Duo Approved for Aggressive Thyroid Cancer
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- Gene Changes May Put Childhood Cancer Survivors at Risk
- U.S. Thyroid Cancer Cases Continue to Rise
- Check Your Neck for Thyroid Abnormalities
- Young Thyroid Cancer Survivors May Face Long-Term Health Risks
- No Benefit From Routine Thyroid Cancer Screening: Task Force
- Scans Not Worthwhile for Most Thyroid Cancers: Study
- Thyroid Cancer Cases in U.S. Level Off, Perhaps Reflecting Diagnostic Changes
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- Breast Cancer Survivors Vulnerable for Thyroid Tumors, and Vice Versa: Study
- Thyroid Cancer Survivors: Good Prognosis, Gloomy Outlook?
- Surgeon's Experience Tied to Success of Thyroid Removal: Study
- Better Imaging Scans Catching More Thyroid Cancers: Study
- Breast Cancer Survivors May Have Higher Thyroid Cancer Risk
- Specially Trained Pooch Sniffs Out Thyroid Cancer
- Study Questions Close Monitoring of Thyroid Growths
- New Drug May Slow Recurrent Thyroid Cancer, Study Finds
- Falling Cancer Death Rate Means 1.5 Million Lives Saved Over 20 Years
- Woman's Thyroid Tumor Yields Clues on How to Battle Cancer
- Targeted Drugs Among Successes Against Cancer, Says New Report
- Kidney and Thyroid Cancer Rates Up Among U.S. Children, Study Finds
- New Drug Shows Promise for Resistant Thyroid Cancer
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- Surge in Thyroid Cancer Cases May Be Due to Overdiagnoses: Study
- Minorities, Poor More Likely to Be Diagnosed With Advanced Thyroid Cancer
- Nexavar Approval Expanded for Common Thyroid Cancer
- Suicide a Risk for Young Cancer Patients, Study Finds
- Steady Rise in Thyroid Cancer Not Explained by Better Screening, Study Says
- Too Many Unnecessary Thyroid Biopsies Performed, Experts Say
- Childhood Abuse Linked to Later Thyroid Problems for Women
- Drug May Work Against Advanced Thyroid Cancer
- Many Who Got Thyroid Cancer After Chernobyl Still Alive: Study
- Gene May Boost Death Risk From Most Common Thyroid Cancer
- Cancer Death Rates Drop 20% Over 2 Decades
- Cometriq Approved for Rare Thyroid Cancer
- Brooke Burke Has Thyroid Cancer
- Poorer Patients Find Thyroid Cancer at Later Stage: Study
- Drug May Aid People With Advanced Thyroid Cancer
- Thyroid Cancer Seldom Shortens Lifespan, Study Finds
- Obese More Likely to Be Diagnosed With Advanced Thyroid Cancer
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- Consumer Group to FDA: Take Victoza off the Market
- Thyroid Surgery Riskier for Older Patients: Study
- Health Highlights: March 7, 2012
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- Thyroid Cancer Higher in Volcanic Areas
- Radiation Exposure Linked to Aggressive Thyroid Cancers