- Difficulty in passing urine
- A slow or weak urinary stream
- Need to urinate more often, especially at night (nocturnal)
- Blood in the urine or semen
- Erectile dysfunction or ED (difficulty in getting an erection)
- Painful ejaculation (pain while having intercourse)
- Pain in the bones (due to the spread of cancer)
- Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
These symptoms can be due to reasons other than prostate cancer. For example, trouble urinating is much more often caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a noncancerous growth of the prostate.
Who is at high risk for prostate cancer?
All men are at risk for prostate cancer. Thirteen out of every 100 American men will get prostate cancer, and about two to three men will die from it.
The most common risk factor is age. As the age advances, the risk of a man getting prostate cancer increases.
Other factors that put a man at high risk for prostate cancer include:
- African American men: They are more than twice as likely to die from prostate cancer as white men and tend to get prostate cancer at a younger age.
- Family history of prostate cancer: Men who have a father, brother, or son diagnosed with or with a history of prostate cancer have a greater risk of getting prostate cancer.
- Genetic makeup: Men with inherited mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes or with Lynch syndrome (also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, or HNPCC)
The effects of several risk factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer are not clear, although a small number of studies have suggested their association with prostate cancer. These include:
How is a prostate cancer screening done?
There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Prostate cancer screening is done using the following tests:
Digital rectal examination (DRE): This test is done at the doctor’s clinic. The doctor inserts his finger into your anus and reaches till your rectum to feel for any cancerous growth in your prostate.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: This is a blood test that measures the blood levels of PSA, a substance made by your prostate. The higher levels of PSA are suggestive of cancer. But there are other conditions as well when PSA levels are high. If your doctor suspects cancer, they might order for a biopsy of the prostate.
How can I prevent prostate problems naturally?
There is no sure way to prevent prostate problems such as prostate cancer. Many risk factors such as age, race, and family history can’t be controlled. But some of the studies suggest a few ways that can help keep the prostate healthy and prevent prostate cancer naturally. These include:
- Keep your weight under control
- Stay physically active
- Follow a healthy eating pattern that includes
- A variety of colorful fruits and vegetables and whole grains
- Healthy fats, such as olive oil, nuts, and avocados.
- Avoid or limit the consumption of red meat (such as beef, pork, lamb, and goat) and processed meats (such as bologna and hot dogs), sugar-sweetened beverages (like sodas), fast foods, and packaged foods
- Cutting down on salt
- Being watchful of how much you eat to avoid overeating (stop eating when you are full)
- Limit calcium supplements and to not get too much calcium in the diet
- Soy and isoflavones in foods or as supplements
Some early studies had suggested that taking vitamin E or selenium supplements might lower prostate cancer risk. But a larger study (SELECT) conducted later found that they are of no use in preventing prostate cancer. Hence, you need to discuss with your doctor before you start taking any such supplements.
Latest Cancer News
Daily Health News
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Prostate Cancer. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/
10 diet & exercise tips for prostate health. Available at: https://www.health.harvard.edu/mens-health/10-diet-and-exercise-tips-for-prostate-health
Sritharan J, Pahwa M, Demers PA, Harris SA, Cole DC, Parent ME. Prostate cancer in firefighting and police work: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Environ Health. 2017;16(1):124. Published 2017 Nov 17. doi:10.1186/s12940-017-0336-z
Top The early signs of prostate cancer Related Articles
Can Prostate Cancer Be Completely Cured?Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men. Due to routine screening of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the United States, nearly 90% of prostate cancers get detected in early stages. When found early, there are several treatment options available and prostate cancer has a high chance of getting cured.
Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment
If prostate cancer is detected early and appears to be slow-growing, invasive procedures, chemotherapy, radiation and other approaches can sometimes do more harm than good. Many prostate cancer treatments come with side effects, like incontinence or impotence, so it’s in the patient’s interest to put off invasive treatments as long as is medically safe. Active surveillance is where doctors "watch and wait" for changes that could prompt medical intervention.
BPH SlideshowBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition cause by an enlarged prostate. Get more information on how an enlarged prostate is diagnosed and available treatment for enlarged prostate glands.
BPH QuizTake the Enlarge Prostate Quiz and challenge your knowledge of prostate problems. Learn causes, symptoms, treatments, and diagnosis as well as little-known facts about the prostate, and what happens to men when the prostate is enlarged.
How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?
Prostate cancer is largely a disease of men over 40, so it’s around this age doctors recommend the first prostate screening. The first exam is a blood test to determine if there are abnormal prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in your blood – PSA is produced by the prostate. If the PSA is high, your doctor will perform a digital rectal exam, during which the doctor feels your prostate from inside your rectum with a gloved finger. Other diagnostic tests include an endoscopic biopsy of tumor tissue for analysis in a lab.
Prostate CancerProstate cancer is the most common cancer in men after skin cancer. Risk factors include age, family history, ethnicity, and diet. Prostate cancer is diagnosed by digital rectal exam, prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, and prostate biopsy. Symptoms may include frequent need to urinate, incontinence, pain, blood in the urine, fatigue, and more. Prognosis and treatment depend on cancer staging. Watchful waiting, surgery, radiation, cryotherapy, and other management strategies are available. Research and clinical trials strive to find new and better treatments for prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer QuizIs prostate cancer the most common cancer in men? Take this quiz to find out and learn the causes, symptoms and treatments of this disease.
Prostate Cancer Facts
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer and cancer death in males; in some men, identifying it early may prevent or delay metastasis and death from prostate cancer. The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is a part of the male reproductive system that wraps around the male urethra at it exits the bladder. Prostate cancer is common in men over 50 years of age, with the risk of developing prostate cancer increases with aging.
Prostate Cancer SlidesProstate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Learn the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer, along with causes and treatments. Know the stages, survival rates and lower your risk of prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Staging and Prognosis
The prognosis for prostate cancer, as with any cancer, depends on how advanced the cancer has become, according to established stage designations. The patient's PSA score at diagnosis, as well as their Gleason score (the grading system used to determine the aggressiveness of prostate cancer) determines the prognosis and final stage designation. Prostate cancer has a high survival rate in general, but your chances depend on the stage of the cancer.
Illustrations of ProstateSide View of the Prostate. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis. See a picture of the Prostate and learn more about the health topic.
What Are the 5 Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer?Prostate cancer rarely produces symptoms in the early stage; however, few signs can help in detecting prostate cancer.
What Foods Kill Prostate Cancer?Prostate cancer refers to the uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland. There is no particular food or recipe that can directly kill prostate cancer cells. Some foods that may be helpful in prostate cancer recovery and relapse prevention include foods containing lycopene, beans, green tea, cruciferous vegetables and fruit like cranberries, strawberries, blueberries and pomegranates.
What Is the Latest Treatment for Prostate Cancer?Prostate cancer affects 1 in 5 men. Learn how it is diagnosed and treated by doctors.
When Should You Screen for Prostate Cancer?Screening for prostate cancer helps detecta tumor early, enabling timely treatment and prevention of any complications. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), the decision to get screened should be made by men in consultation with their doctor. The doctor needs to counsel the men about the uncertainties involved in the screening process, the risks and potential benefits of getting screened for prostate cancer.