- What is thalidomide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for thalidomide?
- Is thalidomide available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for thalidomide?
- What are the side effects of thalidomide?
- What is the dosage for thalidomide?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with thalidomide?
- Is thalidomide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about thalidomide?
What is thalidomide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Thalidomide is an oral medication used for treating the skin conditions of leprosy, a disease caused by a parasite, Mycobacterium leprae. The mechanism of action of thalidomide is not well understood. The immune system reaction to Mycobacterium leprae plays an important role in producaing the skin manifestations of leprosy. Scientists believe that thalidomide modifies the reaction of the immune system to Mycobacterium leprae and thereby suppresses the skin reaction. Thalidomide also is being evaluated as a treatment for HIV and several other conditions. Thalidomide was approved by the FDA in July 1998.
What are the side effects of thalidomide?
The most common side effects are:
Other important side effects include:
Thalidomide also causes nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy), slow heart rate, hypertension, hypotension, and a decrease in white blood cells. Symptoms of nerve damage are tingling, numbness and pain in the feet or hands.
What is the dosage for thalidomide?
The recommended adult dose is 100-400 mg daily for treatment of leprosy. The dose for treating multiple myeloma is 200 mg daily in combination with dexamethasone. Thalidomide should be administered in the evening at least one hour after meals and with a full glass of water.
Which drugs or supplements interact with thalidomide?
Thalidomide increases the sedative effect of alcohol and other drugs that cause drowsiness (for example, diazepam [Valium]). Drugs that slow heart rate add to the heart slowing effects of thalidomide. Examples of such drugs include calcium channel blockers (CCBs), beta blockers, and digoxin (Lanoxin). The incidence of peripheral neuropathy increases when thalidomide is combined with other drugs (for example, amiodarone [Cordarone], cisplatin, phenytoin [Dilantin, Dilantin-125]) that also cause peripheral neuropathy.
Is thalidomide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Thalidomide is very harmful to the fetus. Therefore, thalidomide should be avoided during pregnancy. Men and women who are taking thalidomide should use appropriate methods of birth control. Moreover, women of childbearing age should practice two forms of birth control concurrently. Men taking thalidomide should not donate sperm, and thalidomide users should not donate blood since the recipients of the sperm and blood may receive small amounts of thalidomide.
What else should I know about thalidomide?
What preparations of thalidomide are available?
Capsules: 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg
How should I keep thalidomide stored?
Thalidomide should be store at room temperature 15 C - 30 C (59 F - 86 F) and protected from light.
Thalidomide (Thalomid) is a drug prescribed for the treatment and prevention of skin conditions that result from leprosy, and multiple myelomas. Off-label uses include the treatment of TB, aphthous ulcers, HIV-wasting syndrome, Crohn's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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Canker SoresCanker sores are a common complaint, and are small ulcers on the inside of the mouth. Canker sores aren't contagious (as opposed to cold sores), and typically last for 10-14 days usually healing without scarring. A variety of things cause canker sores, for example, medications (aspirin, beta-blockers, NSAIDs, high blood pressure medication, and antibiotics); injury to the mouth from dental work, braces, or sports accidents; acidic foods; allergies; and diseases or conditions like celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and lupus. Canker sores can be cure with home remedies, and prescription and OTC topical and oral medication.
Castleman Disease is a group of related conditions. It is a rare disease with an unknown prevalence. Signs and symptoms of Castleman disease include:
- Weight loss
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Castleman disease is caused by an abnormal growth of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. There are two types of Castleman disease; 1) unicentric, and 2) multicentric. Castleman disease is diagnosed by biopsy of the suspected lymph nodes. Castleman disease is treated with medications (for example, corticosteroids, chemotherapy drugs, immunodilating drugs, interferon-alfa, and anti-viral medications), surgery, and radiation therapy. The life expectancy for a person with Castleman disease is difficult to determine because the condition is rare and takes different forms.
Drug InteractionsDrug interactions occur frequently. Get facts about the types of drug interactions, what substances or other things that may interact with drugs such as OTC drug and prescription drugs, vitamins, food(s) (grapefruit), and laboratory tests. Find out how to protect yourself from potential drug interactions.
Drugs: What You Should Know About Your DrugsImportant information about your drugs should be reviewed prior to taking any prescription drug. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precauctions, dosage, what the drug is used for, what to do if you miss a dose, how the drug is to be stored, and generic vs. brand names.
Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a condition that happens when immune cells from transplanted donor tissue attack the recipient's tissues. Signs and symptoms of acute GVHD include enteritis, hepatitis, and dermatitis. Chronic GVHD symptoms and signs include rash, skin discoloration, dry mouth or eyes, jaundice, fatigue, and wheezing, among others. The standard of GVHD treatment is immunosuppressant medications.
Juvenile ArthritisJuvenile idiopathic arthritis (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis or JRA) annually affects one child in every thousand. There are six types of JIA. Treatment of juvenile arthritis depends upon the type the child has and should focus on treating the symptoms that manifest.
Kaposi's Sarcoma Ecchymotic PictureEcchymotic purple-brownish macule and a 1-cm nodule on the dorsum of the hand of a 65-year-old male of Ashkenazi-Jewish extraction. See a picture of Kaposi's Sarcoma Ecchymotic and learn more about the health topic.
LeprosyLeprosy (Hansen's disease) is a disfiguring disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae bacteria. The disease is spread from person to person through nasal secretions or droplets. Symptoms and signs of leprosy include numbness, loss of temperature sensation, painless ulcers, eye damage, loss of digits, and facial disfigurement. Leprosy is treated with antibiotics and the dosage and length of time of administration depends upon which form of leprosy the patient has.
Multiple MyelomaMultiple myeloma is a form of cancer that develops in plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies. Symptoms include bone pain, weakness, extreme thirst, nausea, frequent urination, and broken bones. Treatment of multiple myeloma depends upon the staging and symptoms of the disease.
Sarcoidosis, a disease resulting from chronic inflammation, causes small lumps (granulomas) to develop in a great range of body tissues and can appear in almost any body organ. However, sarcoidosis most often starts in the lungs or lymph nodes.
SclerodermaScleroderma is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue. It is characterized by the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the skin and organs of the body, leading to thickness and firmness of involved areas. Scleroderma is also referred to as systemic sclerosis, and the cause is unknown. Treatment of scleroderma is directed toward the individual features that are most troubling to the patient.
Weber-Christian DiseaseWeber-Christian disease is a rare inflammatory disease that affects the body's fat tissues. It's also known as relapsing febrile nodular panniculitis syndrome and idiopathic lobular panniculitis. The disorder appears on the skin as red or purple tender, raised lumps. The thighs and lower legs are the most frequently affected areas. Other symptoms may include:
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