- What is teriflunomide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for teriflunomide?
- Is teriflunomide available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for teriflunomide?
- What are the side effects of teriflunomide?
- What is the dosage for teriflunomide?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with teriflunomide?
- Is teriflunomide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about teriflunomide?
What is teriflunomide, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Teriflunomide is an oral immunomodulatory agent used for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). It inhibits dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, an enzyme used to make pyrimidine which is used to build DNA. The exact mechanism of action of teriflunomide in the treatment of MS is unknown. However, it is thought to reduce the over activation of the immune system by decreasing the number of white blood cells (T and B lymphocytes) in the central nervous system. Teriflunomide decreases the number of MS relapses. The FDA approved teriflunomide in September 2013.
What are the side effects of teriflunomide?
The most common side effects associated with teriflunomide treatment are
- alopecia (hair thinning or loss),
- paresthesia (tingling, burning, prickling or pricking sensations of the skin),
- and increase in liver enzymes.
Serious liver injury, kidney problems, decrease in white blood cell counts, risk for serious infections such as
Quick GuideMultiple Sclerosis (MS) Symptoms and Treatment
What is the dosage for teriflunomide?
The recommended dose is one 7 mg or 14 mg tablet once daily with or without food. Note that a monthly blood test for liver enzyme measurements for 6 months is recommended to detect potential liver problems (see side effects section).
Which drugs or supplements interact with teriflunomide?
Teriflunomide may increase blood levels of
Teriflunomide may decrease the blood levels of drugs such as
- duloxetine (Cymbalta),
- alosetron (Lotronex),
- theophylline (Respbid, Slo-Bid, Theo-24, Theolair),
- and tizanidine that are metabolized by the CYP1A2 liver enzymes.
Blood levels of teriflunomide may be increased by
Is teriflunomide safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
It is not known whether teriflunomide is secreted into breast milk.
What else should I know about teriflunomide?
What preparations of teriflunomide are available?
Film-coated tablets: 7 mg and 14 mg
How should I keep teriflunomide stored?
STORAGE: Tablets should to be stored at 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F), but also may be stored at 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F)
teriflunomide (Aubagio) is a prescription drug prescribed to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in individuals with MS. Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Medications & Supplements
- acetaminophen (Tylenol, Tylenol Arthritis Pain, Tylenol Ext, Little Fevers Children's Fever/Pain)
- aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, Bayer, Ecotrin, and others)
- prednisone (Prednisone Intensol, Rayos) Corticosteroid
- diazepam (Valium, Diastat, Acudial, Diastat Pediatric, Diazepam Intensol)
- clonazepam (Klonopin)
- methylprednisolone, Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol
- amantadine (Symmetrel - Discontinued)
- baclofen (Gablofen, Lioresal)
- natalizumab - injection, Tysabri
- mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
- Antidepressants (Depression Medications)
- fingolimod, Gilenya
- dalfampridine, Ampyra
- dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information.
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Acetaminophen is a drug that reduces fever and relieves pain. It is available alone, or in combination with hundreds of other drugs available both over-the-counter (without a prescription) or that that may require a prescription from your doctor, for example, acetaminophen and hydrocodone (Vicodin, Norco) or acetaminophen and oxycodone (Percocet).
Acetaminophen treats a variety of diseases or other medical problems that cause pain or fever. Examples of conditions acetaminophen treats include, headache, minor arthritis pain, back pain, tooth pain, menstrual cramps, PMS, osteoarthritis, common cold, tension headache, chronic pain, hip pain, shoulder and neck pain, sore throat, sinus infection, teething, TMJ, bites and stings, and sprains and strains.
Acetaminophen generally has no side effects when taken as prescribed. When side effects are experienced, the most common are headache, rash, and nausea.
In 2014, the FDA recommended that doctors and other health care professionals only prescribe acetaminophen in doses of 325 mg or less. This warning highlights the potential for allergic reactions, for example, face, mouth, and throat swelling, difficulty breathing, itching, or rash. This action also will help reduce the risk of severe liver injury and serious allergic reactions associated with this drug. Other possible serious side effects adverse effects include anemia, kidney damage, thrombocytopenia (a reduced number of platelets in the blood), and liver problems.
Other patient information. Do not take more than one product that contains acetaminophen at the same time. Do not take more than one acetaminophen-containing drug than directed. Do not drink alcohol while taking medicine that contains acetaminophen due to severe liver damage.
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information.
acetylsalicylic acidAspirin (Aspirin, Arthritis Foundation Safety Coated Aspirin, Bayer Aspirin, Bayer Children's Aspirin, Ecotrin, and many others) is a NSAID used to treat fever, pain, and inflammation in the body that results from forms of arthritis, and soft tissue injuries. Aspirin is also used for decreasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes. Side effects, drug interactions, pregnancy information, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Alternative Therapy for Multiple SclerosisThe term alternative therapy, in general, is used to describe any medical treatment or intervention that has not been scientifically documented or identified as safe or effective for a specific condition. Alternative therapy encompasses a variety of disciplines that range from diet and exercise to mental conditioning to lifestyle changes.
amantadineAmantadine, (Symmetrel - Discontinued) is prescribed for the prevention and treatment of infections with influenza A. Amantadine is also prescribed to control the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and for the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.
baclofenBaclofen, (Gablofen, Lioresal, [Kemstro has been discontinued]) is a medication prescribed for the treatment of spasms of skeletal muscles, muscle rigidity, muscle clonus, and pain caused by disorders like multiple sclerosis. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Clonazepam (Klonopin) is an prescription medication used to treat panic disorder, certain types of seizures, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and the short-term relief of anxiety. Side effects include
Drug interactions, dosage, pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Diazepam (Valium, Diastat Acudial, Diastat, Diazepam Intensol) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders; and agitation, tremors, delirium, seizures and hallucinations that result from alcohol withdrawal. Side effects include:
Multiple drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
interferonInterferons are a family of natural occurring proteins. Interferons are used to treat many diseases that involve the immune system for example, cancers, hepatitis, AIDS, multiple sclerosis (MS), genital and perianal warts, and granulomatous disease. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions and patient safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Is MS Contagious Multiple Sclerosis Transmission
Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a degenerative disease of the covering around the nerves in the central nervous system (CNS). Researchers and doctors don't know the exact cause, but many theorize that it may be due to:
- Environmental triggers
- An autoimmune disease
- Viruses (infections)
Symptoms of MS include:
- Vision changes
- Heat intolerance
- Slurred speech
- Sexual dysfunction
- Urinary incontinence
There's no vaccine or cure for MS, but the progression and symptoms of the disease can be treated.
methylprednisoloneMethylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol) is a medication prescribed to patients to suppress inflammation from a variety of conditions and diseases. Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
mitoxantrone-injectionmitoxantrone (Novantrone) is an injection medication prescribed to treat secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, and individuals with pain that is related to advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Side effects, drug interactions, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to administering this medication.
MS (Multiple Sclerosis) Symptoms and Treatments
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and 40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.
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Multiple Sclerosis (MS)Multiple sclerosis or MS is an autoimmune disorder in which brain and spinal cord nerve cells become demyelinated. This damage results in symptoms that may include numbness, weakness, vertigo, paralysis, and involuntary muscle contractions. Different forms of MS can follow variable courses from relatively benign to life-threatening. MS is treated with disease-modifying therapies. Some MS symptoms can be treated with medications.
Take the MS QuizMultiple Sclerosis is a debilitating neurological condition. Take the MS Quiz to test your knowledge of the causes, symptoms, risks and treatments.
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Prednisone is a drug that belongs to the corticosteroid drug class, and is an anti-inflammatory and immune system suppressant. It's used to treat a variety of diseases and conditions, for example: inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), lupus, asthma, cancers, and several types of arthritis.
Common side effects are weight gain, headache, fluid retention, and muscle weakness. Other effects and adverse events include glaucoma, cataracts, obesity, facial hair growth, moon face, and growth retardation in children. This medicine also causes psychiatric problems, for example: depression, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and psychotic behavior. Serious side effects include reactions to diabetes drugs, infections, and necrosis of the hips and joints.
Corticosteroids like prednisone, have many drug interactions; examples include: estrogens, phenytoin (Dilantin), diuretics, warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven), and diabetes drugs. Prednisone is available as tablets of 1, 2.5, 10, 20, and 50 mg; extended release tablets of 1, 2, and 5mg; and oral solution of 5mg/5ml. It's use during the first trimester of pregnancy may cause cleft palate. This medicine is secreted in breast milk and can cause side effects in infants who are nursing. You should not stop taking prednisone abruptly because it can cause withdrawal symptoms and adrenal failure. Talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other medical professional if you have questions about beta-blockers. Talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other medical professional if you have questions about prednisone.
If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. In the US -Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.