- What other names is Taurine known by?
- What is Taurine?
- How does Taurine work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Taurine.
2-Aminoethylsulfonic Acid, 2-Aminoethane Sulfonic Acid, Acide Aminoéthylsulfonique, Acide Kétoisocaproïque de Taurine, Acid Aminoethanesulfonate, Aminoethanesulfonate, Aminoéthylsulfonique, Éthyl Ester de Taurine, L-Taurine, Taurina, Taurine Ethyl Ester, Taurine Ketoisocaproic Acid.
Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid, but it is often referred to as an amino acid, a chemical that is a required building block of protein. Taurine is found in large amounts in the brain, retina, heart, and blood cells called platelets. The best food sources are meat and fish.
You may see taurine referred to as "a conditional amino acid," to distinguish it from "an essential amino acid." A "conditional amino acid" can be manufactured by the body, but an "essential amino acid" cannot be made by the body and must be provided by the diet. People who, for one reason or another, cannot make taurine, must get all the taurine they need from their diet or supplements. For example, supplementation is necessary in infants who are not breastfed because their ability to make taurine is not yet developed and cow's milk does not provide enough taurine. So taurine is often added to infant formulas. People who are being tube-fed often need taurine as well, so it is added to the nutritional products that they use. Excess taurine is excreted by the kidneys.
Some people take taurine supplements as medicine to treat congestive heart failure (CHF), high blood pressure, liver disease (hepatitis), high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), and cystic fibrosis. Other uses include seizure disorders (epilepsy), autism, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), eye problems (disorders of the retina), diabetes, and alcoholism. It is also used to improve mental performance and as an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells of the body from damage that results from certain chemical reactions involving oxygen (oxidation).
Possibly Effective for...
- Congestive heart failure (CHF). Taking 2-3 grams of taurine by mouth one to two times daily for 6-8 weeks seems to improve heart function and symptoms in patients with moderate heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II) to severe heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV). Some patients with severe heart failure rapidly improve from NYHA class IV to II after 4-8 weeks of treatment. Improvement seems to continue for as long as taurine treatment is continued, up to one year.
- Liver disease (hepatitis). Early research suggests that taking 1.5-4 grams of taurine daily for up to 3 months improves liver function in people with hepatitis.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Infant development. Research suggests that feeding infants a formula containing taurine for up to 12 weeks does not affect weight, height, head circumference, or behavior in infants.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- An eye disease called age-related macular degeneration. Early research suggests that taking a nutritional supplement containing taurine by mouth, in addition to standard care for 6 months, improves vision in people with AMD.
- Cystic fibrosis. Taurine supplementation might be useful along with usual treatment to reduce fatty stools (steatorrhea) in children with cystic fibrosis. However, it does not seem to improve growth, lung function, or other symptoms of cystic fibrosis.
- Diabetes. Early research suggests that taking 1.5 grams of taurine twice daily for 4 months does not affect blood sugar, blood fats, or insulin levels in people with diabetes.
- Fatigue. Early research suggests that taking an energy drink containing taurine prior to driving may reduce driver fatigue.
- Exercise performance. Research suggests that taking 1-1.66 grams of taurine before exercise does not improve overall exercise performance. Using products containing taurine combined with other ingredients might improve cycling performance but not strength training or sprint performance.
- Stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Early research suggest that taking 500 mg of taurine twice daily together with conventional treatments for 6 weeks reduces H. pylori infection and improves ulcer healing.
- High blood pressure. Early research suggests that taking 6 grams of taurine daily for 7 days reduces blood pressure in people with borderline high blood pressure.
- Anemia due to iron deficiency. Early research suggests that taking iron with 1000 mg of taurine improves red blood cell counts and iron levels in women with anemia due to iron deficiency.
- Mental performance. Early clinical research suggests that taurine, in combination with caffeine and B vitamins (Red Bull Energy Drink), can improve attention and reasoning in adolescents, but does not improve memory.
- Muscle soreness. Research suggests that taking 2 grams of taurine together with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) three times daily for 2 weeks reduces muscle soreness in healthy people who do not exercise regularly.
- Inherited muscle wasting disease (myotonic dystrophy). Early research suggests that taking100-150 mg/kg of taurine for 6 months improves the ability to relax muscles after use in people with myotonic dystrophy.
- Lack of sleep. Early research suggests that taking taurine plus caffeine or a combination product containing taurine, caffeine, glucuronolactone, and B vitamins (Red Bull Energy Drink) reduces sleepiness and improves reaction time in people who are sleep deprived.
- Other conditions.
Researchers aren't exactly sure why taurine seems to help congestive heart failure (CHF). There is some evidence that it improves the function of the left ventricle, one of the chambers of the heart. Taurine might also improve heart failure because it seems to lower blood pressure and calm the sympathetic nervous system, which is often too active in people with high blood pressure and CHF. The sympathetic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that responds to stress.
Taurine is POSSIBLY SAFE for adults and children when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. Taurine has been used safely in adults in studies lasting up to one year. It has been given safely to children for up to 4 months. People enrolled in research studies have not reported any side effects connected with the use of taurine. However, there is one report of brain damage in a body-builder who took about 14 grams of taurine in combination with insulin and anabolic steroids. It is not known if this was due to the taurine or the other drugs taken.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the safety of taurine in pregnancy and during breast-feeding. Avoid using it.
Bipolar disorder: There is some concern that taking too much taurine might make bipolar disorder worse. In one case, a 36-year-old man with adequately controlled bipolar disorder was hospitalized with symptoms of mania after consuming several cans of an energy drink containing taurine, caffeine, inositol, and other ingredients (Red Bull Energy Drink) over a period of 4 days. It is not known if this is related to taurine, caffeine, inositol, a different ingredient, or a combination of the ingredients.
LithiumInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taurine might slow down the rate at which lithium is flushed out of the body. This could increase levels of lithium that stay in the body. As a result, your healthcare provider might need to lower your dose of lithium.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Taurine might decrease blood pressure in some people. Taking taurine along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. However, it's not known if this is a big concern. Do not take too much taurine if you are taking medications for high blood pressure. Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- Congestive heart failure: 2-6 grams of taurine per day in two or three divided doses.
- Hepatitis: 4 grams of taurine 3 times daily for 6 weeks.
- Nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy: 2 grams of taurine daily for 6 months has been used.
- Muscle soreness after exercise: 2 grams of taurine three times daily after meals before exercise and continued three days after exercise.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
[Taurin in combined treatment of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus]. Ter.Arkh. 2011;83(10):31-36. View abstract.
Airaksinen, E. M., Koivisto, K., Keranen, T., Pitkanen, A., Riekkinen, P. J., Oja, S. S., Marnela, K. M., Partanen, J. V., Tokola, O., Gothoni, G., and . Biochemical and clinical studies on epileptic patients during two phase I trials with the novel anticonvulsant taltrimide. Epilepsy Res 1987;1(5):308-311. View abstract.
Airaksinen, E. M., Oja, S. S., Marnela, K. M., Leino, E., and Paakkonen, L. Effects of taurine treatment on epileptic patients. Prog.Clin.Biol.Res. 1980;39:157-166. View abstract.
Anderson, C. M., Howard, A., Walters, J. R., Ganapathy, V., and Thwaites, D. T. Taurine uptake across the human intestinal brush-border membrane is via two transporters: H+-coupled PAT1 (SLC36A1) and Na+- and Cl(-)-dependent TauT (SLC6A6). J Physiol 2-15-2009;587(Pt 4):731-744. View abstract.
Anuradha, C. V. Aminoacid support in the prevention of diabetes and diabetic complications. Curr Protein Pept.Sci 2009;10(1):8-17. View abstract.
Anuradha, C. V. and Balakrishnan, S. D. Taurine attenuates hypertension and improves insulin sensitivity in the fructose-fed rat, an animal model of insulin resistance. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1999;77(10):749-754. View abstract.
Armentano, M. J., Brenner, A. K., Hedman, T. L., Solomon, Z. T., Chavez, J., Kemper, G. B., Salzberg, D., Battafarano, D. F., and Christie, D. S. The effect and safety of short-term creatine supplementation on performance of push-ups. Mil.Med 2007;172(3):312-317. View abstract.
Atanassova, S. S., Panchev, P., and Ivanova, M. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of amino acids by subjects with renal calculi. Amino.Acids 2010;38(5):1277-1282. View abstract.
Atluri, D. K., Veluru, C., and Mullen, K. An alternative treatment for muscle cramps in patients with liver cirrhosis. Liver Int 2013;33(3):496-497. View abstract.
Balkan, J., Oztezcan, S., Hatipoglu, A., Cevikbas, U., Aykac-Toker, G., and Uysal, M. Effect of a taurine treatment on the regression of existing atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004;68(5):1035-1039. View abstract.
Baum, M. and Weiss, M. The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography. Amino.Acids 2001;20(1):75-82. View abstract.
Bellentani, S., Rocchi, E., Casalgrandi, G., Pecorari, M., Farina, F., and Capella, L. Effect of enteral taurine supplementation on nutritional indices and hepatic function in preterm infants [Effetto della supplementazione di taurine nell'alimentazione del neonato prematuro su alcuni indici bioumorali di funzionalita' epatica]. Pediatrica oggi 1988;8:402-407.
Berger, A. J. and Alford, K. Cardiac arrest in a young man following excess consumption of caffeinated "energy drinks". Med J Aust. 1-5-2009;190(1):41-43. View abstract.
Bijleveld, C. M., Vonk, R. J., Okken, A., and Fernandes, J. Fat absorption in preterm infants fed a taurine-enriched formula. Eur.J.Pediatr. 1987;146(2):128-130. View abstract.
Brons, C., Spohr, C., Storgaard, H., Dyerberg, J., and Vaag, A. Effect of taurine treatment on insulin secretion and action, and on serum lipid levels in overweight men with a genetic predisposition for type II diabetes mellitus. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;58(9):1239-1247. View abstract.
Brosnan, J. T. and Brosnan, M. E. The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview. J Nutr 2006;136(6 Suppl):1636S-1640S. View abstract.
Brucknerova, I., Behulova, D., Bzduch, V., Mach, M., Dubovicky, M., and Ujhazy, E. Newborn with neonatal form of molybdenum cofactor deficiency - the first patient in the Slovak Republic. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2010;31 Suppl 2:5-7. View abstract.
Carmi-Nawi, N., Malinger, G., Mandel, H., Ichida, K., Lerman-Sagie, T., and Lev, D. Prenatal brain disruption in molybdenum cofactor deficiency. J Child Neurol. 2011;26(4):460-464. View abstract.
Cavalcanti, A. L., Costa, Oliveira M., Florentino, V. G., dos Santos, J. A., Vieira, F. F., and Cavalcanti, C. L. Short communication: In vitro assessment of erosive potential of energy drinks. Eur Arch Paediatr.Dent. 2010;11(5):253-255. View abstract.
Chen, W., Matuda, K., Nishimura, N., and Yokogoshi, H. The effect of taurine on cholesterol degradation in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. Life Sci 2-27-2004;74(15):1889-1898. View abstract.
Chua, H. R., Baldwin, I., Fealy, N., Naka, T., and Bellomo, R. Amino acid balance with extended daily diafiltration in acute kidney injury. Blood Purif. 2012;33(4):292-299. View abstract.
Cooke, R. J., Whitington, P. F., and Kelts, D. Effect of taurine supplementation on hepatic function during short-term parenteral nutrition in the premature infant. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 1984;3(2):234-238. View abstract.
Cross, A. J., Major, J. M., and Sinha, R. Urinary biomarkers of meat consumption. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(6):1107-1111. View abstract.
Dalbo, V. J., Roberts, M. D., Stout, J. R., and Kerksick, C. M. Effect of gender on the metabolic impact of a commercially available thermogenic drink. J Strength.Cond.Res 2010;24(6):1633-1642. View abstract.
Das, J., Roy, A., and Sil, P. C. Mechanism of the protective action of taurine in toxin and drug induced organ pathophysiology and diabetic complications: a review. Food Funct. 2012;3(12):1251-1264. View abstract.
De la Puerta, C., Arrieta, F. J., Balsa, J. A., Botella-Carretero, J. I., Zamarron, I., and Vazquez, C. Taurine and glucose metabolism: a review. Nutr Hosp. 2010;25(6):910-919. View abstract.
del, Olmo N., Bustamante, J., del Rio, R. M., and Solis, J. M. Taurine activates GABA(A) but not GABA(B) receptors in rat hippocampal CA1 area. Brain Res 5-12-2000;864(2):298-307. View abstract.
Dunn-Lewis, C., Kraemer, W. J., Kupchak, B. R., Kelly, N. A., Creighton, B. A., Luk, H. Y., Ballard, K. D., Comstock, B. A., Szivak, T. K., Hooper, D. R., Denegar, C. R., and Volek, J. S. A multi-nutrient supplement reduced markers of inflammation and improved physical performance in active individuals of middle to older age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J 2011;10:90. View abstract.
Eby, G. and Halcomb, W. W. Elimination of cardiac arrhythmias using oral taurine with l-arginine with case histories: Hypothesis for nitric oxide stabilization of the sinus node. Med Hypotheses 2006;67(5):1200-1204. View abstract.
El Idrissi, A. and Trenkner, E. Growth factors and taurine protect against excitotoxicity by stabilizing calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism. J Neurosci 11-1-1999;19(21):9459-9468. View abstract.
Elizarova, E. P. and Nedosugova, L. V. First experiments in taurine administration for diabetes mellitus. The effect on erythrocyte membranes. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1996;403:583-588. View abstract.
Elizarova, E. P., Orlova, T. R., and Medvedeva, N. V. Effects on heart membranes after taurine treatment in rabbits with congestive heart failure. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43(3):308-312. View abstract.
Elshorbagy, A. K., Kozich, V., Smith, A. D., and Refsum, H. Cysteine and obesity: consistency of the evidence across epidemiologic, animal and cellular studies. Curr Opin.Clin Nutr Metab Care 2012;15(1):49-57. View abstract.
Elshorbagy, A. K., Valdivia-Garcia, M., Graham, I. M., Palma, Reis R., Sales, Luis A., Smith, A. D., and Refsum, H. The association of fasting plasma sulfur-containing compounds with BMI, serum lipids and apolipoproteins. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis 2012;22(12):1031-1038. View abstract.
Fallahzadeh, M. K., Namazi, M. R., and Gupta, R. C. Taurine: a potential novel addition to the anti-systemic sclerosis weaponry. Arch Med Res 2010;41(1):59-61. View abstract.
Fitzpatrick, W. J., Zentler-Munro, P. L., and Northfield, T. C. Ileal resection: effect of cimetidine and taurine on intrajejunal bile acid precipitation and lipid solubilisation. Gut 1986;27(1):66-72. View abstract.
Flora, S. J., Bhadauria, S., Kannan, G. M., and Singh, N. Arsenic induced oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant supplementation during chelation: a review. J Environ.Biol 2007;28(2 Suppl):333-347. View abstract.
Flora, S. J., Flora, G., Saxena, G., and Mishra, M. Arsenic and lead induced free radical generation and their reversibility following chelation. Cell Mol.Biol (Noisy.-le-grand) 2007;53(1):26-47. View abstract.
Franconi, F., Bennardini, F., Mattana, A., Miceli, M., Ciuti, M., Mian, M., Gironi, A., Anichini, R., and Seghieri, G. Plasma and platelet taurine are reduced in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects of taurine supplementation. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1995;61(5):1115-1119. View abstract.
Franks, A. M., Schmidt, J. M., McCain, K. R., and Fraer, M. Comparison of the effects of energy drink versus caffeine supplementation on indices of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46(2):192-199. View abstract.
Freeman, L. M. and Rush, J. E. Nutrition and cardiomyopathy: lessons from spontaneous animal models. Curr Heart Fail.Rep. 2007;4(2):84-90. View abstract.
FRENDO, J., KOJ, A., and ZGLICZYNSKI, J. M. Taurine in human blood platelets. Nature 3-7-1959;183(4662):685-686. View abstract.
Frosini, M., Sesti, C., Dragoni, S., Valoti, M., Palmi, M., Dixon, H. B., Machetti, F., and Sgaragli, G. Interactions of taurine and structurally related analogues with the GABAergic system and taurine binding sites of rabbit brain. Br J Pharmacol 2003;138(6):1163-1171. View abstract.
Fujihira, E., Takahashi, H., and Nakazawa, M. Effect of long-term feeding of taurine in hereditary hyperglycemic obese mice. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1970;18(8):1636-1642. View abstract.
Fukuyama, Y. and Ochiai, Y. Therapeutic trial by taurine for intractable childhood epilepsies. Brain Dev. 1982;4(1):63-69. View abstract.
Funke, S., Azimi, D., Wolters, D., Grus, F. H., and Pfeiffer, N. Longitudinal analysis of taurine induced effects on the tear proteome of contact lens wearers and dry eye patients using a RP-RP-Capillary-HPLC-MALDI TOF/TOF MS approach. J Proteomics. 6-18-2012;75(11):3177-3190. View abstract.
Gaby, A. R. Natural approaches to epilepsy. Altern.Med Rev. 2007;12(1):9-24. View abstract.
Galeano, N. F., Darling, P., Lepage, G., Leroy, C., Collet, S., Giguere, R., and Roy, C. C. Taurine supplementation of a premature formula improves fat absorption in preterm infants. Pediatr.Res. 1987;22(1):67-71. View abstract.
Ganio, M. S., Klau, J. F., Lee, E. C., Yeargin, S. W., McDermott, B. P., Buyckx, M., Maresh, C. M., and Armstrong, L. E. Effect of various carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids on cycling performance and maximal voluntary contraction. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2010;20(2):104-114. View abstract.
Gaull, G. E., Rassin, D. K., Raiha, N. C., and Heinonen, K. Milk protein quantity and quality in low-birth-weight infants. III. Effects on sulfur amino acids in plasma and urine. J Pediatr 1977;90(3):348-355. View abstract.
Giles, G. E., Mahoney, C. R., Brunye, T. T., Gardony, A. L., Taylor, H. A., and Kanarek, R. B. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2012;102(4):569-577. View abstract.
Gray, G. E., Landel, A. M., and Meguid, M. M. Taurine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition and taurine status of malnourished cancer patients. Nutrition 1994;10(1):11-15. View abstract.
Grimble, R. F. The effects of sulfur amino acid intake on immune function in humans. J Nutr 2006;136(6 Suppl):1660S-1665S. View abstract.
Gupta, R. C., Seki, Y., and Yosida, J. Role of taurine in spinal cord injury. Curr Neurovasc.Res 2006;3(3):225-235. View abstract.
Hagar, H. H., El Etter, E., and Arafa, M. Taurine attenuates hypertension and renal dysfunction induced by cyclosporine A in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;33(3):189-196. View abstract.
Hagiwara, K., Kuroki, G., Yuan, P. X., Suzuki, T., Murakami, M., Hano, T., Sasano, H., and Yanagisawa, T. The effect of taurine on the salt-dependent blood pressure increase in the voltage-dependent calcium channel beta 3-subunit-deficient mouse. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2003;41 Suppl 1:S127-S131. View abstract.
Harding, G. F., Grose, J., Wilton, A. Y., and Bissenden, J. G. The pattern reversal VEP in short-gestation infants on taurine or taurine-free diet. Doc.Ophthalmol. 1989;73(2):103-109. View abstract.
Hayes, K. C., Stephan, Z. F., and Sturman, J. A. Growth depression in taurine-depleted infant monkeys. J Nutr 1980;110(10):2058-2064. View abstract.
Huxtable, R. and Bressler, R. Elevation of taurine in human congestive heart failure. Life Sci. 4-1-1974;14(7):1353-1359. View abstract.
Iizuka, T. [Pathogenesis and treatment of stroke-like episodes in MELAS]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2008;48(11):1006-1009. View abstract.
Iresjo, B. M., Korner, U., Larsson, B., Henriksson, B. A., and Lundholm, K. Appearance of individual amino acid concentrations in arterial blood during steady-state infusions of different amino acid formulations to ICU patients in support of whole-body protein metabolism. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2006;30(4):277-285. View abstract.
Ishizaka, S., Kuriyama, S., Kikuchi, E., Nishimura, K., and Tsujii, T. A novel oral adjuvant for hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines. J Hepatol. 1990;11(3):326-329. View abstract.
Ishizaka, S., Yoshikawa, M., Kitagami, K., and Tsujii, T. Oral adjuvants for viral vaccines in humans. Vaccine 1990;8(4):337-341. View abstract.
Ito, T., Schaffer, S. W., and Azuma, J. The potential usefulness of taurine on diabetes mellitus and its complications. Amino.Acids 2012;42(5):1529-1539. View abstract.
Jarvenpaa, A. L. Feeding the low-birth-weight infant. IV. Fat absorption as a function of diet and duodenal bile acids. Pediatrics 1983;72(5):684-689. View abstract.
Jeukendrup, A. E. and Randell, R. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes.Rev. 2011;12(10):841-851. View abstract.
Keith, M. E., Ball, A., Jeejeebhoy, K. N., Kurian, R., Butany, J., Dawood, F., Wen, W. H., Madapallimattam, A., and Sole, M. J. Conditioned nutritional deficiencies in the cardiomyopathic hamster heart. Can J Cardiol 2001;17(4):449-458. View abstract.
Kim, S. J., Gupta, R. C., and Lee, H. W. Taurine-diabetes interaction: from involvement to protection. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2007;3(3):165-175. View abstract.
Kim, S. J., Ramesh, C., Gupta, H., and Lee, W. Taurine-diabetes interaction: from involvement to protection. J Biol Regul.Homeost.Agents 2007;21(3-4):63-77. View abstract.
Konig, P., Kriechbaum, G., Presslich, O., Schubert, H., Schuster, P., and Sieghart, W. [Orally-administered taurine in therapy-resistant epilepsy (author's transl)]. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 2-10-1977;89(4):111-113. View abstract.
Kopple, J. D., Vinton, N. E., Laidlaw, S. A., and Ament, M. E. Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1990;52(5):846-853. View abstract.
Kumpf, V. J. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in adult and pediatric patients. Nutr Clin Pract. 2006;21(3):279-290. View abstract.
Lee, J. H., Jarreau, T., Prasad, A., Lavie, C., O'Keefe, J., and Ventura, H. Nutritional assessment in heart failure patients. Congest.Heart Fail. 2011;17(4):199-203. View abstract.
Li, Q., Guo, J. C., Jin, H. B., Cheng, J. S., and Yang, R. Involvement of taurine in penicillin-induced epilepsy and anti-convulsion of acupuncture: a preliminary report. Acupunct Electrother Res 2005;30(1-2):1-14. View abstract.
Livshits, Z., Hoffman, R. S., Hymes, K. B., and Nelson, L. S. If vitamins could kill: massive hemolysis following naturopathic vitamin infusion. J Med Toxicol. 2011;7(3):224-226. View abstract.
Lloyd, D. A. and Gabe, S. M. Managing liver dysfunction in parenteral nutrition. Proc.Nutr Soc. 2007;66(4):530-538. View abstract.
Luna, Ortiz P., Serrano, Valdes, X, Rojas, Perez E., and de, Micheli A. [Metabolic support of the ischemic heart during cardiac surgery]. Arch Cardiol.Mex. 2006;76 Suppl 4:S121-S136. View abstract.
Maciejak, P., Szyndler, J., Turzynska, D., Sobolewska, A., Taracha, E., Skorzewska, A., Lehner, M., Bidzinski, A., Hamed, A., Wislowska-Stanek, A., and Plaznik, A. The effects of group III mGluR ligands on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling of seizures and hippocampal amino acids concentration. Brain Res 7-28-2009;1282:20-27. View abstract.
Maenhaut, N., Boussery, K., Delaey, C., and Van, de, V. Control of retinal arterial tone by a paracrine retinal relaxing factor. Microcirculation. 2007;14(1):39-48. View abstract.
Malminen, O. and Kontro, P. Modulation of the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex by taurine in rat brain membranes. Neurochem.Res 1986;11(1):85-94. View abstract.
Marchesi, G. F., Quattrini, A., Scarpino, O., and Dellantonio, R. [Therapeutic effects of taurine in epilepsy: a clinical and polyphysiographic study (author's transl)]. Riv.Patol.Nerv.Ment. 1975;96(3):166-184. View abstract.
Mas, M. R., Isik, A. T., Yamanel, L., Inal, V., Tasci, I., Deveci, S., Mas, N., Comert, B., and Akay, C. Antioxidant treatment with taurine ameliorates chronic pancreatitis in an experimental rat model. Pancreas 2006;33(1):77-81. View abstract.
Mates, J. M., Segura, J. A., Alonso, F. J., and Marquez, J. Sulphur-containing non enzymatic antioxidants: therapeutic tools against cancer. Front Biosci.(Schol.Ed) 2012;4:722-748. View abstract.
McCarty, M. F. Practical prevention of cardiac remodeling and atrial fibrillation with full-spectrum antioxidant therapy and ancillary strategies. Med Hypotheses 2010;75(2):141-147. View abstract.
Michalk, D. V., Ringeisen, R., Tittor, F., Lauffer, H., Deeg, K. H., and Bohles, H. J. Development of the nervous and cardiovascular systems in low-birth-weight infants fed a taurine-supplemented formula. Eur.J.Pediatr. 1988;147(3):296-299. View abstract.
Milei, J., Ferreira, R., Llesuy, S., Forcada, P., Covarrubias, J., and Boveris, A. Reduction of reperfusion injury with preoperative rapid intravenous infusion of taurine during myocardial revascularization. Am.Heart J. 1992;123(2):339-345. View abstract.
Mizushima, S., Nara, Y., Sawamura, M., and Yamori, Y. Effects of oral taurine supplementation on lipids and sympathetic nerve tone. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1996;403:615-622. View abstract.
Moloney, M. A., Casey, R. G., O'Donnell, D. H., Fitzgerald, P., Thompson, C., and Bouchier-Hayes, D. J. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics. Diab.Vasc.Dis Res 2010;7(4):300-310. View abstract.
Mongiovi, A. [Clinical study on the control of epilepsy using taurine]. Riv.Neurol. 1978;48(3):305-325. View abstract.
Morchon, Simon D. and Perez Castrillon, J. L. [Hypoglycemia by intake of taurine]. Rev.Clin Esp. 2010;210(1):49. View abstract.
Moreno Villares, J. M. [Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease]. Nutr Hosp. 2008;23 Suppl 2:25-33. View abstract.
Mori, M., Xu, J. W., Mori, H., Ling, C. F., Wei, G. H., and Yamori, Y. Comparative studies on 24-hour urinary excretion in Japanese and Chinese adults and children--need for nutritional education. Adv.Exp.Med Biol 2009;643:399-405. View abstract.
Murakami, S., Kondo-Ohta, Y., and Tomisawa, K. Improvement in cholesterol metabolism in mice given chronic treatment of taurine and fed a high-fat diet. Life Sci 1999;64(1):83-91. View abstract.
Nandhini, A. T. and Anuradha, C. V. Taurine modulates kallikrein activity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant rats. Amino.Acids 2002;22(1):27-38. View abstract.
Oehlenschlager, J. Seafood: nutritional benefits and risk aspects. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2012;82(3):168-176. View abstract.
Oja, S. S., Korpi, E. R., and Saransaari, P. Modification of chloride flux across brain membranes by inhibitory amino acids in developing and adult mice. Neurochem.Res 1990;15(8):797-804. View abstract.
Oja, S. S., Lehtinen, I., and Lahdesmaki, P. Taurine transport rates between plasma and tissues in adult and 7-day-old mice. Q.J Exp.Physiol Cogn Med Sci 1976;61(2):133-143. View abstract.
Okamoto, E., Rassin, D. K., Zucker, C. L., Salen, G. S., and Heird, W. C. Role of taurine in feeding the low-birth-weight infant. J.Pediatr. 1984;104(6):936-940. View abstract.
Oriyanhan, W., Yamazaki, K., Miwa, S., Takaba, K., Ikeda, T., and Komeda, M. Taurine prevents myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in prolonged hypothermic rat heart preservation. Heart Vessels 2005;20(6):278-285. View abstract.
Paauw, J. D. and Davis, A. T. Taurine supplementation at three different dosages and its effect on trauma patients. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1994;60(2):203-206. View abstract.
Pandya, K. G., Patel, M. R., and Lau-Cam, C. A. Comparative study of the binding characteristics to and inhibitory potencies towards PARP and in vivo antidiabetogenic potencies of taurine, 3-aminobenzamide and nicotinamide. J Biomed.Sci 2010;17 Suppl 1:S16. View abstract.
Pappa, A., Franco, R., Schoneveld, O., Galanis, A., Sandaltzopoulos, R., and Panayiotidis, M. I. Sulfur-containing compounds in protecting against oxidant-mediated lung diseases. Curr Med Chem 2007;14(24):2590-2596. View abstract.
Patrick, L. Lead toxicity part II: the role of free radical damage and the use of antioxidants in the pathology and treatment of lead toxicity. Altern.Med Rev. 2006;11(2):114-127. View abstract.
Pearl, P. L., Gibson, K. M., Cortez, M. A., Wu, Y., Carter, Snead O., III, Knerr, I., Forester, K., Pettiford, J. M., Jakobs, C., and Theodore, W. H. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: lessons from mice and men. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2009;32(3):343-352. View abstract.
Raiha N, Rassin D, Heinonen K, and Gaull GE. Milk protein quality and quantity: Biochemical and growth effects in low birth weight infants (LBWI). Pediatr Res 1975;9:370.
Rakotoambinina, B., Marks, L., Badran, A. M., Igliki, F., Thuillier, F., Crenn, P., Messing, B., and Darmaun, D. Taurine kinetics assessed using [1,2-13C2]taurine in healthy adult humans. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2004;287(2):E255-E262. View abstract.
Ratamess, N. A., Hoffman, J. R., Ross, R., Shanklin, M., Faigenbaum, A. D., and Kang, J. Effects of an amino acid/creatine energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2007;17(6):608-623. View abstract.
Remacle, C., Dumortier, O., Bol, V., Goosse, K., Romanus, P., Theys, N., Bouckenooghe, T., and Reusens, B. Intrauterine programming of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2007;9 Suppl 2:196-209. View abstract.
Rikimaru, M., Ohsawa, Y., Wolf, A. M., Nishimaki, K., Ichimiya, H., Kamimura, N., Nishimatsu, S., Ohta, S., and Sunada, Y. Taurine ameliorates impaired the mitochondrial function and prevents stroke-like episodes in patients with MELAS. Intern.Med 2012;51(24):3351-3357. View abstract.
Rumpl, E., Gerstenbrand, F., Hengl, W., and Binder, H. [Electrophysiogical and neuropharmacological studies in a patient with progressive myoclonus-epilepsy (author's transl)]. EEG.EMG.Z.Elektroenzephalogr.Elektromyogr.Verwandte.Geb. 1977;8(2):77-81. View abstract.
Sadzuka, Y., Matsuura, M., and Sonobe, T. The effect of taurine, a novel biochemical modulator, on the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32(9):1584-1587. View abstract.
Schaffer, S. W., Azuma, J., and Mozaffari, M. Role of antioxidant activity of taurine in diabetes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2009;87(2):91-99. View abstract.
Schaffer, S. W., Kramer, J., and Chovan, J. P. Regulation of calcium homeostasis in the heart by taurine. Fed.Proc. 1980;39(9):2691-2694. View abstract.
Schneider, S. M., Joly, F., Gehrardt, M. F., Badran, A. M., Myara, A., Thuillier, F., Coudray-Lucas, C., Cynober, L., Trivin, F., and Messing, B. Taurine status and response to intravenous taurine supplementation in adults with short-bowel syndrome undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition: a pilot study. Br J Nutr 2006;96(2):365-370. View abstract.
Schoffl, I., Kothmann, J. F., Schoffl, V., Rupprecht, H. D., and Rupprecht, T. "Vodka energy": too much for the adolescent nephron? Pediatrics 2011;128(1):e227-e231. View abstract.
Sedova, E. M. and Magnitskaia, O. V. [A clinical experience of taurine and trimetazidine use in premenopausal women with chronic heart failure]. Kardiologiia. 2010;50(1):62-63. View abstract.
Seidl, R., Peyrl, A., Nicham, R., and Hauser, E. A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being. Amino.Acids 2000;19(3-4):635-642. View abstract.
Shao, A. and Hathcock, J. N. Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol 2008;50(3):376-399. View abstract.
Shao, X., Hu, Z., Hu, C., Bu, Q., Yan, G., Deng, P., Lv, L., Wu, D., Deng, Y., Zhao, J., Zhu, R., Li, Y., Li, H., Xu, Y., Yang, H., Zhao, Y., and Cen, X. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol 5-1-2012;260(3):260-270. View abstract.
Soukoulis, V., Dihu, J. B., Sole, M., Anker, S. D., Cleland, J., Fonarow, G. C., Metra, M., Pasini, E., Strzelczyk, T., Taegtmeyer, H., and Gheorghiade, M. Micronutrient deficiencies an unmet need in heart failure. J Am Coll.Cardiol. 10-27-2009;54(18):1660-1673. View abstract.
Spencer, A. U., Yu, S., Tracy, T. F., Aouthmany, M. M., Llanos, A., Brown, M. B., Brown, M., Shulman, R. J., Hirschl, R. B., Derusso, P. A., Cox, J., Dahlgren, J., Strouse, P. J., Groner, J. I., and Teitelbaum, D. H. Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in neonates: multivariate analysis of the potential protective effect of taurine. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2005;29(5):337-343. View abstract.
Spohr, C., Brons, C., Winther, K., Dyerberg, J., and Vaag, A. No effect of taurine on platelet aggregation in men with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Platelets. 2005;16(5):301-305. View abstract.
Suzuki, T., Nagao, A., and Suzuki, T. Human mitochondrial diseases caused by lack of taurine modification in mitochondrial tRNAs. Wiley.Interdiscip.Rev.RNA. 2011;2(3):376-386. View abstract.
Tahrani, A. A., Askwith, T., and Stevens, M. J. Emerging drugs for diabetic neuropathy. Expert.Opin.Emerg.Drugs 2010;15(4):661-683. View abstract.
Tanaka, T., Oka, T., Shimada, Y., Umemoto, N., Kuroyanagi, J., Sakamoto, C., Zang, L., Wang, Z., and Nishimura, Y. Pharmacogenomics of cardiovascular pharmacology: pharmacogenomic network of cardiovascular disease models. J Pharmacol Sci 2008;107(1):8-14. View abstract.
Trenkner, E., El Idrissi, A., Dumas, R., and Rabe, A. Functional consequences of calcium uptake modulation by taurine in vivo and in vitro. Adv.Exp Med Biol 1998;442:277-284. View abstract.
van de Poll, M. C., Dejong, C. H., and Soeters, P. B. Adequate range for sulfur-containing amino acids and biomarkers for their excess: lessons from enteral and parenteral nutrition. J Nutr 2006;136(6 Suppl):1694S-1700S. View abstract.
van den Eynde, F., van Baelen, P. C., Portzky, M., and Audenaert, K. [The effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance]. Tijdschr.Psychiatr. 2008;50(5):273-281. View abstract.
Vinton, N. E., Laidlaw, S. A., Ament, M. E., and Kopple, J. D. Taurine concentrations in plasma and blood cells of patients undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1986;44(3):398-404. View abstract.
Wasserhess, P., Becker, M., and Staab, D. Effect of taurine on synthesis of neutral and acidic sterols and fat absorption in preterm and full-term infants. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1993;58(3):349-353. View abstract.
Worthley, M. I., Prabhu, A., De, Sciscio P., Schultz, C., Sanders, P., and Willoughby, S. R. Detrimental effects of energy drink consumption on platelet and endothelial function. Am J Med 2010;123(2):184-187. View abstract.
Xu, Z. W. and Li, Y. S. Pathogenesis and treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. Hepatobiliary.Pancreat.Dis Int 12-15-2012;11(6):586-593. View abstract.
Yamori, Y., Nara, Y., Ikeda, K., and Mizushima, S. Is taurine a preventive nutritional factor of cardiovascular diseases or just a biological marker of nutrition? Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1996;403:623-629. View abstract.
Yarandi, S. S., Zhao, V. M., Hebbar, G., and Ziegler, T. R. Amino acid composition in parenteral nutrition: what is the evidence? Curr Opin.Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011;14(1):75-82. View abstract.
Yokogoshi, H. and Oda, H. Dietary taurine enhances cholesterol degradation and reduces serum and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Amino.Acids 2002;23(4):433-439. View abstract.
Zamboni, G., Piemonte, G., Bolner, A., Antoniazzi, F., Dall'Agnola, A., Messner, H., Gambaro, G., and Tato, L. Influence of dietary taurine on vitamin D absorption. Acta Paediatr. 1993;82(10):811-815. View abstract.
Zembron-Lacny, A., Ostapiuk, J., and Szyszka, K. Effects of sulphur-containing compounds on plasma redox status in muscle-damaging exercise. Chin J Physiol 10-31-2009;52(5):289-294. View abstract.
Zembron-Lacny, A., Szyszka, K., and Szygula, Z. Effect of cysteine derivatives administration in healthy men exposed to intense resistance exercise by evaluation of pro-antioxidant ratio. J Physiol Sci 2007;57(6):343-348. View abstract.
Zhang, M., Bi, L. F., Ai, Y. D., Yang, L. P., Wang, H. B., Liu, Z. Y., Sekine, M., and Kagamimori, S. Effects of taurine supplementation on VDT work induced visual stress. Amino.Acids 2004;26(1):59-63. View abstract.
Zhang, M., Bi, L. F., Fang, J. H., Su, X. L., Da, G. L., Kuwamori, T., and Kagamimori, S. Beneficial effects of taurine on serum lipids in overweight or obese non-diabetic subjects. Amino.Acids 2004;26(3):267-271. View abstract.
Zinellu, A., Sotgia, S., Loriga, G., Deiana, L., Satta, A. E., and Carru, C. Oxidative stress improvement is associated with increased levels of taurine in CKD patients undergoing lipid-lowering therapy. Amino.Acids 2012;43(4):1499-1507. View abstract.
Zvenigorodskaia, L. A., Ovsiannikova, O. N., Noskova, K. K., Nilova, T. V., and Elizarova, E. P. [Taurine in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease]. Eksp.Klin.Gastroenterol. 2010;(7):43-50. View abstract.
Aggarwal, R., Mishra, A., Crochet, P., Sirimanna, P., and Darzi, A. Effect of caffeine and taurine on simulated laparoscopy performed following sleep deprivation. Br J Surg 2011;98(11):1666-1672. View abstract.
Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R. The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood. Amino Acids 2001;21:139-50. View abstract.
Anon. Taurine involvement in retinal and heart muscle function. Nutr Rev 1975;33:343-7.
Azuma J, Hasegawa H, Awata N, et al. Taurine for the treatment of congestive heart failure in humans. Prog Clin Biol Res 1983;125:61-72. View abstract.
Azuma J, Hasegawa H, Sawamura A, et al. Taurine for treatment of congestive heart failure. Int J Cardiol 1982;2:303-4. View abstract.
Azuma J, Hasegawa H, Sawamura A, et al. Therapy of congestive heart failure with orally administered taurine. Clin Ther 1983;5:398-408. View abstract.
Azuma J, Sawamura A, Awata N, et al. Therapeutic effect of taurine in congestive heart failure: a double-blind crossover trial. Clin Cardiol 1985;8:276-82. View abstract.
Azuma J, Sawamura A, Awata N. Usefulness of taurine in chronic congestive heart failure and its prospective application. Jpn Circ J 1992;56:95-9. View abstract.
Azuma J, Takihara K, Awata N, et al. Taurine and failing heart: experimental and clinical aspects. Prog Clin Biol Res 1985;179:195-213. View abstract.
Azuma J. Long-term effect of taurine in congestive heart failure: preliminary report. Heart Failure Research with Taurine Group. Adv Exp Med Biol 1994;359:425-33. View abstract.
Balshaw, T. G., Bampouras, T. M., Barry, T. J., and Sparks, S. A. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 3-km running performance in trained middle-distance runners. Amino Acids 2013;44(2):555-561. View abstract.
Baskaran K, Kizar Ahamath B, Radha Shanmugasundaram K, Shanmugasundaram ER. Antidiabetic effect of leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:295-300. View abstract.
Belli, D. C., Levy, E., Darling, P., Leroy, C., Lepage, G., Giguere, R., and Roy, C. C. Taurine improves the absorption of a fat meal in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics 1987;80(4):517-523. View abstract.
Beyranvand, M. R., Khalafi, M. K., Roshan, V. D., Choobineh, S., Parsa, S. A., and Piranfar, M. A. Effect of taurine supplementation on exercise capacity of patients with heart failure. J Cardiol 2011;57(3):333-337. View abstract.
Bichler, A., Swenson, A., and Harris, M. A. A combination of caffeine and taurine has no effect on short term memory but induces changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Amino Acids 2006;31(4):471-476. View abstract.
Calabro, R. S., Italiano, D., Gervasi, G., and Bramanti, P. Single tonic-clonic seizure after energy drink abuse. Epilepsy Behav 2012;23(3):384-385. View abstract.
Cangemi, F. E. TOZAL Study: an open case control study of an oral antioxidant and omega-3 supplement for dry AMD. BMC Ophthalmol 2007;7:3. View abstract.
Chauncey, K. B., Tenner, T. E. Jr., Lombardini, J. B., Jones, B. G., Brooks, M. L., Warner, R. D., Davis, R. L., and Ragain, R. M. The effect of taurine supplementation on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adv Exp Med Biol 2003;526:91-96. View abstract.
Chesney RW. Taurine: its biological role and clinical implications. Adv Pediatr 1985;32:1-42. View abstract.
Colombo, C., Battezzati, P. M., Podda, M., Bettinardi, N., and Giunta, A. Ursodeoxycholic acid for liver disease associated with cystic fibrosis: a double-blind multicenter trial. The Italian Group for the Study of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Cystic Fibrosis. Hepatology 1996;23(6):1484-1490. View abstract.
Darling, P. B., Lepage, G., Leroy, C., Masson, P., and Roy, C. C. Effect of taurine supplements on fat absorption in cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Res 1985;19(6):578-582. View abstract.
Durelli, L., Mutani, R., and Fassio, F. The treatment of myotonia: evaluation of chronic oral taurine therapy. Neurology 1983;33(5):599-603. View abstract.
Fujita, T., Ando, K., Noda, H., Ito, Y., and Sato, Y. Effects of increased adrenomedullary activity and taurine in young patients with borderline hypertension. Circulation 1987;75(3):525-532. View abstract.
Gwacham, N. and Wagner, D. R. Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2012;22(2):109-116. View abstract.
Head KA. Peripheral neuropathy: Pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies. Altern Med Rev 2006;11:294-329. View abstract.
Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Ross, R., Shanklin, M., Kang, J., and Faigenbaum, A. D. Effect of a pre-exercise energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 2008;22(3):874-882. View abstract.
Horne, J. A. and Reyner, L. A. Beneficial effects of an "energy drink" given to sleepy drivers. Amino Acids 2001;20(1):83-89. View abstract.
Hu, Y. H., Lin, C. L., Huang, Y. W., Liu, P. E., and Hwang, D. F. Dietary amino acid taurine ameliorates liver injury in chronic hepatitis patients. Amino Acids 2008;35(2):469-473. View abstract.
Huxtable R, Bressler R. Elevation of taurine in human congestive heart failure. Life Sci 1974;14:1353-9. View abstract.
Huxtable RJ, Chubb J, Azari J. Physiological and experimental regulation of taurine content in the heart. Fed Proc 1980;39:2685-90. View abstract.
Islambulchilar M, Asvadi I, Sanaat Z, Esfahani A, Sattari M. Taurine attenuates chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Amino Acids. 2015 Jan;47(1):101-9.
Ivy, J. L., Kammer, L., Ding, Z., Wang, B., Bernard, J. R., Liao, Y. H., and Hwang, J. Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009;19(1):61-78. View abstract.
Iyadurai, S. J. and Chung, S. S. New-onset seizures in adults: possible association with consumption of popular energy drinks. Epilepsy Behav 2007;10(3):504-508. View abstract.
Jarvenpaa, A. L., Raiha, N. C., Rassin, D. K., and Gaull, G. E. Feeding the low-birth-weight infant: I. Taurine and cholesterol supplementation of formula does not affect growth and metabolism. Pediatrics 1983;71(2):171-178. View abstract.
Koivisto, K., Sivenius, J., Keranen, T., Partanen, J., Riekkinen, P., Gothoni, G., Tokola, O., and Neuvonen, P. J. Clinical trial with an experimental taurine derivative, taltrimide, in epileptic patients. Epilepsia 1986;27(1):87-90. View abstract.
Lee SH, Oe T, Blair IA. Vitamin C-induced decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to endogenous genotoxins. Science 2001;292:2083-4. View abstract.
Machado-Vieira R, Viale CI, Kapczinski F. Mania associated with an energy drink: the possible role of caffeine, taurine, and inositol. Can J Psychiatry 2001;46:454-5. View abstract.
Matsuyama Y, Morita T, Higuchi M, Tsujii T. The effect of taurine administration on patients with acute hepatitis. Prog Clin Biol Res 1983;125:461-8.. View abstract.
Merli, M., Bertasi, S., Servi, R., Diamanti, S., Martino, F., De Santis, A., Goffredo, F., Quattrucci, S., Antonelli, M., and Angelico, M. Effect of a medium dose of ursodeoxycholic acid with or without taurine supplementation on the nutritional status of patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1994;19(2):198-203. View abstract.
Mets, M. A., Ketzer, S., Blom, C., van Gerven, M. H., van Willigenburg, G. M., Olivier, B., and Verster, J. C. Positive effects of Red Bull(R) Energy Drink on driving performance during prolonged driving. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2011;214(3):737-745. View abstract.
Niittynen L, Nurminen ML, Korpela R, et al. Role of arginine, taurine, and homocysteine in cardiovascular diseases. Ann Med 1999;31:318-26. View abstract.
Obermann M, Schorn CF, Mummel P, et al. Taurine induced toxic encephalopathy? Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2006;108:812-3. View abstract.
Osadchuk, A. M., Milova-Filippova, L. A., and Kvetnoi, I. M. [Eradication therapy and processes of proliferation and apoptosis in the stomach of patients with duodenal ulcer]. Klin Med (Mosk) 2009;87(5):43-47. View abstract.
Paasonen MK, Penttila O, Himberg JJ, Solatunturi E. Platelet taurine in patients with arterial hypertension, myocardial failure or infarction. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1980;642:79-84. View abstract.
Podda, M., Ghezzi, C., Battezzati, P. M., Crosignani, A., Zuin, M., and Roda, A. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and taurine on serum liver enzymes and bile acids in chronic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1990;98(4):1044-1050. View abstract.
PremesisRx. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 1999:15(12);151206.
Ra SG, Akazawa N, et al. Taurine supplementation reduces eccentric exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness in young men. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015;803:765-72.
Ra, S. G., Miyazaki, T., Ishikura, K., Nagayama, H., Suzuki, T., Maeda, S., Ito, M., Matsuzaki, Y., and Ohmori, H. Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise. Adv Exp Med Biol 2013;776:179-187. View abstract.
Raiha, N. C., Fazzolari-Nesci, A., and Boehm, G. Taurine supplementation prevents hyperaminoacidemia in growing term infants fed high-protein cow's milk formula. Acta Paediatr 1996;85(12):1403-1407. View abstract.
Rassin, D. K., Raiha, N. C., Minoli, I., and Moro, G. Taurine and cholesterol supplementation in the term infant: responses of growth and metabolism. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1990;14(4):392-397. View abstract.
Ronen A, Oron-Gilad T, Gershon P. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers. J Safety Res. 2014 Jun;49:39-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2014.02.006. Epub 2014 24. View abstract.
Rutherford, J. A., Spriet, L. L., and Stellingwerff, T. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on endurance performance and metabolism in well-trained cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2010;20(4):322-329. View abstract.
Sirdah, M. M., El Agouza, I. M., and Abu Shahla, A. N. Possible ameliorative effect of taurine in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in female university students of Gaza, Palestine. Eur J Haematol 2002;69(4):236-242. View abstract.
Smith LJ, Lacaille F, Lepage G, et al. Taurine decreases fecal fatty acid and sterol excretion in cystic fibrosis. A randomized double-blind trial. Am J Dis Child 1991;145:1401-4.. View abstract.
Stohs SJ, Miller M. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Jan;63:240-3.
Thompson, G. N. and Tomas, F. M. Protein metabolism in cystic fibrosis: responses to malnutrition and taurine supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46(4):606-613. View abstract.
Thompson, G. N., Robb, T. A., and Davidson, G. P. Taurine supplementation, fat absorption, and growth in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1987;111(4):501-506. View abstract.
Tyson, J. E., Lasky, R., Flood, D., Mize, C., Picone, T., and Paule, C. L. Randomized trial of taurine supplementation for infants less than or equal to 1,300-gram birth weight: effect on auditory brainstem-evoked responses. Pediatrics 1989;83(3):406-415. View abstract.
Verner, A., Craig, S., and McGuire, W. Effect of taurine supplementation on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD006072. View abstract.
Warburton DM, Bersellini E, Sweeney E. An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;158:322-8.. View abstract.
Yeh, T. S., Chan, K. H., Hsu, M. C., and Liu, J. F. Supplementation with soybean peptides, taurine, Pueraria isoflavone, and ginseng saponin complex improves endurance exercise capacity in humans. J Med Food 2011;14(3):219-225. View abstract.