Testicular swelling, like pain in the testicle, can arise from several different causes, some of which constitute a medical emergency. Testicular swelling may be perceived when there is localized enlargement of a testicle or a more generalized enlargement of the scrotum. It may be one-sided or bilateral and may or may not be accompanied by pain and other symptoms.
Swollen testicles or swelling of the scrotum can result from testicular torsion, a medical emergency. Testicular torsion is a condition in which the testicle twists inside the scrotum, causing an interruption in the blood supply to the testicle. Testicular torsion is an emergency, since interruption of the blood supply can lead to tissue death of the affected testicle. Inflammation of the testicle (orchitis) or epididymis due to any cause can also lead to testicular swelling. Other causes include anatomical abnormalities, infections, hernia, and tumors. A hydrocele is a benign buildup of fluid around a testicle that can appear as testicular or scrotal swelling. A varicocele is the enlargement of veins within the scrotum and does not involve the testicles themselves. Testicular cancer is an uncommon cause of swelling in the testicle. When congestive heart failure causes fluid buildup in the lower extremities, it can be so severe as to cause scrotal swelling, although the testicles themselves are not affected.
Other causes of swollen testicles
- Bacterial Infection
- Fournier's Gangrene
- Nephrotic Syndrome
- Rupture of the Testicle
- Testicular Torsion
- Torsion of a Testicular Appendage
- Trauma or Injury
- Tumors of the Testicle
Pictures, Images, Illustrations & Quizzes
19 Health Problems in Men: Snoring, Hair Loss, and More
What are the biggest body health issues that plague men? Most men struggle with belly fat, back hair, sweating, erectile...
Childhood Diseases: Measles, Mumps, & More
Is your child at risk for these childhood diseases? Know when to call the doctor for conditions such as measles, mumps, ringworm,...
Causes of Swollen Testicles
Bug Bites and Stings
Bug bites and stings have been known to transmit insect-borne illnesses such as West Nile virus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. Though most reactions to insect bites and stings are mild, some reactions may be life-threatening. Preventing bug bites and stings with insect repellant, wearing the proper protective attire, and not wearing heavily scented perfumes when in grassy, wooded, and brushy areas is key.
Burns (First Aid)
Burn types are based on their severity: first-degree burns, second-degree burns, and third-degree burns. First-degree burns are similar to a painful sunburn. The damage is more severe with second-degree burns, leading to blistering and more intense pain. The skin turns white and loses sensation with third-degree burns. Burn treatment depends upon the burn location, total burn area, and intensity of the burn.
Cellulitis is an acute spreading bacterial infection below the surface of the skin characterized by redness, warmth, inflammation, and pain. The most common cause of cellulitis is the bacteria staph (Staphylococcus aureus).
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathies are just a few potential causes of congestive heart failure. Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure may include fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, angina, and edema. Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure. Treatment of heart failure consists of lifestyle modification and taking medications to decrease fluid in the body and ease the strain on the heart. The prognosis of a patient with congestive heart failure depends on the stage of the heart failure and the overall condition of the individual.
Direct vs. Indirect Hernia
Direct and indirect hernia are both inguinal hernias. Both types of hernias may cause a visible bulge in the groin area. Weakness in the muscle of the abdominal wall causes a direct hernia. A birth defect causes an indirect hernia. Hernias that can't be pushed in need surgery.
Hernia (Abdominal Hernia)
A hernia occurs when an organ or piece of tissue protrudes from the space in which it is normally contained. Symptoms of a hernia include pain, nausea, vomiting, bowel obstruction, and fever. Hernias are diagnosed by a physical exam and imaging tests. Some hernias may be held in place with a supportive belt. Other hernias require surgical repair. The prognosis of people who undergo elective hernia repair tends to be good.
How Do Guys Get Epididymitis?
Epididymitis (inflammation of the testicular tube) is common in young men between the ages of 19 and 35 years old. Men often get epididymitis for various reasons that include sexually transmitted infections, other infections, blockage in the urethra, side effects from medications and trauma.
Hydrocele is a collection of clear fluid in a thin-walled sack that also contains the testicle. Hydroceles are more common in males than females. There are two types of hydroceles: 1) communicating and 2) non-communicating. Hydroceles present at birth may resolve on their own. Hydroceles that appear in the teen or adult years may require surgery.
Lymphedema is a condition in which one or more extremities become swollen as the result of an impaired flow of the lymphatic system. There are two types of lymphedema: primary and secondary. Filariasis is the most common cause of lymphedema worldwide. In the U.S., breast cancer surgery is the most common cause. Symptoms include swelling of one or more limbs, cracked and thickening skin, and secondary bacterial or fungal infections of the skin. There is no cure for lymphedema.
Mumps is an acute viral illness caused by the mumps virus. Symptoms and signs of mumps include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss of appetite, followed by swelling of the salivary glands.
Testicular cancer symptoms include a painless lump or swelling in a testicle, testicle or scrotum pain, a dull ache in the abdomen, back, or groin, and a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum. Treatment for cancer of the testicles depends on the type of cancer (seminoma or nonseminoma), the stage of the cancer, and the patient's age and health.
Testicular pain has many causes, including testicular torsion, cancer, injury and epididymitis. Treatment of pain in the testicles depends on the cause.
What Could Be Causing My Testicular Pain?
Testicular pain affects thousands of men every year. Learn the signs of testicular pain, different warning signs to look for, how doctors diagnose it, and how it is treated.
What Is Usually the First Symptom of Testicular Cancer?
The first signs and symptoms of testicular cancer are a painless lump in the testicular area, unusual firmness in the affected testis or dull aching in the scrotum or the groin.
What Treatments Help Relieve Testicular Pain?
Learn what medical treatments can ease your testicular pain symptoms and help you relieve testicular pain.
Where Is the Groin Area in Men and Women?
The groin area is located at the same place in men and women—at the junction where the upper body or abdomen meets the thigh. It is an area of the hip and is comprised of five muscles that work together to move your leg.