Early Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
Early symptoms of diabetes include
- excessive thirst,
- cloudy or blurry vision,
- weight loss,
- fatigue, and
- erectile dysfunction.
Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) are drugs that are derived from sulfanilamide, a sulfur-containing chemical. Most sulfonamides are antibiotics, but some are prescribed for treating ulcerative colitis. Sulfonamide antibiotics work by disrupting the production of dihydrofolic acid, a form of folic acid that bacteria and human cells use for producing proteins.
Sulfonamides may cause:
Serious rashes include:
Sulfonamides also may cause sensitivity to the sun that leads to extensive sunburn after exposure to sunlight (photosensitivity). Patients receiving sulfonamides should avoid excessive exposure to sunlight and should wear sunscreen.
Other rare side effects include liver damage, low white blood cell count (leucopenia), low platelet count (thrombocytopenia), and anemia. Formation of urinary crystals which may damage the kidney and may cause blood. Adequate hydration is needed to prevent the formation of urinary crystals.
Early symptoms of diabetes include
Examples of sulfonamides include:
Many of these drugs are available only in generic forms.
The increased metabolism (break-down and elimination) of cyclosporine by the liver caused by sulfonamides (reduces the effectiveness of cyclosporine and can add to the kidney damage caused by cyclosporine.
Anemia, due to a reduction in folic acid, can occur in persons receiving sulfonamides in combination with divalproex, valproic acid (Depakote, Depakote ER, Depakene, Depacon, Stavzor), methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), pyrimethamine, triamterene, or trimetrexate.
Increased blood levels of potassium may occur when sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim is combined with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
Sulfonamides are available as tablets, injections, and oral solutions.
Use of sulfonamides may cause bilirubin to be displaced from proteins in the infant's blood. Displacement of bilirubin can lead to jaundice and a dangerous condition called kernicterus in the infant. For this reason, sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim should not be used near term (late in pregnancy) among women. Sulfonamides (for example, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) should not be used by nursing mothers because sulfamethoxazole is excreted in breast milk and can cause kernicterus.
Sulfonamides are a class of drugs from a sulfur-containing chemical (sulfanilamide). Examples of sulfonamides include sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Co-trimoxazole, Septra, Septra DS, Cotrim, SMZ-TMP, SMZ-TMP DS, Sulfatrim); sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, Sulfazine); and sulfisoxazole (Truxazole, Gantrisin). Some of these drugs are available only in generic forms. Side effects of sulfonamides may include dizziness, lethargy, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, serious skin rashes and anorexia. Sulfonamides are not recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Side effects and drug interactions should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Middle ear infection (otitis media) is inflammation of the middle ear. There are two forms of this type of ear infection, acute and chronic. Acute otitis media is generally short in duration, and chronic otitis media generally lasts several weeks. Babies, toddlers, and children with a middle ear infection may be irritable, pull and tug at their ears, and experience numerous other symptoms and signs. Treatment depends upon the type of ear infection.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that lives in the bowel and near the anus, causes most UTIs. UTI symptoms include pain, abdominal pain, mild fever, urinary urgency and frequency. Treatment involves a course of antibiotics.
Impetigo is a contagious skin infection caused by staph and strep bacteria. There are two types of impetigo: nonbullous and bullous. Symptoms of nonbullous impetigo include small blisters on the nose, face, arms, or legs and possibly swollen glands. Bullous impetigo signs include blisters in various areas, particularly in the buttocks area. Treatment involves gentle cleansing, removing the crusts of popped blisters, and the application of prescription-strength mupirocin antibiotic ointment.
Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chills. Antibiotics treat pneumonia, and the choice of the antibiotic depends upon the cause of the infection.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Because it can affect multiple other organs of the body, rheumatoid arthritis is referred to as a systemic illness and is sometimes called rheumatoid disease. The 16 characteristic early RA signs and symptoms include the following. Anemia Both sides of the body affected (symmetric) Depression Fatigue Fever Joint deformity Joint pain Joint redness Joint stiffness Joint swelling Joint tenderness Joint warmth Limping Loss of joint function Loss of joint range of motion Many joints affected (polyarthritis)
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large intestine, but which can affect other parts of the digestive system as well. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss are common symptoms.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the colon. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Ulcerative colitis is closely related to Crohn's disease, and together they are referred to as inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment depends upon the type of ulcerative colitis diagnosed.
Chronic bronchitis is a cough that occurs daily with production of sputum that lasts for at least 3 months, 2 years in a row. Causes of chronic bronchitis include cigarette smoking, inhaled irritants, and underlying disease processes (such as asthma, or congestive heart failure). Symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Treatments include bronchodilators and steroids. Complications of chronic bronchitis include COPD and emphysema.
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You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.