Early Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
Early symptoms of diabetes include
- excessive thirst,
- cloudy or blurry vision,
- weight loss,
- fatigue, and
- erectile dysfunction.
Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) are drugs that are derived from sulfanilamide, a sulfur-containing chemical. Most sulfonamides are antibiotics, but some are prescribed for treating ulcerative colitis. Sulfonamide antibiotics work by disrupting the production of dihydrofolic acid, a form of folic acid that bacteria and human cells use for producing proteins.
Sulfonamides may cause:
Serious rashes include:
Sulfonamides also may cause sensitivity to the sun that leads to extensive sunburn after exposure to sunlight (photosensitivity). Patients receiving sulfonamides should avoid excessive exposure to sunlight and should wear sunscreen.
Other rare side effects include liver damage, low white blood cell count (leucopenia), low platelet count (thrombocytopenia), and anemia. Formation of urinary crystals which may damage the kidney and may cause blood. Adequate hydration is needed to prevent the formation of urinary crystals.
Early symptoms of diabetes include
Examples of sulfonamides include:
Many of these drugs are available only in generic forms.
The increased metabolism (break-down and elimination) of cyclosporine by the liver caused by sulfonamides (reduces the effectiveness of cyclosporine and can add to the kidney damage caused by cyclosporine.
Anemia, due to a reduction in folic acid, can occur in persons receiving sulfonamides in combination with divalproex, valproic acid (Depakote, Depakote ER, Depakene, Depacon, Stavzor), methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), pyrimethamine, triamterene, or trimetrexate.
Increased blood levels of potassium may occur when sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim is combined with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
Sulfonamides are available as tablets, injections, and oral solutions.
Use of sulfonamides may cause bilirubin to be displaced from proteins in the infant's blood. Displacement of bilirubin can lead to jaundice and a dangerous condition called kernicterus in the infant. For this reason, sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim should not be used near term (late in pregnancy) among women. Sulfonamides (for example, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) should not be used by nursing mothers because sulfamethoxazole is excreted in breast milk and can cause kernicterus.
Sulfonamides are a class of drugs from a sulfur-containing chemical (sulfanilamide). Examples of sulfonamides include sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Co-trimoxazole, Septra, Septra DS, Cotrim, SMZ-TMP, SMZ-TMP DS, Sulfatrim); sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, Sulfazine); and sulfisoxazole (Truxazole, Gantrisin). Some of these drugs are available only in generic forms. Side effects of sulfonamides may include dizziness, lethargy, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, serious skin rashes and anorexia. Sulfonamides are not recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Side effects and drug interactions should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Chronic bronchitis is a cough that occurs daily with production of sputum that lasts for at least three months, two years in a row. Causes of chronic bronchitis include cigarette smoking, inhaled irritants, and underlying disease processes (such as asthma, or congestive heart failure). Symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Treatments include bronchodilators and steroids. Complications of chronic bronchitis include COPD and emphysema.
Middle ear infection or inflammation (otitis media) is inflammation of the middle ear. There are two forms of this type of ear infection, acute and chronic. Acute otitis media is generally short in duration, and chronic otitis media generally lasts several weeks. Seventy-five percent of children in the U.S. suffer from otitis media at some point.
Signs and symptoms in babies, toddlers, and children may:
Treatment depends upon the type (chronic or acute).