- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
What are sulfonamides, and what are they used for?
Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) are drugs that are derived from sulfanilamide, a sulfur-containing chemical. Most sulfonamides are antibiotics, but some are prescribed for treating ulcerative colitis. Sulfonamide antibiotics work by disrupting the production of dihydrofolic acid, a form of folic acid that bacteria and human cells use for producing proteins.
What are the side effects of sulfonamides?
Sulfonamides may cause:
Sulfonamides should be stopped at the first appearance of a skin rash before the rash becomes severe.
Serious rashes include:
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome, which includes symptoms like:
- aching joints,
- aching muscles,
- blistering, and
- peeling of the skin
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis, which includes symptoms like:
- difficulty in swallowing,
- loosening, and
- blistering of the skin.
Sulfonamides also may cause sensitivity to the sun that leads to extensive sunburn after exposure to sunlight (photosensitivity). Patients receiving sulfonamides should avoid excessive exposure to sunlight and should wear sunscreen.
Other rare side effects include liver damage, low white blood cell count (leucopenia), low platelet count (thrombocytopenia), and anemia. Formation of urinary crystals which may damage the kidney and may cause blood. Adequate hydration is needed to prevent the formation of urinary crystals.
What are examples of sulfonamides available in the US?
Examples of sulfonamides include:
- sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Septra, Septra DS)
- sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, Sulfazine)
- sulfisoxazole (Truxazole)
Many of these drugs are available only in generic forms.
What drugs interact with sulfonamides?
The increased metabolism (break-down and elimination) of cyclosporine by the liver caused by sulfonamides (reduces the effectiveness of cyclosporine and can add to the kidney damage caused by cyclosporine.
All sulfonamides can crystallize in the urine when the urine is acidic. Since methenamine (Hiprex, Urex, Mandelamine) causes acidic urine, it should not be used with sulfonamides.
Blood levels of digoxin may increase blood levels of digoxin (Lanoxin) and possibly lead to serious toxic effects.
Anemia, due to a reduction in folic acid, can occur in persons receiving sulfonamides in combination with divalproex, valproic acid (Depakote, Depakote ER, Depakene, Depacon, Stavzor), methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), pyrimethamine, triamterene, or trimetrexate.
Increased blood levels of potassium may occur when sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim is combined with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
What formulations of sulfonamides are available?
Sulfonamides are available as tablets, injections, and oral solutions.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
Use of sulfonamides may cause bilirubin to be displaced from proteins in the infant's blood. Displacement of bilirubin can lead to jaundice and a dangerous condition called kernicterus in the infant. For this reason, sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim should not be used near term (late in pregnancy) among women.
Sulfonamides (for example, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) should not be used while nursing because sulfamethoxazole is excreted in breast milk and can cause kernicterus.
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Sulfonamides are a class of drugs from a sulfur-containing chemical (sulfanilamide). Examples of sulfonamides include sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Co-trimoxazole, Septra, Septra DS, Cotrim, SMZ-TMP, SMZ-TMP DS, Sulfatrim); sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, Sulfazine); and sulfisoxazole (Truxazole, Gantrisin). Some of these drugs are available only in generic forms. Side effects of sulfonamides may include dizziness, lethargy, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, serious skin rashes and anorexia. Sulfonamides are not recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Side effects and drug interactions should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Ulcerative Colitis Diet Plan
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What Is the Life Expectancy of Someone With Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the inner lining of the large intestine (large bowel) leading to erosion and ulcers. It is a lifelong illness with no specific cause or cure.
When Do You Need Hospitalization for Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that can be life-threatening when the symptoms flare up. You need ulcerative colitis hospitalization if you have more than six bowel movements per day, blood in your stool, high temperature and heart rate, and severe abdominal pain.
How Long Does an Ulcerative Colitis Flare-Up Last?
An ulcerative colitis flare-up can last a few days or a few weeks and then be followed by a remission that lasts for months or even years. How long a flare-up lasts depends on the severity of the disease, triggers, and medication compliance.
Crohn's Disease vs. Ulcerative Colitis
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are diseases that cause inflammation of part of or the entire digestive tract (GI). Crohn's affects the entire GI tract (from the mouth to the anus), while ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis only affects the large and small intestine and ilium. Researchers do not know the exact cause of either disease. About 20% of people with Crohn's disease also have a family member with the disease. Researchers believe that certain factors may play a role in causing UC. Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are a type of inflammatory bowel disease or IBD. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis both have similar symptoms and signs, for example, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, weight loss, episodic and/or persistent diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain and cramping, rectal bleeding, bloody stools, joint pain and soreness, eye redness, or pain. Symptoms unique to Crohn’s disease include anemia and skin changes. Symptoms of unique to ulcerative colitis include certain rashes, and an urgency to defecate (have a bowel movement). Doctors diagnose both diseases with similar tests and procedures. While there is no cure for either disease, doctors and other health care professionals can help you treat disease flares, and manage your Crohn's or ulcerative colitis with medication, diet, nutritional supplements, and/or surgery.
How Do I Know if My Ulcerative Colitis Is Flaring?
Ulcerative colitis happens when irritation and open sores appear in the large intestine. You know ulcerative colitis is flaring if you experience bloody stools, nausea and vomiting, frequent bowel movements, and other symptoms.
What Foods Trigger Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis (or inflammatory bowel disease) is a difficult condition to live with. Foods that trigger ulcerative colitis include raw green vegetables, lactose, sugar alcohol, caffeine, alcohol, whole grains, and foods high in fat.
What Does Your Stool Look Like With Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease that involves the inner lining of the large bowel. It causes abdominal pain and bleeds due to erosions and ulcers all over the large intestine and rectum.
What Is the Best Diet for Someone With Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition in which your colon and rectum are often inflamed. The best diet for someone with ulcerative colitis is one that includes lean protein, low-fiber fruit, refined grains, cooked vegetables, probiotic-rich foods, and calcium-rich foods.
Is Pancolitis the Same as Ulcerative Colitis?
Pancolitis is a form of ulcerative colitis (UC) that inflames the entire large intestine. Living with pancolitis often requires medical treatment and lifestyle changes.
Can Ulcerative Colitis Be Healed?
Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease. While there's no known ulcerative colitis cure, treatment can help you manage your symptoms and let you lead a full life.
Is Ulcerative Colitis Curable?
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the inner lining of the large intestine (large bowel or colon) leading to erosion and ulcers. It is also associated with various manifestations outside of the colon, such as inflammation of the eyes, joints, skin, and lungs. Ulcerative colitis is a lifelong illness with no specific cause or cure. Patients have repeated cycles of flare-ups and disappearance of the disease.
Can Ulcerative Colitis Be Cured With Surgery?
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the colon (the large bowel) characterized by frequent bloody diarrhea (10-30 episodes) throughout the day. Medicines can only reduce the intensity of its symptoms and surgery is the only option to cure it.
What Is the Best Treatment for Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the inner lining of the large intestine (large bowel) leading to erosion and ulcers. It is a lifelong illness with no specific cause or cure. Patients have repeated cycles of flare-ups and remission with potential extraintestinal (beyond the bowel) manifestations, such as joint pain, eye pain, and skin rashes.
What Is the Best Medicine for Ulcerative Colitis?
Treatment strategies for ulcerative colitis (UC) vary from person to person. Your doctor will base recommendations for medication on the intensity of your symptoms and severity of the disease.
Is Ulcerative Colitis an Autoimmune Disease?
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is considered to be an autoimmune disease. With autoimmune disorders, your immune system goes awry and attacks your own body instead of defending it from infections and illnesses.
What Are the First Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis?
The first symptoms and signs of ulcerative colitis (UC) may include persistent diarrhea, loose or bloody stools, cramp-like abdominal pain, and general feelings of being unwell, bloated, or constipated.
How Serious Is Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a lifelong disease with constant periods of flare-ups and remissions (periods without symptoms, which may last for weeks or years). Presently, there is no permanent medical cure for it, but there are various medications that can provide symptomatic relief, reduce inflammation and manage flare-ups.
How Do You Diagnose Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis is a condition that causes blood stool, diarrhea, rectal pain, and other symptoms. Ulcerative colitis is diagnosed with blood tests, stool tests, and imaging tests.
What Happens When You Have Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis is a systemic disease that mainly manifests as intestinal ulcers. The ulcers may result in bleeding and cause bloody stools. Excessive bleeding can lead to anemia.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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