Stem cells are referred to as undifferentiated cells because they have not yet committed to a developmental path to form specific organ tissue. There are a variety of stem cell types, including:
- adult peripheral blood,
- umbilical cord, and
- induced pluripotent stem cells.
- heart disease,
- Parkinson's disease,
- spinal cord injury,
- diabetes mellitus,
- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,
- arthritis, and
Related Disease Conditions
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive neurological disease characterized by a fixed inexpressive face, a tremor at rest, slowing of voluntary movements, a gait with short accelerating steps, peculiar posture and muscle weakness, caused by degeneration of an area of the brain called the basal ganglia, and by low production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Most patients are over 50, but at least 10 percent are under 40.
Leukemia is a type of cancer of the blood cells in which the growth and development of the blood cells are abnormal. Strictly speaking, leukemia should refer only to cancer of the white blood cells (the leukocytes) but in practice it can apply to malignancy of any cellular element in the blood or bone marrow, as in red cell leukemia (erythroleukemia).
Arthritis (Joint Inflammation)
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness and pain. There are over 100 types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus, gout, and pseudogout.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases resulting from abnormal deposition of certain proteins (amyloids) in various bodily areas. The amyloid proteins may either be deposited in one particular area of the body (localized amyloidosis) or they may be deposited throughout the body (systemic amyloidosis). There are three types of systemic amyloidosis: primary (AL), secondary (AA), and familial (ATTR). Primary amyloidosis is not associated with any other diseases and is considered a disease entity of its own. Secondary amyloidosis occurs as a result of another illness. Familial Mediterranean Fever is a form of familial (inherited) amyloidosis. Amyloidosis treatment involves treating the underlying illness and correcting organ failure.
Bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs in cells that make up the bones. Primary bone cancer that arises in bone cells is different than metastatic bone cancer, which is cancer that arises in another part of the body and then spreads to the bones. Hereditary and environmental factors likely contribute to the risk of bone cancer. Signs and symptoms of bone cancer may include pain, the presence of a mass or lump, and bone fractures. There are different types of bone cancer (osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pleomorphic sarcoma, fibrosarcoma). Treatment for bone cancer may include surgical removal of the tumor, chemotherapy, radiation, and/or a stem cell transplant. The prognosis for bone cancer depends on the type of cancer and the extent of spread.
Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to the heart. Heart disease can lead to heart attack. Risk factors for heart disease include: Smoking High blood pressure High cholesterol Diabetes Family history Obesity Angina, shortness of breath, and sweating are just a few symptoms that may indicate a heart attack. Treatment of heart disease involves control of heart disease risk factors through lifestyle changes, medications, and/or stenting or bypass surgery. Heart disease can be prevented by controlling heart disease risk factors.
Spinal Cord Injury: Treatments and Rehabilitation
When vertebrae are broken or dislocated, the result can cause traumatic injury to the spinal cord. A spinal cord injury can have significant physiological consequences. One indication of the severity of a spinal cord injury are respiratory complications. Spinal cord injuries are classified as either. Rehabilitation and recovery of a spinal cord injury is dependant upon the type of injury.
Burns (First Aid)
Burn types are based on their severity: first-degree burns, second-degree burns, and third-degree burns. First-degree burns are similar to a painful sunburn. The damage is more severe with second-degree burns, leading to blistering and more intense pain. The skin turns white and loses sensation with third-degree burns. Burn treatment depends upon the burn location, total burn area, and intensity of the burn.
ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Symptoms, Causes, Life Expectancy
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease) is a neurological disease that progresses rapidly. The disease attacks the nerve cells responsible for the control of voluntary muscles. Early symptoms include cramping, twitching, or stiffness of the muscles; slurred nasal speech; difficulty swallowing or chewing, and muscle weakness in an arm or leg. Currently, the cause of ALS is not known. ALS is a fatal disease. No cure has been found for ALS, however, the drug riluzole (Rilutek) is FDA approved, and this drug reduces the damage to motor neurons by decreasing the release of glutamate.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic condition that causes retinal degeneration and eventual vision loss. Symptoms include night blindness and tunnel vision. Visual field testing and electrophysiological testing are essential in diagnosing RP. Though there is no cure for RP, vitamin A therapy and an omega-3-rich diet may be recommended for patients to slow disease progression.
Hodgkin's disease is a cancer of the lymphatic system with symptoms that include unexplained, recurring fevers, unexplained weight loss, itchy skin, and painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, and groin. Treatment for adult Hodgkin's disease depends on the staging of the disease, the size of the lymph nodes, and the health of the patient.
Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children. Symptoms and signs include fever, easy bruising, bone or joint pain, weakness, loss of appetite, and painless lumps in the neck, underarm, stomach, or groin. Treatment depends upon staging and may include chemotherapy, radiation, or stem cell transplant.
Treatment & Diagnosis
Prevention & Wellness
- Human Trial of Experimental Stem Cell Therapy for COVID-19 Approved by FDA
- Heart Cells Change During Spaceflight
- Stem Cell, Gene Therapies Cause New Headaches for Insurers
- More 'Buyer Beware' Warnings for Unregulated Stem Cell Clinics
- Can Stem Cells Be the Cure for Baldness?
- Buyer Beware: Many Stem Cell Clinics Lack Docs Trained in Treatments
- New Facial Bone Might Someday Be Grown From the Patient's Rib
- Second HIV Patient May Be Cured After Transplant
- Second Man HIV-Free After Stem Cell Transplant
- Stem Cell Transplant May Help Some With Aggressive MS
- FDA Warns Companies on Dangerous, Unapproved Stem Cell Treatments
- Next for Disabling Back Pain? New Discs From Patients' Own Cells
- NIH Eyes $54 Million to Map Trillions of Human Cells
- Patients Crowdfunding for Fake Stem Cell Treatments: Study
- Stem Cell Transplant for MS Shows Promise
- Stem Cell Transplant Successful in Macular Degeneration Patients: Study
- Stem Cell Clinics Pitch Pricey, Bogus 'Cures' for Knee Pain
- Can Babies Help Heart Patients?
- Adding Drug to Standard Care May Prolong Lymphoma Survival
- Could the Zika Virus Help Battle a Deadly Brain Cancer?
- Serious Problems at Florida Stem Cell Clinic
- Could Newborn Heart Stem Cells Jump-Start Old Hearts?
- Antibiotic Doesn't Prevent Lung Complication After Stem Cell Transplant
- In Mice, Brain Cells Discovered That Might Control Aging
- Even Your Bones Can Get Fat, Mouse Study Suggests
- Haywire Immune Cells May Help Cause Baldness
- Stem Cells for Knees: Promising Treatment or Hoax?
- Stem Cell Therapy for Autism Shows Promise
- Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure?
- 'Menstrual Cycle in a Dish' Explores Intricacies of Female Body
- Stem Cells Hold Promise, Peril in Treating Seniors' Eye Disease
- Researchers Create Artificial Mouse 'Embryo'
- Gene Therapy: A Breakthrough for Sickle Cell Anemia?
- Stem Cell Transplants May Help Some With Multiple Sclerosis
- Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo
- Can Teeth Repair Themselves Without Fillings?
- Heart Failure Drug Shows Promise in First Human Trial
- Mouse Study Hints at Damage Zika May Cause to Adult Brain
- Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs
- Cord-Blood Transplants Show Promise in Leukemia Treatment
- In Mice, a Way for Stem Cells to Build Bone
- Mouse Study Suggests Stem Cells May Reverse Stroke Damage
- Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, Study Finds
- Zika Now Tied to Miscarriage
- Cartilage Grown in Lab Might One Day Help Younger Arthritis Sufferers
- Research Sees Potential to Make Bone, Muscle From Human Stem Cells
- Hundreds of U.S. Clinics Sell Unapproved Stem Cell 'Therapies'
- Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients
- New Treatment Shows Promise for Crippling Knee Arthritis
- MS Stem Cell Therapy Succeeds But Poses Risks
- Double Stem Cell Transplant May Help Fight a Childhood Cancer
- Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors
- Zika Destroys Fetal Brain Cells, Lab Study Finds
- Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease
- Stem Cell Therapy Shows Promise Against Heart Failure
- Scientists Grow and Transplant Functioning Skin Onto Mice
- Scientists Say They've Created New Type of Stem Cells
- Scientists Use Stem Cells to Correct Infant Cataracts
- Another Neurological Disorder Tied to Zika
- Lack of Stem Cells May Be Key to Repeat Miscarriages
- In Mice, Scientists Turn Stem Cells Into Sperm
- Advanced 3D Printer Shows Potential for New Tissues, Organs
- Scientists Find Stem Cells That Might Repair Skull, Face Bones
- New Transplant Technique Might Free Type 1 Diabetics From Daily Injections
- Identifying Colon Cancer Patients Who May Need More Than Surgery
- Multiple Sclerosis Stem Cell Treatment: FAQ
- Antibody May Lower Rejection Rates After Stem Cell Transplant in Leukemia Patients
- Gene Therapy Shows Early Potential for Rare Immune System Disorder
- Delayed Clamping of Umbilical Cord May Be Better for Preemies
- Fetal Tissue Research: FAQ
- Beware Unregulated Stem Cell Treatments, Experts Warn
- New Stem Cell Tactic Shows Promise for Heart Failure
- Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Rare Immune Disorder
- New Drug May Help Keep Hodgkin Lymphoma at Bay
- Early Study Says Stem Cells May Reverse Multiple Sclerosis Disability
- Stem Cell Therapy Fixes Post-Surgical Airway Abnormality
- Random Mutations Responsible for About Two-Thirds of Cancer Risk: Study
- Scientists Get Closer to Producing Egg, Sperm From Stem Cells
- Some NFL Players Use Unproven Stem Cell Therapies: Report
- Researchers Find Stem Cells That Help Nails Regenerate
- Scientists Create Tiny Stomachs From Stem Cells
- Did Nose Cells Help Paralyzed Man Walk?
- Scientists Grow, Implant Human Intestinal Tissue in Mice
- Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy Shows Long-Term Effectiveness, Safety
- Scientists Inch Closer to Alzheimer's Origins
- Stem Cell Success Raises Hopes of Type 1 Diabetes Cure
- Gene Therapy Shows Potential for 'Bubble Boy' Disease
- Could a Fading Sense of Smell Point to Earlier Death?
- Stem Cell Research Offers Clues About Schizophrenia
- Breast Milk May Protect Against Deadly Newborn Disease
- Newer Drug Helps Myeloma Patients Who Can't Have Transplant
- 2 Cases Suggest Stem Cell Transplant Might Ease 'Stiff Person' Syndrome
- Scientists Inch Closer Toward Using Stem Cells for Spinal Injuries
- Most Cosmetic Procedures Based on Stem Cells Are Bogus, Experts Say
- Early Stem Cell Transplant Vital in 'Bubble Boy' Disease
- Good Odds for Those Who Need Bone Marrow Donor, Study Finds
- Scientists Discover New Way to Make Human Platelets
- Health Highlights: July 6, 2014
- Scientists Use Stem Cells to Grow Human Corneas in Mice
- Less Toxic Transplant Treatment Offers Hope for Sickle Cell Patients
- Injection Treatment No Help for Hamstring Injuries, Study Says
- Study Supports Durability of Parkinson's Treatment
- Low-Power Laser May Trigger Tooth Repair
- Kidney Transplant Beats Intensive Dialysis, Study Says
- Stem Cells Reverse MS-Like Illness in Mice
- Scientists Get Closer to the Stem Cells That May Drive Cancers
- Stem Cells Used to Regenerate Heart Muscle in Monkeys
- Doctors Regrow Large Areas of Muscle Lost in Injured Soldiers
- Stem Cells Yield Lab-Grown Skin, Researchers Say
- Scientists Study Gene Clues From 115-Year-Old Woman
- Stem Cells Show Promise for Stroke Recovery
- New Clues to Link Between MS Drug Tysabri and Rare Brain Disease
- Stem Cells May Rejuvenate Failing Hearts, Study Suggests
- New Gene 'Atlas' Maps Human DNA Activity
- New Clues to Link Between MS Drug Tysabri and Rare Brain Disease
- New Way to Create Embryonic Stem Cells Discovered
- Music Therapy May Help Teens With Cancer Cope
- Baldness Cure May Have Inched a Bit Closer
- Could Stem Cells Cure Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis?
- Mouse Study Hints at Plastics Chemical's Link to Prostate Cancer Risk
- Early Stem Cell Transplant May Benefit Some Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients
- First Windpipe Transplant Holding Up Over Time: Report
- Stem Cells From Fat Might Improve Plastic Surgery
- Advance Seen in Turning Adult Cells Into Stem Cells
- Scientists Grow 'Model Brain' From Stem Cells
- Scientists Create Blood Vessels in Mice Using Human Stem Cells
- Scientists Use HIV to 'Cure' 2 Rare Genetic Diseases
- First Organ Grown From Stem Cells Alone: Report
- No Trace of HIV After Stem-Cell Transplants, Researchers Say
- Stem Cell Therapy Cures Type 1 Diabetes in Mice
- Scientists Use Cloning Technique to Produce Human Stem Cells
- Alligator Study Gives Clues to Regrowing Lost Teeth
- Many Kids Who Undergo Stem Cell Transplants Must Return to Hospital
- Ultrasound Waves, Bone Marrow Cells Show Promise in Heart Failure Patients
- Human Gene Patent Case Goes to Supreme Court
- Stem Cells to Relieve Low Back Pain?
- Grow Your Own Replacement Tooth?
- Stem Cell Technology May Help Rejuvenate Immune Cells
- Blood Cancer Patients May Benefit From New Transplant Technique
- Two Years On, Stem Cells Still Healing Damaged Hearts
- Stem Cells From Donor May Help Heal Heart
- Stem Cells to Cartilage? Promising Results Seen in Mice
- Blood or Bone Marrow Better for Stem Cell Transplants?
- Could Stem Cells Treat Autism? Newly Approved Study May Tell
- Stem Cell Transplants May Show Promise for Multiple Sclerosis
- Stem Cell Transplant May Spur Heart Disease Risk: Study
- Scientists Map Genetic 'Blueprint' of Heart
- Human Stem Cells Restore Hearing to Deaf Gerbils in Study
- Stem Cells Fix Bladder Leakage in Mice, Study Finds
- Study Uses Stem Cells to Boost Red Blood Cell Production
- New Clues to How HIV Infects Body's Cells
- Evidence Grows That Cancer Has Its Own Stem Cells
- Doctors Report Historic Transplant in Child
- Blood Vessels Made From Liposuction Fat
- Stem Cells Show Promise as Heart Failure Treatment
- Patients' Skin Cells Yield Research Model for Alzheimer's
- HIV Drug May Prevent Bone Marrow Transplant Complication
- Cell-Based 'Tracking Devices' Might Help Monitor Treatments
- Scientists Use Stem Cells to Mimic Huntington's Disease
- Myelodysplastic Syndrome Linked to Abnormal Stem Cells
- New Therapies Show Some Promise Against Pancreatic Cancer
- Scientists Develop New Method for Growing Bone
- First Stem Cell Vein Implant Helps Young Girl
- Experimental Stem Cell Treatment Tested for Type 1 Diabetes
- Stem Cells Behind Clogged Arteries, Mouse Study Reveals
- New Drug Effective for Rare Genetic Skin Cancer: Studies
- Skin Cells Turned Into Brain Cells in Lab Study
- Scientists Turn Skin Cells Into Cardiac Cells to Help Failing Hearts
- Stem Cell Study Shows Promising Results Against Heart Failure
- Researchers Rejuvenate Blood-Forming Stem Cells in Mice
- Health Highlights: April 18, 2012
- Improved Stem Cell Line May Avoid Tumor Risk: Study
- Drugs Previously Thought to Be Toxic May Stop Spread of Cancer
- Stem-Cell Trial Failed to Treat Heart Failure
- Altered Stem Cells Limit Transplant Rejection
- Future Fertility Fix? Egg-Producing Stem Cells Found in Human Ovaries
- Health Highlights: Feb. 22, 2012
- Health Highlights: Feb. 20, 2012
- Scarred Hearts Healed After Heart Attack
- Gene Research Offers Clues to Parkinson's Disease
- Stem Cells May Further Hepatitis C Research
- Stem Cell Therapy Shows Promise for Stroke, Studies Say
- Stem Cells: New Hope for Macular Degeneration
- Health Highlights: Jan. 22, 2012
- Health Highlights: Oct. 19, 2011
- Stem Cell Transplants May Treat Aggressive MS
- Gabrielle Giffords' Brain Injury: FAQ
- HIV/AIDS Cure? FAQ
- Stem Cell Treatment Restores Vision
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