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- What is sitagliptin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for sitagliptin?
- Is sitagliptin available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for sitagliptin?
- What are the side effects of sitagliptin?
- What is the dosage for sitagliptin?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with sitagliptin?
- Is sitagliptin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about sitagliptin?
What is sitagliptin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Sitagliptin is an oral drug that reduces blood sugar (glucose) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Sitagliptin is a member of a class of drugs that inhibit the enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and are therefore called DPP-4 inhibitors. Other members of the class include saxagliptin (Onglyza) and linagliptin (Tradjenta) Following a meal, incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released from the intestine, and their levels increase in the blood. GLP-1 and GIP reduce blood glucose by increasing the production and release of insulin from the pancreas. GLP-1 also reduces blood glucose by reducing the secretion by the pancreas of the hormone, glucagon, a hormone that increases the production of glucose by the liver and raises the blood level of glucose. The net effect of increased release of GLP-1 and GIP is to reduce blood glucose levels. Sitagliptin inhibits the enzyme, DPP-4, that destroys GLP-1 and GIP and thereby increases the levels and activity of both hormones. As a result, blood glucose levels fall. In summary, sitagliptin reduces blood glucose levels by inhibiting DPP-4 and increasing the levels of GLP-1 and GIP. Sitagliptin was approved by the FDA in October 2006.
What are the side effects of sitagliptin?
AND PRECAUTIONS The most common side effects of sitagliptin are:
Other important side effects of sitagliptin include:
There have been reports of fatal and non-fatal pancreatitis following use of sitagliptin. Acute kidney failure and severe hypersensitivity reactions have also been reported during treatment with sitagliptin.
Quick GuideDiabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
What is the dosage for sitagliptin?
Sitagliptin may be taken with or without food. The recommended dose is 100 mg once daily. Renal function should be assessed prior to starting sitagliptin and periodically during treatment. The dose of sitagliptin should be modified based on renal function.
Which drugs or supplements interact with sitagliptin?
Sitagliptin may slightly increase the concentration of digoxin (Lanoxin) in the body when both drugs are being taken. Digoxin concentrations should be monitored appropriately. The occurrence of low blood glucose increases when sitagliptin is combined with a sulfonylurea (for example, glyburide [Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab]) or insulin. The dose of insulin or sulfonylurea should be reduced.
Is sitagliptin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
There are no adequate studies of sitagliptin in pregnant women.
It is unknown whether sitagliptin is secreted in human breast milk.
What else should I know about sitagliptin?
What preparations of sitagliptin are available?
Tablets: 25, 50, and 100 mg
How should I keep sitagliptin stored?
Tablets should be stored at room temperature, 15-30 C (59-86 F)
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
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Sitagliptin (Januvia) is a medication prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Januvia is combined with exercise and diet to improve blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Diabetes TreatmentThe major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with:
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- Short-grain white rice
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Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes Similarities Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by:
Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.)
- Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!)
- Lack of activity
While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include:
- Increased urination
- Increased hunger
- Increased thirst
- Unexplained weight loss.
However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which a person's pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body. Causes of type 2 diabetes are a sedentary lifestyle, eating excess sugar and carbohydrates, lack of exercise, being overweight, and genetics. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are often subtle, but may include:
- Urine odor
- Unintentional weight gain or loss
- Frequent urination
- Dark skin under the chin, armpits, or groin
Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test. Treatment for type 2 diabetes are a healthy type 2 diabetes diet, exercise, stress reduction, and medication. Type 2 diabetes is a preventable disease. Incorporating healthy lifestyle changes (for example, eating a healthy diet, exercising more, and reducing stress) can prevent type 2 diabetes.