- What is sildenafil, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for sildenafil?
- Is sildenafil available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for sildenafil?
- What are the side effects of sildenafil?
- What is the dosage for sildenafil?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with sildenafil?
- Is sildenafil safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about sildenafil?
What is sildenafil, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Viagra (sildenafil) is an oral drug that is used for treating impotence (or erectile disfunction, ED, the inability to attain or maintain a penile erection). It is in a class of drugs called phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-5 inhibitors) that also includes
It has been estimated that impotence affects 140 million men worldwide. Over half of all men with impotence are thought to have some physical (medical) cause. The remainder are believed to have psychogenic causes of impotence. Medical causes of impotence include diabetes and circulatory, neurological, or urological conditions.
Penile erection is caused by the engorgement of the penis with blood. This engorgement occurs when the blood vessels delivering blood to the penis increase the delivery of blood and the blood vessels carrying blood away from the penis decrease the removal of blood. Under normal conditions, sexual stimulation leads to the production and release of nitric oxide in the penis. Nitric oxide then activates the enzyme, guanylate cyclase, which causes the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). It is the cGMP that is primarily responsible for the erection by affecting the amount of blood that the blood vessels deliver and remove from the penis.
Viagra inhibits an enzyme called phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) which destroys the cGMP. Thus, Viagra prevents the destruction of cGMP and allows cGMP to accumulate and persist longer. The longer cGMP persists, the more prolonged the engorgement of the penis. The FDA approved Viagra in March 1998.
What are the side effects of sildenafil?
Approximately 15% of persons taking Viagra experience side effects. The most common side effects are:
What is the dosage for sildenafil?
- The usual recommended dose is 25 to 100 mg 1 hour before sexual activity.
- The maximum dose is 100 mg daily.
- The elderly (over 65 years of age) should start at 25 mg before sexual activity.
- Sildenafil is rapidly absorbed. Maximum observed plasma concentrations are reached within 30 to 120 minutes (median 60 minutes) of oral dosing in the fasted state. When sildenafil is taken with a high fat meal, the rate of absorption is reduced, with an average delay in the time to maximal concentration of 1 hour.
Which drugs or supplements interact with sildenafil?
Viagra increases the effects of the blood pressure lowering medications. It also increases the blood pressure lowering effects of nitrates, for example, isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil), isosorbide mononitrate (Imdur, Ismo, Monoket), nitroglycerin (Nitro-Dur, Transderm-Nitro) that are used primarily for treating angina. Patients taking nitrates should not receive Viagra.
Patients should not combine Viagra with other PDE5 inhibitors (for example, vardenafil [Levitra], tadalafil [Cialis]).
Cimetidine (Tagamet), erythromycin, ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), atazanavir (Reyataz), and mibefradil (Posicor) can cause marked increases in the amount of Viagra in the body. Patients taking these medications should be observed carefully if sildenafil is used.
It is expected that rifampin will decrease blood levels of Viagra and probably reduce its effectiveness.
Latest Sexual Health News
Daily Health News
Is sildenafil safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Although extensive testing in animals has demonstrated no negative effects on the fetus, Viagra has not been studied in pregnant women. There is no effect on sperm count or motility of sperm in men.
It is not known whether sildenafil is excreted into breast milk.
What else should I know about sildenafil?
What preparations of sildenafil are available?
Sildenafil (Viagra) is a blue, film-coated, rounded, diamond-shaped tablet that comes in 25, 50, and 100 mg tablets for treating impotence.
How should I keep sildenafil stored?
Tablets should be kept at room temperature between 15 C and 30 C (59 F and 86 F).
Sildenafil (Viagra) is a medication prescribed for the treatment of impotence (erectile dysfunction, ED) caused by medical or psychological conditions. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and patient safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Erectile Dysfunction (ED) Causes and Treatment
Having erection problems? What is erectile dysfunction (ED)? Learn about erectile dysfunction causes and treatments such as drugs...
Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension): Symptoms, Signs, Causes
What is low blood pressure (hypotension)? Explore low blood pressure causes, symptoms, and signs. Discover what is considered low...
Healthy Aging: Better Sex After 50
It's never too late to improve your sex life. Learn how older adults can overcome common health conditions affecting seniors over...
Screening Tests Every Man Should Have
Getting the right screening test at the right time is one of the most important things a man can do for his health. Learn at what...
19 Health Problems in Men: Snoring, Hair Loss, and More
What are the biggest body health issues that plague men? Most men struggle with belly fat, back hair, sweating, erectile...
Sex Tips for Men: How to Have a Better Sex Life
Learn sex tips for men that lead to more sexual pleasure such as better communication, focusing on pleasurable sensations,...
Sex-Drive Killers: The Causes of Low Libido
Noticing a lack of intimacy with your partner? Here we explore how stress, lack of sleep, weight gain, depression and low T can...
Sex Quiz: Love & Relationships Facts
Relationships, sex, and love! Could it be that what motivates physical attraction in us may be all in our minds? Take the Sex &...
Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) Quiz: Causes & Treatment
Did you know that certain medical condition may be responsible for ED? Some causes of impotence are medically treatable and...
Picture of Penis
The penis is the male sex organ, reaching its full size during puberty. See a picture of the Penis and learn more about the...
Men's Health: What Foods Improve Male Health?
What foods have the most health benefits for men? For losing weight, gaining muscle, and lowering your risk of prostate cancer,...
For Men Only: 15 Ways to Stay On Top of Your Game
See how first impressions, staying active, good hygiene and more lifestyle tips can improve your overall health and well-being.
19 Secrets Women Wish You Knew With Pictures
There are secrets women would love for you to know. These relationship secrets are based on the study of healthy, happy couples,...
Related Disease Conditions
Night sweats are severe hot flashes that occur at night and result in a drenching sweat. The causes of night sweats in most people are not serious, like menopause in women, sleep apnea, medications, alcohol withdrawal, and thyroid problems. However, more serious diseases like cancer and HIV also can cause night sweats. Your doctor will treat your night sweats depending upon the cause. You may experience other signs and symptoms that are associated with night sweats, which depend upon the cause, but may include, shaking, and chills with a fever caused by an infection like the flu or pneumonia; unexplained weight loss due to lymphoma; women in perimenopause or menopause may also have vaginal dryness, mood swings, and hot flashes during the day; and low blood sugar in people with diabetes. Other causes of night sweats include medications like NSAIDs (aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), antidepressants, sildenafil (Viagra), and abuse of prescription or illegal drugs and drug withdrawal; hormone disorders like pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome; idiopathic hyperhidrosis; infections like endocarditis, AIDs, and abscesses; alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal; drug abuse, addiction, and withdrawal; and stroke. A doctor or other health care professional can treat your night sweats after the cause has been diagnosed.
Sexual Problems in Men
Male sexual dysfunction can be caused by physical or psychological problems. Common sexual problems in men include erectile dysfunction (impotence or ED), premature ejaculation, and loss of libido. Treatment for sexual dysfunction in men may involve medication, hormone therapy, psychological therapy, and the use of mechanical aids.
Peyronie's Disease (Curvature of the Penis)
Peyronie's disease or curvature of the penis (Peyronie disease) is a condition in which scar tissue develops inside the penis. This scar tissue causes the penis to develop an abnormal curvature in the scarred area. At this time, there is no known cause of Peyronie's disease. Symptoms of Peyronie's disease include pain during intercourse or ejaculation, erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence), the inability to have sexual intercourse, anxiety, stress, an indentation of the shaft at the site where there is plaque or scarring, and an angulation of the penis when erect or flaccid. There is no cure for Peyronie's disease, however, there are medications that can reduce symptoms of the disease. Surgery or penile implants may be an option for severe cases.
Erectile Dysfunction (ED, Impotence)
Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) is the failure to achieve or maintain an erection. There are many potential underlying causes of erectile dysfunction, including stress and emotional problems, brain dysfunction, problems with blood supply to the penis, and structural problems with the penis.
Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue. It is characterized by the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the skin and organs of the body, leading to thickness and firmness of involved areas. Scleroderma is also referred to as systemic sclerosis, and the cause is unknown. Treatment of scleroderma is directed toward the individual features that are most troubling to the patient.
Sexual Problems (Sex) in Women
Sexual dysfunction refers to a problem that arises during any phase of the sexual response cycle, preventing an individual or couple from experiencing sexual satisfaction. Physical, medical, and psychological conditions may affect sexual functioning, resulting in inhibited sexual desire, inability to become aroused, lack of orgasm, and painful intercourse. Treating the underlying physical and psychological problems usually resolves most female sexual problems.
Pulmonary hypertension is elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries that carry blood from the lungs to the heart. The most common symptoms are fatigue and difficulty breathing. If the condition goes undiagnosed, more severe symptoms may occur. As pulmonary hypertension worsens, some people with the condition have difficulty performing any activities that require physical exertion. While there is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, it can be managed and treated with medications and supplemental oxygen to increase blood oxygen levels.
What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?
Diabetic neuropathy a condition in which nerve damage has occurred as a complication of diabetes. The pain from the nerve damage can be severe with tingling or numbness in the part of the body affected. Diabetic neuropathy can occur anywhere in the body. Diabetic neuropathy can cause symptoms like intense pain, numbness, burning, or tingling in the part of the body affected by the condition. There are four types of neuropathy include peripheral, autonomic, proximal and focal. Natural therapies and medications may help relieve the pain and other symptoms of diabetic neuropathy.
Men's health is an important component to a happy lifestyle and healthy relationships. Eating healthy, exercise, managing stress, and knowing when to have medical tests for a particular age is key to disease prevention in men.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Symptoms and Treatments
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and 40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.
Sex, Urinary, and Bladder Problems of Diabetes
Having diabetes can mean early onset and increased severity of bladder symptoms (urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections) and changes in sexual function. Men may have erectile dysfunction; and women may have problems with sexual response and vaginal lubrication. Keep your diabetes under control, and you can lower your risk of sexual and urologic problems.
Enjoying a satisfying sex life as we age is important to both physical and mental health. As we age, diseases and conditions may pose challenges in our sexual health, and sexual experiences. Learn how to manage your conditions and still have a gratifying sex life as you age.
Sexual health information including birth control, impotence, herpes, sexually transmitted diseases, staying healthy, women's sexual health concerns, and men's sexual health concerns. Learn about the most common sexual conditions affecting men and women.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Sex & Love FAQs
- Impotence Erectile Dysfunction FAQs
- 8 Natural Remedies for Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Medication Disposal
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- Viagra: The Little Blue Pill That Could
- Erectile Dysfunction Drugs: Drug Interactions
- How To Reduce Your Medication Costs
- Pharmacy Visit, How To Get The Most Out of Your Visit
- Indications for Drugs: Approved vs. Non-approved
- Radio ID Tags For US Drugs (RFID)
- Viagra - Impotence Treatment Update
- Viagra and Nitrates Don't Mix
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Grapefruit Juice and Drug Interactions
- Things You Should Know About the Penis
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
- Could Viagra Help Men With Heart Disease Live Longer?
- Sildenafil and Trazodone Tablets Recalled After Being Packaged Together
- Could Viagra, Cialis Help Boost Colon Cancer Survival?
- Viagra Doesn't Solve All Sexual Problems, Men Discover
- Could Viagra, Cialis Work Largely by Placebo Effect?
- Help for Impotence Starts With Frank Talk With Doctor
- Some E-Cig Liquids Contain Erectile Dysfunction Drugs: FDA
- Guys, Avoid 'Rhino' Sexual Enhancement Products, FDA Says
- Viagra Linked to Trouble With Color Vision: Report
- Good News, Guys: Viagra Prices Start to Tumble Today
- Viagra Won't Help, and May Harm, Patients With a Heart Valve Disorder
- Impotence Meds Might Give Men's Hearts a Boost, Too
- Impotence Drugs Won't Raise Melanoma Risk, Study Suggests
- Recalled Supplements Linger on U.S. Store Shelves, Study Finds
- Illegal Online Meds Targeted in Worldwide Crackdown, FDA Says
- Erectile Dysfunction Tied to Long-Term Narcotic Use in Men
- Viagra, Aliskiren Not Helpful for Heart Failure After All: Studies
- Adding Testosterone to Viagra May Not Help Erectile Dysfunction
- Viagra Can Help Prostate Cancer Patients Maintain Sex Lives: Study
- Active Ingredient in Viagra Shrunk Disfiguring Growths in Kids
- 'Female Viagra' Is Rejected by FDA Panel
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
FDA Prescribing Information.