- Type 2 Diabetes: Learn the Warning Signs
- Diabetes Friendly Dining
- Type 2 Diabetes: Test Your Medical IQ
- Does Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection) cause side effects?
- What are the important side effects of Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection)?
- Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection) side effects list for healthcare professionals
- What drugs interact with Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection)?
Does Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection) cause side effects?
Xultophy 100/3.6 (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection) is a combination of a long-acting human insulin analog and a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist used as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on basal insulin (less than 50 units daily) or liraglutide (less than or equal to 1.8 mg daily).
Common side effects of Xultophy include:
- stuffy or runny nose,
- sore throat,
- increased blood levels of lipase,
- upper respiratory tract infection, and
- low blood sugar (hypoglycemia - symptoms include dizziness or light-headedness, sweating, confusion, drowsiness, headache, blurred vision, slurred speech, shakiness, fast heartbeat, anxiety, irritability, mood changes, hunger, weakness, and feeling jittery).
Serious side effects of Xultophy include:
- severe pain in your stomach area that will not go away, with or without vomiting;
- worsening kidney failure or sudden kidney failure,
- serious allergic reactions,
- gallbladder problems,
- low blood potassium, and
- heart failure.
Drug interactions of Xultophy include drugs that affect glucose metabolism, and anti-adrenergic drugs (e.g., beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine) which may cause a reduction in symptoms of hypoglycemia.
Xultophy concomitantly administered with oral medications may impact their absorption.
There are no available data with Xultophy 100/3.6, insulin degludec or liraglutide in pregnant women to inform a drug associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. Xultophy 100/3.6 should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
There are no data on the presence of liraglutide or insulin degludec in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Xultophy 100/3.6 and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Xultophy 100/3.6 or from the underlying maternal condition.
What are the important side effects of Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection)?
Possible thyroid tumors, including cancer
Tell your healthcare provider if you get a lump or swelling in your neck, hoarseness, trouble swallowing, or shortness of breath. These may be symptoms of thyroid cancer. In studies with rats and mice, liraglutide, one of the components of Xultophy 100/3.6, and medicines that work like liraglutide caused thyroid tumors, including thyroid cancer.
It is not known if Xultophy 100/3.6 will cause thyroid tumors or a type of thyroid cancer called medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in people. • Do not use Xultophy 100/3.6 if you or any of your family have ever had a type of thyroid cancer called medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), or if you have an endocrine system condition called Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2).
Common Side Effects
The most common side effects of Xultophy 100/3.6 include stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, headache, nausea, diarrhea, increased blood levels of lipase, and upper respiratory tract infection. Talk to your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or does not go away.
Stop using Xultophy 100/3.6 and call your healthcare provider right away if you have severe pain in your stomach area (abdomen) that will not go away, with or without vomiting. You may feel the pain from your abdomen to your back.
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
Signs and symptoms of low blood sugar may include:
• dizziness or light-headedness
• confusion or drowsiness
• blurred vision
• slurred speech
• fast heartbeat
• anxiety, irritability, or mood changes
• feeling jittery
Kidney problems (kidney failure)
Worsening of kidney failure and sudden kidney failure have happened in people with kidney problems and in people without kidney problems, who have taken liraglutide, one of the ingredients in Xultophy 100/3.6.
Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting may cause a loss of fluids (dehydration) which may cause kidney problems to get worse. Tell your healthcare provider if you have diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. Drink plenty of fluids to help reduce your risk of dehydration during treatment with Xultophy 100/3.6.
Serious allergic reactions
Stop using Xultophy 100/3.6 and get medical help right away, if you have any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction including:
• fast heartbeat
• fainting or feeling dizzy
• swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat
• problems breathing or swallowing
• sudden coughing
• chest pain or tightness
Gallbladder problems have happened in some people who take liraglutide, an ingredient in Xultophy 100/3.6. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you get symptoms of gallbladder problems which may include:
- pain in the right or middle upper stomach area
- nausea and vomiting
- your skin or the white part of your eyes turns yellow
Low potassium in your blood (hypokalemia)
Taking certain diabetes pills called thiazolidinediones or TZDs with Xultophy 100/3.6 may cause heart failure in some people. This can happen even if you have never had heart failure or heart problems before. If you already have heart failure, it may get worse while you take TZDs with Xultophy 100/3.6. Your healthcare provider should monitor you closely while you are taking TZDs with Xultophy 100/3.6.
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any new or worse symptoms of heart failure including shortness of breath, tiredness, swelling of your ankles or feet and sudden weight gain. Treatment with TZDs and Xultophy 100/3.6 may need to be adjusted or stopped by your healthcare provider if you have new or worsening heart failure.
Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection) side effects list for healthcare professionals
The following serious adverse reactions are described below or elsewhere in the prescribing information:
- Risk of Thyroid C-cell Tumors
- Acute Kidney Injury
- Hypersensitivity and Allergic Reactions
- Acute Gallbladder Disease
Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The data in Table 3 reflect the exposure of 1881 patients to Xultophy 100/3.6 and a mean duration of exposure of 33 weeks. The mean age was 57 years and 2.8% were older than 75 years; 52.6% were male, 75.0% were White, 6.2% were Black or African American and 15.9% were Hispanic or Latino.
The mean body mass index (BMI) was 31.8 kg/m². The mean duration of diabetes was 8.7 years and the mean HbA1c at baseline was 8.2%. A history of neuropathy, ophthalmopathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular disease at baseline was reported in 25.4%, 12.0%, 6.5% and 6.3% respectively. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline was 88.3 mL/min/1.73 m² and 6.24% of the patients had an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m².
Table 3: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of Xultophy 100/3.6-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
N = 1881 %
|Upper respiratory tract infection||5.7|
Hypoglycemia is the most commonly observed adverse reaction in patients using insulin and insulin containing products, including Xultophy 100/3.6. The number of reported hypoglycemia episodes depends on the definition of hypoglycemia used, insulin dose, intensity of glucose control, background therapies, and other intrinsic and extrinsic patient factors.
For these reasons, comparing rates of hypoglycemia in clinical trials for Xultophy 100/3.6 with the incidence of hypoglycemia for other products may be misleading and also, may not be representative of hypoglycemia rates that will occur in clinical practice.
In the phase 3 clinical program, events of severe hypoglycemia were defined as an episode requiring assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrate, glucagon, or other resuscitative actions (Table 4). Hypoglycemia episodes with a glucose level below 54 mg/dL associated with or without symptoms is shown in Table 4. No clinically important differences in risk of severe hypoglycemia between Xultophy 100/3.6 and comparators were observed in clinical trials.
Table 4: Hypoglycemia Episodes Reported in Xultophy 100/3.6-Treated Patients with T2DM
|Patients naive to basal insulin or GLP-1 receptor agonist||Patients currently on GLP-1 receptor agonist||Patients Currently on basal insulin|
Xultophy 100/3.6 NCT
Xultophy 100/3.6 NCT
Xultophy 100/3.6 NCT
Xultophy 100/3.6 NCT
Xultophy 100/3.6 NCT
Xultophy 100/3.6 NCT
|Total Subjects (N)||825||288||209||291||199||278|
|Severe Hypoglycemia (%)†||0.2||0.7||0.5||0.3||0.5||0.0|
|Hypoglycemia with a glucose level <54 mg/dL (%)*||27.6||37.2||14.4||27.1||22.1||24.8|
|† episode requiring assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrate, glucagon, or other resuscitative actions.|
*Episodes of hypoglycemia with a glucose level below 54 mg/dL that are associated with or without symptoms of hypoglycemia.
Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
Gastrointestinal adverse reactions including nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, dyspepsia, gastritis, abdominal pain, flatulence, eructation, gastroesophageal reflux disease, abdominal distension and decreased appetite have been reported in patients treated with Xultophy 100/3.6. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions may occur more frequently at the beginning of Xultophy 100/3.6 therapy and diminish within a few days or weeks on continued treatment.
Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
In glycemic control trials of liraglutide, there were 7 reported cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients treated with liraglutide and 1 case in a comparator-treated patient (1.5 vs. 0.5 cases per 1000 patient years). Most of these papillary thyroid carcinomas were <1 cm in greatest diameter and were diagnosed in surgical pathology specimens after thyroidectomy prompted by findings on protocol-specified screening with serum calcitonin or thyroid ultrasound.
Cholelithiasis And Cholecystitis
In glycemic control trials of liraglutide, the incidence of cholelithiasis was 0.3% in both liraglutide-treated and placebo-treated patients. The incidence of cholecystitis was 0.2% in both liraglutide treated and placebo-treated patients.
In a cardiovascular outcomes trial (LEADER trial), the incidence of cholelithiasis was 1.5% (3.9 cases per 1000 patient years of observation) in liraglutide-treated and 1.1% (2.8 cases per 1000 patient years of observation) in placebo-treated patients, both on a background of standard of care. The incidence of acute cholecystitis was 1.1% (2.9 cases per 1000 patient years of observation) in liraglutidetreated and 0.7% (1.9 cases per 1000 patient years of observation) in placebo-treated patients.
Initiation Of Insulin Containing Products And Intensification Of Glucose Control
Intensification or rapid improvement in glucose control has been associated with a transitory, reversible ophthalmologic refraction disorder, worsening of diabetic retinopathy, and acute painful peripheral neuropathy. However, long-term glycemic control decreases the risk of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.
Long-term use of insulin containing products, including Xultophy 100/3.6, can cause lipodystrophy at the site of repeated injections. Lipodystrophy includes lipohypertrophy (thickening of adipose tissue) and lipoatrophy (thinning of adipose tissue), and may affect absorption.
Insulin containing products, including Xultophy 100/3.6, may cause sodium retention and edema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved rapidly by intensified therapy.
Weight gain can occur with insulin containing products, including Xultophy 100/3.6, and has been attributed to the anabolic effects of insulin. In study A, after 26 weeks of treatment, patients converting to Xultophy 100/3.6 from liraglutide had a mean increase in body weight of 2 kg.
Injection Site Reactions
As with any insulin and GLP-1 receptor agonist-containing products, patients taking Xultophy 100/3.6 may experience injection site reactions, including injection site hematoma, pain, hemorrhage, erythema, nodules, swelling, discoloration, pruritis, warmth, and injection site mass. In the clinical program, the proportion of injection site reactions occurring in patients treated with Xultophy 100/3.6 was 2.6%. These reactions were usually mild and transitory and they normally disappear during continued treatment.
Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, generalized skin reactions, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypotension, and shock may occur with any insulin-containing products including Xultophy 100/3.6 and may be life threatening. Hypersensitivity (manifested with swelling of tongue and lips, diarrhea, nausea, tiredness, and itching) and urticaria were reported.
In the five glycemic control trials of at least 26 weeks duration, mildly elevated serum bilirubin concentrations (elevations to no more than twice the upper limit of the reference range) occurred in 4.0% of liraglutide-treated patients, 2.1% of placebo-treated patients and 3.5% of active-comparator-treated patients. This finding was not accompanied by abnormalities in other liver tests. The significance of this isolated finding is unknown.
Calcitonin, a biological marker of MTC, was measured throughout the Xultophy 100/3.6 clinical development program. Among patients with pretreatment calcitonin <20 ng/L, calcitonin elevations to >20 ng/L occurred in 0.7% of Xultophy 100/3.6-treated patients, 0.7% of placebo-treated patients, and 1.1% and 0.7% of active-comparator-treated patients (basal insulins and GLP-1s respectively). The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
Calcitonin, a biological marker of MTC, was measured throughout the liraglutide clinical development program. At the end of the glycemic control trials, adjusted mean serum calcitonin concentrations were higher in liraglutide-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients but not compared to patients receiving active comparator.
Between group differences in adjusted mean serum calcitonin values were approximately 0.1 ng/L or less. Among patients with pretreatment calcitonin <20 ng/L, calcitonin elevations to >20 ng/L occurred in 0.7% of liraglutide-treated patients, 0.3% of placebo-treated patients, and 0.5% of active-comparator-treated patients. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
Lipase And Amylase
In one glycemic control trial in renal impairment patients, a mean increase of 33% for lipase and 15% for amylase from baseline was observed for liraglutide-treated patients while placebo-treated patients had a mean decrease in lipase of 3% and a mean increase in amylase of 1%.
In a cardiovascular outcomes trial (LEADER trial), serum lipase and amylase were routinely measured. Among liraglutide-treated patients, 7.9% had a lipase value at any time during treatment of greater than or equal to 3 times the upper limit of normal compared with 4.5% of placebo-treated patients, and 1% of liraglutide-treated patients had an amylase value at any time during treatment of greater than or equal to 3 times the upper limit of normal versus 0.7% of placebo-treated patients.
The clinical significance of elevations in lipase or amylase with liraglutide is unknown in the absence of other signs and symptoms of pancreatitis.
Mean increases from baseline in heart rate of 2 to 3 beats per minute have been observed with Xultophy 100/3.6 which is attributable to the liraglutide component.
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease.
For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to Xultophy 100/3.6 in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.
Administration of Xultophy 100/3.6 may cause formation of antibodies against insulin degludec and/or liraglutide. In rare cases, the presence of such antibodies may necessitate adjustment of the Xultophy 100/3.6 dose in order to correct a tendency to hyper-or hypoglycemia.
In the clinical trials where antibodies were measured in patients receiving Xultophy 100/3.6, 11.1% of patients were positive for insulin degludec specific antibodies at end of treatment vs. 2.4% at baseline, 30.8% of patients were positive for antibodies cross-reacting with human insulin at end of treatment vs. 14.6% at baseline. 2.1% of patients were positive for anti-liraglutide antibodies at end of treatment (no patients were positive at baseline). Antibody formation has not been associated with reduced efficacy of Xultophy 100/3.6.
Consistent with the potentially immunogenic properties of protein and peptide pharmaceuticals, patients treated with liraglutide may develop anti-liraglutide antibodies. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay.
Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, the incidence of antibodies to liraglutide cannot be directly compared with the incidence of antibodies of other products.
Approximately 50-70% of liraglutide-treated patients in five double-blind clinical trials of 26 weeks duration or longer were tested for the presence of anti-liraglutide antibodies at the end of treatment. Low titers (concentrations not requiring dilution of serum) of anti-liraglutide antibodies were detected in 8.6% of these liraglutide-treated patients.
Cross-reacting anti-liraglutide antibodies to native glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) occurred in 6.9% of the liraglutide-treated patients in the double-blind 52-week monotherapy trial and in 4.8% of the liraglutide-treated patients in the double-blind 26-week add-on combination therapy trials.
These cross-reacting antibodies were not tested for neutralizing effect against native GLP-1, and thus the potential for clinically significant neutralization of native GLP-1 was not assessed. Antibodies that had a neutralizing effect on liraglutide in an in vitro assay occurred in 2.3% of the liraglutide-treated patients in the double-blind 52-week monotherapy trial and in 1.0% of the liraglutide-treated patients in the double-blind 26-week add-on combination therapy trials.
Antibody formation was not associated with reduced efficacy of liraglutide when comparing mean HbA1c of all antibody-positive and all antibody-negative patients. However, the 3 patients with the highest titers of anti-liraglutide antibodies had no reduction in HbA1c with liraglutide treatment.
In five double-blind glycemic control trials of liraglutide, events from a composite of adverse events potentially related to immunogenicity (e.g. urticaria, angioedema) occurred among 0.8% of liraglutidetreated patients and among 0.4% of comparator-treated patients. Urticaria accounted for approximately one-half of the events in this composite for liraglutide-treated patients. Patients who developed anti-liraglutide antibodies were not more likely to develop events from the immunogenicity events composite than were patients who did not develop anti-liraglutide antibodies.
In a cardiovascular outcomes trial (LEADER trial), anti-liraglutide antibodies were detected in 11 out of the 1247 (0.9%) liraglutide-treated patients with antibody measurements.
Of the 11 liraglutide-treated patients who developed anti-liraglutide antibodies, none were observed to develop neutralizing antibodies to liraglutide, and 5 patients (0.4%) developed cross-reacting antibodies against native GLP-1.
TRESIBA (insulin degludec)
In a 52-week study of adult insulin-naive type 2 diabetes patients, 1.7% of patients who received insulin degludec were positive at baseline for anti-insulin degludec antibodies and 6.2% of patients developed anti-insulin degludec antibodies at least once during the study. In these trials, between 96.7% and 99.7% of patients who were positive for anti-insulin degludec antibodies were also positive for anti-human insulin antibodies.
The following additional adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- Medullary thyroid carcinoma
- Dehydration resulting from nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
- Increased serum creatinine, acute renal failure or worsening of chronic renal failure, sometimes requiring hemodialysis.
- Angioedema and anaphylactic reactions.
- Allergic reactions: rash and pruritus
- Acute pancreatitis, hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis sometimes resulting in death
- Hepatobiliary disorders: elevations of liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, cholestasis, hepatitis
What drugs interact with Xultophy (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection)?
Medications That Can Affect Glucose Metabolism
A number of medications affect glucose metabolism and may require dose adjustment of Xultophy 100/3.6 and particularly close monitoring.
|Drugs That May Increase the Risk of Hypoglycemia|
|Drugs:||Antidiabetic agents, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blocking agents, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, pentoxifylline, pramlintide, salicylates, somatostatin analogs (e.g., octreotide), and sulfonamide antibiotics|
|Intervention:||Dose reductions and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when Xultophy 100/3.6 is co-administered with these drugs.|
|Drugs That May Decrease the Blood Glucose Lowering Effect of Xultophy 100/3.6|
|Drugs:||Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., olanzapine and clozapine), corticosteroids, danazol, diuretics, estrogens, glucagon, isoniazid, niacin, oral contraceptives, phenothiazines, progestogens (e.g., in oral contraceptives), protease inhibitors, somatropin, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), and thyroid hormones.|
|Intervention:||Dose increases and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when Xultophy 100/3.6 is co-administered with these drugs.|
|Drugs That May Increase or Decrease the Blood Glucose Lowering Effect of Xultophy 100/3.6|
|Drugs:||Alcohol, beta-blockers, clonidine, and lithium salts. Pentamidine may cause hypoglycemia, which may sometimes be followed by hyperglycemia.|
|Intervention:||Dose adjustment and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when Xultophy 100/3.6 is co-administered with these drugs.|
|Drugs That May Blunt Signs and Symptoms of Hypoglycemia|
|Drugs:||Beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine|
|Intervention:||Increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when Xultophy 100/3.6 is co-administered with these drugs.|
Effects Of Delayed Gastric Emptying On Oral Medications
Liraglutide-containing products, including Xultophy 100/3.6, cause a delay of gastric emptying, and thereby have the potential to impact the absorption of concomitantly administered oral medications. In clinical pharmacology trials, liraglutide did not affect the absorption of the tested orally administered medications to any clinically relevant degree. Nonetheless, caution should be exercised when oral medications are concomitantly administered with liraglutide containing products.
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People with diabetes can manage and prevent low or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia) by keeping a log of your blood sugar levels when you are eating and fasting and eat foods that are high in carbohydrates and sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary desserts, and fatty foods. Blood tests, for example, the hemoglobin A1c test (A1c test) and urinalysis can diagnose the type of diabetes the person has. Diabetes during pregnancy, called gestational diabetes, should be managed by you and your OB/GYN or another healthcare professional. Extremely high levels of blood glucose in the blood can be dangerous and life threatening if you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. If you or someone that you are with has extremely high blood glucose levels, call 911 or go to your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department immediately. To prevent and manage high blood glucose levels in people with diabetes keep a log of your blood sugar levels, eat foods that are high in carbohydrates sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary deserts, and fatty foods that you can share with your doctor and other healthcare professionals.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Diabetes Symptoms in Men
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which a person's blood sugar (blood glucose) is either too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia) due to problems with insulin regulation in the body. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs during childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually occurs during adulthood, however, rates of both types of diabetes in children, adolescents, and teens is increasing. More men than women have diabetes in the US, and the disease can affect men differently than women.Warning symptoms of diabetes that men have and women do not include low testosterone (low-t), sexual problems, impotence (erectile dysfunction), decreased interest in sex, and retrograde ejaculation. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms and signs that are the same in men and women include skin infections, numbness or tingling in the feet or hands, nausea, excessive thirst or hunger, fatigue, irritability, blurred vision, weight gain, weight loss, urinary tract infections (URIs), and kidney problems. Treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin, and treatment for type 2 diabetes are lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, getting exercise daily, and if necessary, diabetes medications.
Diabetes Symptoms in Women
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss if interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
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Gestational Diabetes (Diabetes during Pregnancy))
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The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Diabetes Foot Problems
Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Type 1 Diabetes (Symptoms, Causes, Diet, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (juvenile) is an auto-immune disease with no known cause at this time, although there are a few risk factors. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, unintentional weight loss, dry and itchy skin, vision problems, wounds that heal slowly, and excessive thirst. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. A healthy lifestyle and controlling blood glucose levels can improve life expectancy.
How to Prevent Diabetes Naturally
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but has not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person could develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more exercise, reducing stress, quitting smoking, reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that can occur during pregnancy. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes have not had the condition prior to becoming pregnant. Usually, gestational diabetes has no symptoms or signs and of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can cause insulin resistance, hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Treatment of gestational diabetes is managing the condition by checking your blood sugar as recommended, diet changes, getting enough exercise, and monitoring your baby's growth.
Diabetes and Safe Medications for Colds and the Flu: OTC Medication Guide
If you have diabetes and catch a cold or the flu, can be more difficult to recover from infections and their complications, for example, pneumonia. Home remedies and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs used for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of colds and the flu may affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.Some medications are OK to take if you have diabetes get a cold or the flu include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Motrin) to control symptoms of fever and pain. Most cough syrups are safe to take; however, check with your pediatrician to see what medications are safe to give your child if he or she has type 1 or 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes and are sick with a cold or flu, you need to check your blood sugar levels more frequently. Continue taking your regular medications. Eat a diabetic low-glycemic index diet rich in antioxidants. To prevent colds and the flu drink at least eight 8 ounce glasses of water a day. To replenish fluids, drink sports drinks like Gatorade and Pedialyte to replenish electrolytes. Avoid people who are sick, sneezing, coughing, or have other symptoms of a cold or flu.
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Diabetes-Related Dental Problems
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Type 2 Diabetes: Diagnosing Diabetes
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Type 1 Diabetes
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Eye Problems and Diabetes
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Sex, Urinary, and Bladder Problems of Diabetes
Having diabetes can mean early onset and increased severity of bladder symptoms (urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections) and changes in sexual function. Men may have erectile dysfunction; and women may have problems with sexual response and vaginal lubrication. Keep your diabetes under control, and you can lower your risk of sexual and urologic problems.
Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which the patient has frequent urination. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus include irritable, listless, fever, vomiting, or diarrhea due to the loss of large volumes of urine. There are three types of diabetes insipidus, central, nephrogenic, dipsogenic, and gestational. Treatment depends upon the type of diabetes insipidus.
Types of Diabetes Type 2 Medications
Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. There are nine classes of drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples of type 2 oral diabetes medications include acarbose (Precose), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and metformin (Glucophage). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, dosage, and breastfeeding and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Diabetes: Caring for Your Diabetes at Special Times
Taking care of a disease such as diabetes is a life-long process. Learn how to care for yourself or loved one with diabetes in situations such as illness, work, school, travel, or a natural disaster.
What Are the Early Signs of Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by increased blood sugar (glucose) level. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by either insufficient insulin secretion or resistance to that hormone’s action. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and helps process the glucose in the blood. Thus, with inadequate insulin, the bodies can’t burn all the blood sugar for energy in an efficient way. This means the glucose level in the blood rises, causing a variety of symptoms and when severe may even lead to death.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.