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Does Xifaxan (rifaximin) cause side effects?
Xifaxan (rifaximin) is an antibiotic used to treat traveler's diarrhea and hepatic encephalopathy. It is derived from rifamycin, a naturally occurring chemical produced by a bacterium called Streptomyces mediterranei.
Xifaxan is active against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial strains that cause traveler's diarrhea, preventing growth of the bacteria by preventing them from manufacturing proteins needed for their replication and survival. By suppressing growth of the bacteria, Xifaxan reduces symptoms of traveler's diarrhea.
Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious neurologic complication of advanced liver disease that affects the brain. It is believed to be caused by the absorption of ammonia and other chemicals produced by bacteria in the intestine. It is believed that Xifaxan prevents and treats hepatic encephalopathy by reducing the intestinal bacteria that produce ammonia.
Common side effects of Xifaxan include
- urge to defecate,
- abdominal pain,
- gas (flatulence), and
- fluid retention (edema).
Serious side effects of Xifaxan include alteration of the normal bacteria in the colon which encourages overgrowth of some bacteria such as Clostridium difficile and causes inflammation of the colon (pseudomembranous colitis). Signs of pseudomembranous colitis include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock.
What are the important side effects of Xifaxan (rifaximin)?
Common side effects associated with rifaximin include:
- urge to defecate,
- abdominal pain,
- flatulence, and
- fluid retention (edema).
Like other antibiotics rifaximin can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of some bacteria such as Clostridium difficile which causes inflammation of the colon (pseudomembranous colitis).
Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting rifaximin (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock,) should contact their physician immediately.
Xifaxan (rifaximin) side effects list for healthcare professionals
Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of Xifaxan 200 mg taken three times a day was evaluated in patients with travelers' diarrhea consisting of 320 patients in two placebo-controlled clinical trials with 95% of patients receiving three or four days of treatment with Xifaxan.
The population studied had a mean age of 31.3 (18-79) years of which approximately 3% were ≥65 years old, 53% were male and
- 84% were White,
- 11% were Hispanic.
Discontinuations due to adverse reactions occurred in 0.4% of patients. The adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were taste loss, dysentery, weight decrease, anorexia, nausea and nasal passage irritation.
The adverse reaction that occurred at a frequency ≥2% in Xifaxan-treated patients (n=320) at a higher rate than placebo (n=228) in the two placebo-controlled trials of TD was:
- headache (10% Xifaxan, 9% placebo)
The data described below reflect exposure to Xifaxan in 348 patients, including 265 exposed for 6 months and 202 exposed for more than a year (mean exposure was 364 days).
The safety of Xifaxan 550 mg taken two times a day for reducing the risk of overt hepatic encephalopathy recurrence in adult patients was evaluated in a 6-month placebo-controlled clinical trial (n=140) and in a long term followup study (n=280).
The population studied had a mean age of 56 (range: 21 to 82) years; approximately 20% of the patients were ≥65 years old, and
- 61% were male,
- 86% were White, and
- 4% were Black.
Ninety-one percent of patients in the trial were taking lactulose concomitantly. The most common adverse reactions that occurred at an incidence ≥5% and at a higher incidence in Xifaxan-treated subjects than in the placebo group in the 6-month trial are provided in Table 1.
Table 1: Most Common Adverse Reactions in HE Trial
|MedDRA Preferred Term||Number (%) of Patients|
|Xifaxan Tablets 550 mg Twice Daily|
|Peripheral edema||21 (15%)||13 (8%)|
|Nausea||20 (14%)||21 (13%)|
|Dizziness||18 (13%)||13 (8%)|
|Fatigue||17 (12%)||18 (11%)|
|Ascites||16 (11%)||15 (9%)|
|Muscle spasms||13 (9%)||11 (7%)|
|Pruritus||13 (9%)||10 (6%)|
|Abdominal pain||12 (9%)||13 (8%)|
|Anemia||11 (8%)||6 (4%)|
|Depression||10 (7%)||8 (5%)|
|Nasopharyngitis||10 (7%)||10 (6%)|
|Abdominal pain upper||9 (6%)||8 (5%)|
|Arthralgia||9 (6%)||4 (3%)|
|Dyspnea||9 (6%)||7 (4%)|
|Pyrexia||9 (6%)||5 (3%)|
|Rash||7 (5%)||6 (4%)|
|* reported in ≥5% of Patients Receiving Xifaxan and at a higher incidence than placebo|
Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Diarrhea
The safety of Xifaxan for the treatment of IBS-D was evaluated in 3 placebo-controlled studies in which 952 patients were randomized to Xifaxan 550 mg three times a day for 14 days.
Across the 3 studies, 96% of patients received at least 14 days of treatment with Xifaxan. In Trials 1 and 2, 624 patients received only one 14-day treatment.
Trial 3 evaluated the safety of Xifaxan in 328 patients who received 1 open-label treatment and 2 double-blind repeat treatments of 14 days each over a period of up to 46 weeks.
The combined population studied had a mean age of 47 (range: 18 to 88) years of whom approximately
- 11% of the patients were ≥65 years old,
- 72% were female,
- 88% were White,
- 9% were Black and
- 12% were Hispanic.
The adverse reaction that occurred at a frequency ≥2% in Xifaxan-treated patients at a higher rate than placebo in Trials 1 and 2 for IBS-D was:
- nausea (3% Xifaxan, 2% placebo)
The adverse reactions that occurred at a frequency >2% in Xifaxan-treated patients (n=328) at a higher rate than placebo (n=308) in Trial 3 for IBS-D during the double-blind treatment phase were:
ALT increased (Xifaxan 2%, placebo 1%)
- nausea (Xifaxan 2%, placebo 1%)
Less Common Adverse Reactions
The following adverse reactions, presented by body system, were reported in less than 2% of patients in clinical trials of TD and IBS-D and in less than 5% of patients in clinical trials of HE:
Hepatobiliary disorders: Clostridium colitis
Investigations: Increased blood creatine phosphokinase
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: myalgia
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Xifaxan.
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made.
These reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, reported in ≥5% of Patients Receiving Xifaxan and at a higher incidence than placebo frequency of reporting or causal connection to Xifaxan.
Infections And Infestations
Cases of C. difficile-associated colitis have been reported.
Hypersensitivity reactions, including exfoliative dermatitis, rash, angioneurotic edema (swelling of face and tongue and difficulty swallowing), urticaria, flushing, pruritus and anaphylaxis have been reported. These events occurred as early as within 15 minutes of drug administration.
What drugs interact with Xifaxan (rifaximin)?
Effects Of Xifaxan On Other Drugs
Substrates Of Cytochrome P450 enzymes
Rifaximin is not expected to inhibit cytochrome P450 isoenzymes 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and CYP3A4 in clinical use based on in vitro studies.
An in vitro study has suggested that rifaximin induces CYP3A4. However, in patients with normal liver function, Xifaxan at the recommended dosing regimen is not expected to induce CYP3A4.
It is unknown whether rifaximin can have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of concomitant CYP3A4 substrates in patients with reduced liver function who have elevated rifaximin concentrations.
Effects Of Other Drugs On Xifaxan
In vitro studies suggested that rifaximin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein, OATP1A2, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Concomitant cyclosporine, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and OATPs, significantly increased the systemic exposure to rifaximin.
Co-administration of cyclosporine, with Xifaxan resulted in 83-fold and 124-fold increases in rifaximin mean Cmax and AUC8 in healthy subjects. The clinical significance of this increase in systemic exposure is unknown.
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Related Disease Conditions
Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.
Ulcerative Colitis Diet Plan
An ulcerative colitis diet plan can help a person with the disease avoid foods and drinks that trigger flares. There also are foods that can soothe ulcerative colitis symptoms during a flare. Types of ulcerative colitis plans include a high-calorie diet, a lactose-free diet, a low-fat diet, a low-fiber diet (low-residue diet), or a low-salt diet. Self-management of ulcerative colitis using healthy lifestyle habits and a nutrient rich diet can be effective in management of the disease. Learn what foods to avoid that aggravate, and what foods help symptoms of the disease and increase bowel inflammation.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the colon. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Ulcerative colitis is closely related to Crohn's disease, and together they are referred to as inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment depends upon the type of ulcerative colitis diagnosed.
IBS-D (Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea)
IBS-D or irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea refers to IBS with diarrhea. Symptoms of IBS-D include intestinal gas (flatulence), loose stools, frequent stools, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea. New non-FDA approved IBS tests may help diagnose IBS and IBS-D. Treatment of IBS-D is geared to toward managing symptoms with diet, medication, and lifestyle changes.
Travelers' diarrhea is generally contracted by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Food is the primary source of travelers' diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli is the cause of up to 70% of all cases of travelers' diarrhea. There are five unique classes of E. coli that causes gastroenteritis. Other bacteria responsible for travelers' diarrhea include Campylobacter, jejuni, shigella, and salmonella. Viruses such as rotavirus and Norwalk virus (norovirus) and giardia lamblia a parasite may cause travelers' diarrhea. Prevention is careful eating and drinking of water.
Crohn's Disease vs. Ulcerative Colitis (UC)
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are diseases that cause inflammation of part of or the entire digestive tract (GI). Crohn's affects the entire GI tract (from the mouth to the anus), while ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis only affects the large and small intestine and ilium. Researchers do not know the exact cause of either disease. About 20% of people with Crohn's disease also have a family member with the disease. Researchers believe that certain factors may play a role in causing UC. Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are a type of inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis both have similar symptoms and signs, for example, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, weight loss, episodic and/or persistent diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain and cramping, rectal bleeding, bloody stools, joint pain and soreness, eye redness, or pain. Symptoms unique to Crohn’s disease include anemia and skin changes. Symptoms of unique to ulcerative colitis include, certain rashes, an urgency to defecate (have a bowel movement). Doctors diagnose both diseases with similar tests and procedures. While there is no cure for either disease, doctors and other health care professionals can help you treat disease flares, and manage your Crohn's or ulcerative colitis with medication, diet, nutritional supplements, and/or surgery.
Clostridium Difficile Colitis (C. diff, C. difficle Colitis)
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium, and is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon. C. difficile spores are found frequently in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, and nurseries for newborn infants.
Is E. coli Contagious? (Symptoms and Cure)
E. coli is an infection found worldwide. There are several subtypes of the E. coli species. E. coli spreads from person to person via contaminated food or water. Symptoms and signs of E. coli infection include diarrhea, stomach cramps, and sometimes fever. Antibiotics treat E. coli infection.
How Do You Get Rid of Diarrhea?
Diarrhea is characterized as loose or runny stools that happen an abnormally high number of times throughout the day. Diarrhea can be linked to autoimmune diseases like Crohn’s or irritable bowel syndrome but is more often a sign of food intolerance (lactose is common), viral infection, food poisoning or other infectious diseases of varying severity.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.