- Rheumatoid Arthritis Slideshow Pictures
- Take the RA Quiz
- Joint-Friendly Exercises to Reduce RA Pain Slideshow
What is Xeljanz (tofacitinib)?
Xeljanz (tofacitinib) is a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. JAKs are enzymes (proteins) that regulate chemical signaling pathways that control biologic processes such as blood formation and the immune response that causes the pain, tenderness, and swelling that accompanies inflammation.
JAKs are found in many cells, especially stem cells in bones and joints. Inhibition of JAKs by Xeljanz prevents inflammation and tissue destruction associated with the inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis.
Common side effects of Xeljanz include:
- increased cholesterol levels,
- sore throat,
- runny nose,
- urinary tract infection (UTI),
- runny or stuffy nose, and
- upper respiratory infections.
Serious side effects of Xeljanz include:
- development of severe infections that may lead to hospitalization or death.
Rifampin accelerates Xeljanz metabolism, which can reduce the beneficial effects of Xeljanz.
Combining Xeljanz with other medications such as the following may cause further suppression of the immune system:
What are the side effects of Xeljanz (tofacitinib)?
Side effects of tofacitinib are:
- increased cholesterol levels (for example, HDL and LDL levels),
- sore throat,
- runny nose,
- urinary tract infection,
- nasopharyngitis, and
- upper respiratory infections.
Tofacitinib carries a boxed warning of risk of developing infections that may lead to hospitalization or death.
Patients must be carefully monitored for the development of signs and symptoms of infection before and during the treatment of tofacitinib.
Xeljanz (tofacitinib) side effects list for healthcare professionals
The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Serious Infections
- Malignancy and Lymphoproliferative Disorders
- Gastrointestinal Perforations
- Laboratory Abnormalities
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not predict the rates observed in a broader patient population in clinical practice.
The clinical studies described in the following sections were conducted using Xeljanz. Although other doses of Xeljanz have been studied, the recommended dose of Xeljanz is 5 mg twice daily. The recommended dose for Xeljanz XR is 11 mg once daily. A dosage of Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily or Xeljanz XR 22 mg once daily is not a recommended regimen for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
The recommended dose for Xeljanz XR is 11 mg once daily.
The following data includes two Phase 2 and five Phase 3 double-blind, controlled, multicenter trials. In these trials, patients were randomized to doses of Xeljanz 5 mg twice daily (292 patients) and 10 mg twice daily (306 patients) monotherapy, Xeljanz 5 mg twice daily (1044 patients) and 10 mg twice daily (1043 patients) in combination with DMARDs (including methotrexate) and placebo (809 patients).
All seven protocols included provisions for patients taking placebo to receive treatment with Xeljanz at Month 3 or Month 6 either by patient response (based on uncontrolled disease activity) or by design, so that adverse events cannot always be unambiguously attributed to a given treatment. Therefore, some analyses that follow include patients who changed treatment by design or by patient response from placebo to Xeljanz in both the placebo and Xeljanz group of a given interval. Comparisons between placebo and Xeljanz were based on the first 3 months of exposure, and comparisons between Xeljanz 5 mg twice daily and Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily were based on the first 12 months of exposure.
The long-term safety population includes all patients who participated in a double-blind, controlled trial (including earlier development phase studies) and then participated in one of two long-term safety studies. The design of the long-term safety studies allowed for modification of Xeljanz doses according to clinical judgment. This limits the interpretation of the long-term safety data with respect to dose.
The most common serious adverse reactions were serious infections.
The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to any adverse reaction during the 0 to 3 months exposure in the double-blind, placebo-controlled trials was 4% for patients taking Xeljanz and 3% for placebo-treated patients.
In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, the overall frequency of infections was 20% and 22% in the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily groups, respectively, and 18% in the placebo group.
In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, serious infections were reported in 1 patient (0.5 events per 100 patient-years) who received placebo and 11 patients (1.7 events per 100 patient-years) who received Xeljanz 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily. The rate difference between treatment groups (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 1.1 (-0.4, 2.5) events per 100 patient-years for the combined 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily Xeljanz group minus placebo.
In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 12 months exposure, serious infections were reported in 34 patients (2.7 events per 100 patient-years) who received 5 mg twice daily of Xeljanz and 33 patients (2.7 events per 100 patient-years) who received 10 mg twice daily of Xeljanz. The rate difference between Xeljanz doses (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was -0.1 (-1.3, 1.2) events per 100 patient-years for 10 mg twice daily Xeljanz minus 5 mg twice daily Xeljanz.
In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, tuberculosis was not reported in patients who received placebo, 5 mg twice daily of Xeljanz, or 10 mg twice daily of Xeljanz.
In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 12 months exposure, tuberculosis was reported in 0 patients who received 5 mg twice daily of Xeljanz and 6 patients (0.5 events per 100 patient-years) who received 10 mg twice daily of Xeljanz. The rate difference between Xeljanz doses (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 0.5 (0.1, 0.9) events per 100 patient-years for 10 mg twice daily Xeljanz minus 5 mg twice daily Xeljanz.
Cases of disseminated tuberculosis were also reported. The median Xeljanz exposure prior to diagnosis of tuberculosis was 10 months (range from 152 to 960 days).
Opportunistic Infections (excluding tuberculosis)
In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, opportunistic infections were not reported in patients who received placebo, 5 mg twice daily of Xeljanz, or 10 mg twice daily of Xeljanz.
In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 12 months exposure, opportunistic infections were reported in 4 patients (0.3 events per 100 patient-years) who received 5 mg twice daily of Xeljanz and 4 patients (0.3 events per 100 patient-years) who received 10 mg twice daily of Xeljanz. The rate difference between Xeljanz doses (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 0 (-0.5, 0.5) events per 100 patient-years for 10 mg twice daily Xeljanz minus 5 mg twice daily Xeljanz.
The median Xeljanz exposure prior to diagnosis of an opportunistic infection was 8 months (range from 41 to 698 days).
In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, malignancies excluding NMSC were reported in 0 patients who received placebo and 2 patients (0.3 events per 100 patient-years) who received either Xeljanz 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily. The rate difference between treatment groups (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 0.3 (-0.1, 0.7) events per 100 patient-years for the combined 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily Xeljanz group minus placebo.
In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 12 months exposure, malignancies excluding NMSC were reported in 5 patients (0.4 events per 100 patient-years) who received 5 mg twice daily of Xeljanz and 7 patients (0.6 events per 100 patient-years) who received 10 mg twice daily of Xeljanz.
The rate difference between Xeljanz doses (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 0.2 (-0.4, 0.7) events per 100 patient-years for 10 mg twice daily Xeljanz minus 5 mg twice daily Xeljanz. One of these malignancies was a case of lymphoma that occurred during the 0 to 12 month period in a patient treated with Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily.
The most common types of malignancy, including malignancies observed during the long-term extension, were lung and breast cancer, followed by gastric, colorectal, renal cell, prostate cancer, lymphoma, and malignant melanoma.
In the controlled clinical trials, confirmed decreases in absolute lymphocyte counts below 500 cells/mm3 occurred in 0.04% of patients for the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily Xeljanz groups combined during the first 3 months of exposure.
Confirmed lymphocyte counts less than 500 cells/mm3 were associated with an increased incidence of treated and serious infections.
In the controlled clinical trials, confirmed decreases in ANC below 1000 cells/mm3 occurred in 0.07% of patients for the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily Xeljanz groups combined during the first 3 months of exposure.
There were no confirmed decreases in ANC below 500 cells/mm3 observed in any treatment group.
There was no clear relationship between neutropenia and the occurrence of serious infections.
In the long-term safety population, the pattern and incidence of confirmed decreases in ANC remained consistent with what was seen in the controlled clinical trials.
Liver Enzyme Elevations
Confirmed increases in liver enzymes greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal (3x ULN) were observed in patients treated with Xeljanz. In patients experiencing liver enzyme elevation, modification of treatment regimen, such as reduction in the dose of concomitant DMARD, interruption of Xeljanz, or reduction in Xeljanz dose, resulted in decrease or normalization of liver enzymes.
In the controlled monotherapy trials (0-3 months), no differences in the incidence of ALT or AST elevations were observed between the placebo, and Xeljanz 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily groups.
In the controlled background DMARD trials (0-3 months), ALT elevations greater than 3x ULN were observed in 1.0%, 1.3% and 1.2% of patients receiving placebo, 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily, respectively. In these trials, AST elevations greater than 3x ULN were observed in 0.6%, 0.5% and 0.4% of patients receiving placebo, 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily, respectively.
One case of drug-induced liver injury was reported in a patient treated with Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily for approximately 2.5 months. The patient developed symptomatic elevations of AST and ALT greater than 3x ULN and bilirubin elevations greater than 2x ULN, which required hospitalizations and a liver biopsy.
In the controlled clinical trials, dose-related elevations in lipid parameters (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) were observed at one month of exposure and remained stable thereafter. Changes in lipid parameters during the first 3 months of exposure in the controlled clinical trials are summarized below:
- Mean LDL cholesterol increased by 15% in the Xeljanz 5 mg twice daily arm and 19% in the Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily arm.
- Mean HDL cholesterol increased by 10% in the Xeljanz 5 mg twice daily arm and 12% in the Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily arm.
- Mean LDL/HDL ratios were essentially unchanged in Xeljanz-treated patients.
In a controlled clinical trial, elevations in LDL cholesterol and ApoB decreased to pretreatment levels in response to statin therapy.
In the long-term safety population, elevations in lipid parameters remained consistent with what was seen in the controlled clinical trials.
Serum Creatinine Elevations
In the controlled clinical trials, dose-related elevations in serum creatinine were observed with Xeljanz treatment. The mean increase in serum creatinine was <0.1 mg/dL in the 12-month pooled safety analysis; however with increasing duration of exposure in the long-term extensions, up to 2% of patients were discontinued from Xeljanz treatment due to the protocol-specified discontinuation criterion of an increase in creatinine by more than 50% of baseline. The clinical significance of the observed serum creatinine elevations is unknown.
Other Adverse Reactions
Adverse reactions occurring in 2% or more of patients on 5 mg twice daily or 10 mg twice daily Xeljanz and at least 1% greater than that observed in patients on placebo with or without DMARD are summarized in Table 3.
Table 3: Common Adverse Reactions* in Clinical Trials of Xeljanz for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis With or Without Concomitant DMARDs (0-3 Months)
5 mg Twice Daily
10 mg Twice Daily**
|N = 1336|
|N = 1349|
|N = 809|
|Upper respiratory tract infection||4||4||3|
|N reflects randomized and treated patients from the seven clinical trials.|
* reported in ≥2% of patients treated with either dose of Xeljanz and ≥1% greater than that reported for placebo.
** the recommended dose of Xeljanz for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is 5 mg twice daily.
Other adverse reactions occurring in controlled and open-label extension studies included:
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Anemia
Infections and infestations: Diverticulitis
Psychiatric disorders: Insomnia
Nervous system disorders: Paresthesia
Hepatobiliary disorders: Hepatic steatosis
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Rash, erythema, pruritus
Clinical Experience In Methotrexate-Naive Patients
Xeljanz 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily were studied in 2 double-blind Phase 3 clinical trials in patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Although other doses of Xeljanz have been studied, the recommended dose of Xeljanz is 5 mg twice daily. The recommended dose for Xeljanz XR is 11 mg once daily. A dosage of Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily or Xeljanz XR 22 mg once daily is not recommended for the treatment of PsA.
Study PsA-I (NCT01877668) had a duration of 12 months and enrolled patients who had an inadequate response to a nonbiologic DMARD and who were naive to treatment with a TNF blocker. Study PsA-I included a 3-month placebo-controlled period and also included adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneously once every 2 weeks for 12 months.
Study PsA-II (NCT01882439) had a duration of 6 months and enrolled patients who had an inadequate response to at least one approved TNF blocker. This clinical trial included a 3-month placebo controlled period.
In these combined Phase 3 clinical trials, 238 patients were randomized and treated with Xeljanz 5 mg twice daily and 236 patients were randomized and treated with Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily. All patients in the clinical trials were required to receive treatment with a stable dose of a nonbiologic DMARD [the majority (79%) received methotrexate]. The study population randomized and treated with Xeljanz (474 patients) included 45 (9.5%) patients aged 65 years or older and 66 (13.9%) patients with diabetes at baseline.
The safety profile observed in patients with active psoriatic arthritis treated with Xeljanz was consistent with the safety profile observed in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Xeljanz has been studied in patients with moderately to severely active UC in 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (UC-I, UC-II, UC-III, and dose-ranging UC-V) and an open-label long-term extension study (UC-IV).
Adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients treated with either 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily of Xeljanz and ≥1% greater than reported in patients receiving placebo in either the induction or maintenance clinical trials were: nasopharyngitis, elevated cholesterol levels, headache, upper respiratory tract infection, increased blood creatine phosphokinase, rash, diarrhea, and herpes zoster.
Induction Trials (Study UC-I, UC-II, And UC-V)
Common adverse reactions reported in ≥2% of patients treated with Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily and ≥1% greater than that reported in patients receiving placebo in the 3 induction trials were: headache, nasopharyngitis, elevated cholesterol levels, acne, increased blood creatine phosphokinase, and pyrexia.
Maintenance Trial (Study UC-III)
Common adverse reactions reported in ≥4% of patients treated with either dose of Xeljanz and ≥1% greater than reported in patients receiving placebo are shown in Table 4.
Table 4: Common Adverse Reactions* in -UC Patients during the Maintenance Trial (Study UC-III)
5 mg TwiceDaily
10 mg Twice Dail y
|N = 198|
|N = 196|
|N = 198|
|Elevated cholesterol levels**||5||9||1|
|Upper respiratory tract infection||7||6||4|
|Increased blood creatine phosphokinase||3||7||2|
|* reported in ≥4% of patients treated with either dose of Xeljanz and ≥1% greater than reported for placebo.|
** includes hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, blood cholesterol increased, dyslipidemia, blood triglycerides increased, low density lipoprotein increased, low density lipoprotein abnormal, or lipids increased.
In the long-term extension study, malignancies (including solid cancers, lymphomas and NMSC) were observed more often in patients treated with Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily. Four cases of pulmonary embolism were reported in patients taking Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily, including one fatality in a patient with advanced cancer.
Dose-dependent adverse reactions seen in patients treated with Xeljanz 10 mg twice daily, in comparison to 5 mg twice daily, include the following: herpes zoster infections, serious infections, and NMSC.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
What drugs interact with Xeljanz (tofacitinib)?
Table 5 includes drugs with clinically important drug interactions when administered concomitantly with Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR and instructions for preventing or managing them.
Table 5: Clinical Relevant Interactions Affecting Xeljanz and Xeljanz XR When Coadministered with Other Drugs
|Strong CP3A4 Inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole)|
|Clinical Impact||Increased exposure to tofacitinib|
|Intervention||Dosage adjustment of Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR is recommended|
|Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors Coadministered with Strong CYP2C19 Inhibitors (e.g., fluconazole)|
|Clinical Impact||Increased exposure to tofacitinib|
|Intervention||Dosage adjustment of Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR is recommended|
|Strong CYP3A4 Inducers (e.g., rifampin)|
|Clinical Impact||Decreased exposure to tofacitinib and may result in loss of or reduced clinical response|
|Intervention||Coadministration with Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR is not recommended|
|Immunosuppressive Drugs (e.g., azathioprine, tacrolimus, cyclosporine)|
|Clinical Impact||Risk of added immunosuppression; coadministration with biologic DMARDs or potent immunosuppressants has not been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or UC.|
|Intervention||Coadministration with Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR is not recommended|
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)? Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis
What is rheumatoid arthritis (RA)? Learn about treatment, diagnosis, and the symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Discover...
Osteoarthritis (OA): Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease most often affecting major joints such as knees, hands, back, or hips....
Psoriatic Arthritis Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis
Psoriatic arthritis pain can be treated. Get more information on the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and medications for psoriatic...
Rheumatoid Arthritis Exercises: Joint-Friendly Workouts
Regular exercise boosts fitness and helps reverse joint stiffness for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). WebMD demonstrates...
Exercises for Knee Osteoarthritis and Joint Pain
Learn about osteoarthritis and exercises that relieve knee osteoarthritis pain, stiffness and strengthen the knee joint and...
Arthritis: 16 Bad Habits That Cause Joint Pain
Being overweight, wearing uncomfortable shoes, or carrying a heavy purse can make joint pain and arthritis symptoms worse. Some...
Osteoarthritis Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
How does osteoarthritis differ from other types of arthritis? Learn about osteoarthritis with this quiz.
Psoriatic Arthritis Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
How is psoriatic arthritis related to psoriasis? Take this quiz to find out!
Rheumatoid Arthritis Quiz: What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
How is rheumatoid arthritis different from other forms of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis and gout? Take the Rheumatoid...
Osteoarthritis: 15 Tips to Improve Daily Living With OA
Osteoarthritis joint pain can make it hard to carry out activities of daily living. Cartilage destruction can cause symptoms like...
Picture of Psoriatic Arthritis
Psoriatic arthritis is a specific condition in which a person has both psoriasis and arthritis. See a picture of Psoriatic...
Picture of Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more...
Famous Faces With Rheumatoid Arthritis
Learn more about the famous faces of rheumatoid arthritis such as Lucille Ball, Glenn Frey, and more.
Tips for Healthy Joints: Exercise, Nutrition, & More in Pictures
Dealing with joint pain and arthritis? Learn why weight matters--and why NOT to stretch before exercise. See these solutions for...
Arthritis: Causes and Treatment for Joint Stiffness and Pain
Arthritis and injuries can leave your joints swollen, tender, and damaged. Discover treatments for morning stiffness, sore...
Fun With Kids? Don't Let Arthritis Stop You
You can still have lots of fun with children despite arthritis. Our experts uncover ways to spend time with your kids or...
Exercises for Osteoarthritis -- Yoga, Swimming, & More
Check out this slideshow on Active Living From Day to Night with Osteoarthritis. Even with arthritis you can keep your active...
Related Disease Conditions
Buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint causes gouty arthritis. Symptoms and signs include joint pain, swelling, heat, and redness, typically of a single joint. Gout may be treated with diet and lifestyle changes, as well as medication.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Because it can affect multiple other organs of the body, rheumatoid arthritis is referred to as a systemic illness and is sometimes called rheumatoid disease. The 16 characteristic early RA signs and symptoms include the following. Anemia Both sides of the body affected (symmetric) Depression Fatigue Fever Joint deformity Joint pain Joint redness Joint stiffness Joint swelling Joint tenderness Joint warmth Limping Loss of joint function Loss of joint range of motion Many joints affected (polyarthritis)
16 Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Symptoms and Signs
Early RA symptoms and signs vary differently from person to person. The most common body parts that are initially affected by RA include the small joints of the hands, wrists, and feet, and the knees and hip joints. Joint inflammation causes stiffness. Warmth, redness, and pain may vary in degree.
Arthritis (Joint Inflammation)
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness and pain. There are over 100 types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus, gout, and pseudogout.
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also known as degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease.
Septic arthritis, or infectious arthritis, is infection of one or more joints by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Symptoms and signs of septic arthritis include fever, joint pain, chills, swelling, redness, warmth, and stiffness. Treatment involves antibiotics and the drainage of the infected joint.
Psoriatic arthritis is a disease that causes skin and joint inflammation. Symptoms and signs include painful, stiff, and swollen joints, tendinitis, and organ inflammation. Treatment involves anti-inflammatory medications and exercise.
Second Source article from Government
Reactive arthritis is a chronic, systemic rheumatic disease characterized by three conditions, including conjunctivitis, joint inflammation, and genital, urinary, or gastrointestinal system inflammation. Inflammation leads to pain, swelling, warmth, redness, and stiffness of the affected joints. Non-joint areas may experience irritation and pain. Treatment for reactive arthritis depends on which area of the body is affected. Joint inflammation is treated with anti-inflammatory medications.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Fibromyalgia
Though rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia have similar symptoms, RA is an autoimmune disease and fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome. RA symptoms include joint redness, swelling, and pain that lasts more than six weeks. Fibromyalgia symptoms include widespread pain, tingling feet or hands, depression, and bowel irritability. Home remedies for both include stress reduction, exercise, and getting enough sleep.
Pain Management and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Second Source article from WebMD
Second Source article from Government
Fungal arthritis is inflammation of a joint by a fungus that has invaded the body and is growing in the normally sterile joint. Fungal arthritis symptoms and signs include pain, redness, loss of range of motion, and swelling. Fungal arthritis treatment includes antibiotics, adequate drainage of the joint, and sometimes surgery.
Osteoarthritis vs. Osteoporosis Differences and Similarities
Arthritis is defined as painful inflammation and joint stiffness. Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis and the most common cause of chronic joint pain, affecting over 25 million Americans. Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that involves the entire joint. Osteoporosis is not a type of arthritis. It is a disease that mainly is caused by a loss of bone tissue that is not limited to the joint areas. It is possible for one person to have both osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. The differences in the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis include; pain, stiffness, and joint swelling, joint deformity, crackle sounds when the joint is moving, and walking with a limp. Osteoporosis is called the "silent disease" because it can progress for years without signs and symptoms before it is diagnosed, severe back pain, bone fractures, height loss, and difficulty or inability to walk. The differences in the causes of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are that osteoarthritis usually is caused by wear and tear on the joints. Osteoporosis usually is caused by one or more underlying problems, for example, calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. Treatment for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are not the same. There is no cure for osteoarthritis or osteoporosis.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Arthritis
Arthritis is a general term used to describe joint disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of arthritis in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the joints, causing chronic inflammation.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) annually affects one child in every thousand. There are six types of JRA. Treatment of juvenile arthritis depends upon the type the child has and should focus on treating the symptoms that manifest.
Non-Radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA)
Non-radiographic spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) is an inflammatory arthritis that mainly affects the joints of the spine. Morning stiffness and back pain are the usual symptoms of nr-axSpA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, exercise, and biologics are treatments for nr-axSpA.
Osteoarthritis vs. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are chronic joint disorders. RA is also an autoimmune disease. OA and RA symptoms and signs include joint pain, warmth, and tenderness. Over-the-counter pain relievers treat both diseases. There are several prescription medications that treat RA.
Quackery of Arthritis
Arthritis patients are sometimes vulnerable to quackery (the business of promoting unproven remedies). These "quick fix" treatments are promoted as cure-alls, but they really have no right to such claims. Consumers should be wary of products that have marketing claims like "will cure," "ancient remedy," "has no side effects," and "revolutionary new scientific breakthrough." Read about arthritis remedies and tests that have no scientific proof of benefits.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Rheumatoid Arthritis FAQs
- Psoriatic Arthritis FAQs
- Osteoarthritis FAQs
- Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Osteoarthritis
- 5 Surprising Facts About Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Patient Story: Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: Which Patients Do Best?
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: Questions for Your Doctor
- Arthritis or Injury: Ice or Heat - Which To Apply
- Arthritis Drugs & New Medications-2001 National Meeting Reports
- Arthritis: Dr. Shiels Handshake
- Psoriasis, Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis Share One Gene
- Arava Approved For Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Arthritis Roller Coaster
- Arthritis - Whether Weather Affects Arthritis
- Arthritis Foot Care - It's In the Shoes
- Arthritis Medications
- What Not to Eat When You Have Arthritis
- How Do Arthritis Symptoms Start?
- Ultrasound Imaging of Joints in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
- Living With Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Do Crohn's Patients Get a Specific Type of Arthritis?
- Does Crohn's Disease Cause Arthritis?
- What Causes Arthritis and Baker's Cyst?
- Can You Be Too Young for a Knee Replacement?
- Do NSAIDs Interact With Coumadin?
- Can Fifth Disease Cause Arthritis Pain?
- Is Inflammatory Arthritis the Same as Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- What Are the Side Effects of Remicade for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Does Magnetic Therapy for Arthritis Work?
- What Are the Side Effects of Glucosamine?
- Can You Get a Cartilage Transplant?
- Does Glucosamine Cream Work for Arthritis?
- Can Glucosamine Treat Arthritis?
- Are Women More Susceptible to Osteoarthritis?
- Can Milk Allergy Cause Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Are Hidradenitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis Related?
- What Are the Different Types of Psoriatic Arthritis?
- How Is Arthritis Diagnosed?
- Does Lipitor Help Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Can My Diet Improve Arthritis?
- Will Rheumatoid Arthritis Nodules Go Away?
- What's the Rheumatoid Arthritis Prognosis?
- What Are Home Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Patient Story: Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: Living With a Chronic Disease
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.