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What is Ticlid (ticlopidine)?
Ticlid (ticlopidine) is a P2Y12 inhibitor that inhibits the ability of platelets to clump and form blood clots. Ticlid, a discontinued brand in the U.S., is a medication prescribed for preventing strokes or TIAs (mini-strokes), and for preventing blood clots in stents placed in the heart.
Off-label uses include prevention of heart attacks in individuals with unstable angina or who have experienced previous heart attacks, in combination with aspirin for preventing blood clots in stents, and for intermittent claudication.
It prevents blood clots by binding to the P2Y12 receptor on platelets, preventing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from activating platelets. Blood clots that form within the arteries of the brain or pieces of blood clots that break off from clots in other parts of the body and lodge in blood vessels in the brain cause strokes.
Similarly, heart attacks occur when blood clots block an artery in the heart. In both cases the blood supply to part of the brain or heart is blocked, and that part of the brain or heart is damaged or dies. Ticlid works by making the blood less likely to clot, reducing the likelihood of a stroke or heart attack.
Common side effects of Ticlid include:
Serious side effects of Ticlid include a severe reduction in white blood cell count. Ticlid also causes a serious condition called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in which blood clots form throughout the body.
The combination may also increase the risk of bleeding because duloxetine can interfere with platelet function.
What are the important side effects of Ticlid (ticlopidine)?
Common side effects of ticlopidine include:
Ticlopidine has been associated with a severe reduction in white blood cell count. Ticlopidine also causes a condition called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). TTP is a serious condition in which blood clots form throughout the body. Blood platelets, which participate in clotting, are consumed, and the result can be bleeding because enough platelets are no longer left to allow blood to clot normally.
Ticlid (ticlopidine) side effects list for healthcare professionals
Adverse reactions in stroke patients were relatively frequent with over 50% of patients reporting at least one. Most (30% to 40%) involved the gastrointestinal tract. Most adverse effects are mild, but 21% of patients discontinued therapy because of an adverse event, principally diarrhea, rash, nausea, vomiting, GI pain and neutropenia. Most adverse effects occur early in the course of treatment, but a new onset of adverse effects can occur after several months.
The incidence rates of adverse events listed in the following table were derived from multicenter, controlled clinical trials in stroke patients described above comparing Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) , placebo and aspirin over study periods of up to 5.8 years. Adverse events considered by the investigator to be probably drug-related that occurred in at least 1% of patients treated with Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) are shown in the following table:
Percent of Patients With Adverse Events in Controlled Studies (TASS and CATS)
|Event||Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl)|
(n = 2048)
(n = 1527)
(n = 536)
|Any Events||60.0 (20.9)||53.2 (14.5)||34.3 (6.1)|
|Diarrhea||12.5 (6.3)||5.2 (1.8)||4.5 (1.7)|
|Nausea||7.0 (2.6)||6.2 (1.9)||1.7 (0.9)|
|Dyspepsia||7.0 (1.1)||9.0 (2.0)||0.9 (0.2)|
|Rash||5.1 (3.4)||1.5 (0.8)||0.6 (0.9)|
|GI Pain||3.7 (1.9)||5.6 (2.7)||1.3 (0.4)|
|Neutropenia||2.4 (1.3)||0.8 (0.1)||1.1 (0.4)|
|Purpura||2.2 (0.2)||1.6 (0.1)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Vomiting||1.9 (1.4)||1.4 (0.9)||0.9 (0.4)|
|Flatulence||1.5 (0.1)||1.4 (0.3)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Pruritus||1.3 (0.8)||0.3 (0.1)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Dizziness||1.1 (0.4)||0.5 (0.4)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Anorexia||1.0 (0.4)||0.5 (0.3)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Abnormal Liver Function Test||1.0 (0.7)||0.3 (0.3)||0.0 (0.0)|
Incidence of discontinuation, regardless of relationship to therapy, is shown in parentheses.
Gastrointestinal: Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) therapy has been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal complaints including diarrhea and nausea. The majority of cases are mild, but about 13% of patients discontinued therapy because of these. They usually occur within 3 months of initiation of therapy and typically are resolved within 1 to 2 weeks without discontinuation of therapy. If the effect is severe or persistent, therapy should be discontinued. In some cases of severe or bloody diarrhea, colitis was later diagnosed.
Hemorrhagic: Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) has been associated with increased bleeding, spontaneous posttraumatic bleeding and perioperative bleeding including, but not limited to, gastrointestinal bleeding. It has also been associated with a number of bleeding complications such as ecchymosis, epistaxis, hematuria and conjunctival hemorrhage.
Intracerebral bleeding was rare in clinical trials in stroke patients with Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) , with an incidence no greater than that seen with comparator agents (ticlopidine 0.5%, aspirin 0.6%, placebo 0.75%). It has also been reported postmarketing.
Rash: Ticlopidine has been associated with a maculopapular or urticarial rash (often with pruritus). Rash usually occurs within 3 months of initiation of therapy with a mean onset time of 11 days. If drug is discontinued, recovery occurs within several days. Many rashes do not recur on drug rechallenge. There have been rare reports of severe rashes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme and exfoliative dermatitis.
Less Frequent Adverse Reactions (Probably Related): Clinical adverse experiences occurring in 0.5% to 1.0% of stroke patients in controlled trials include: Digestive System: GI fullness
Skin and Appendages: urticaria
Nervous System: headache
Body as a Whole: asthenia, pain
Hemostatic System: epistaxis
Special Senses: tinnitus
In addition, rarer, relatively serious and potentially fatal events associated with the use of Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) have also been reported from postmarketing experience:
- hemolytic anemia with reticulocytosis,
- immune thrombocytopenia,
- hepatocellular jaundice,
- cholestatic jaundice,
- hepatic necrosis,
- hepatic failure,
- peptic ulcer,
- renal failure,
- nephrotic syndrome,
- allergic reactions (including angioedema, allergic pneumonitis, and anaphylaxis),
- systemic lupus (positive ANA),
- peripheral neuropathy,
- serum sickness,
- arthropathy and
What drugs interact with Ticlid (ticlopidine)?
Therapeutic doses of Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) caused a 30% increase in the plasma half-life of antipyrine and may cause analogous effects on similarly metabolized drugs. Therefore, the dose of drugs metabolized by hepatic microsomal enzymes with low therapeutic ratios or being given to patients with hepatic impairment may require adjustment to maintain optimal therapeutic blood levels when starting or stopping concomitant therapy with ticlopidine. Studies of specific drug interactions yielded the following results:
Aspirin and Other NSAIDs: Ticlopidine potentiates the effect of aspirin or other NSAIDs on platelet aggregation. The safety of concomitant use of ticlopidine and NSAIDs has not been established. The safety of concomitantuse of ticlopidine and aspirin beyond 30 days has not been established. Aspirin did not modify the ticlopidine-mediated inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, but ticlopidine potentiated the effect of aspirin on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Caution should be exercised in patients who have lesions with a propensity to bleed, such as ulcers. Long-term concomitant use of aspirin and ticlopidine is not recommended.
Antacids: Administration of Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) after antacids resulted in an 18% decrease in plasma levels of ticlopidine.
Cimetidine: Chronic administration of cimetidine reduced the clearance of a single dose of Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) by 50%.
Digoxin: Coadministration of Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) with digoxin resulted in a slight decrease (approximately 15%) in digoxin plasma levels. Little or no change in therapeutic efficacy of digoxin would be expected.
Theophylline: In normal volunteers, concomitant administration of Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) resulted in a significant increase in the theophylline elimination half-life from 8.6 to 12.2 hours and a comparable reduction in total plasma clearance of theophylline.
Phenobarbital: In 6 normal volunteers, the inhibitory effects of Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) on platelet aggregation were not altered by chronic administration of phenobarbital.
Phenytoin: In vitro studies demonstrated that ticlopidine does not alter the plasma protein binding of phenytoin. However, the protein binding interactions of ticlopidine and its metabolites have not been studied in vivo. Several cases of elevated phenytoin plasma levels with associated somnolence and lethargy have been reported following coadministration with Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) . Caution should be exercised in coadministering this drug with Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) , and it may be useful to remeasure phenytoin blood concentrations.
Propranolol: In vitro studies demonstrated that ticlopidine does not alter the plasma protein binding of propranolol. However, the protein binding interactions of ticlopidine and its metabolites have not been studied in vivo. Caution should be exercised in coadministering this drug with Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) .
Other Concomitant Therapy: Although specific interaction studies were not performed, in clinical studies Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) was used concomitantly with beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and diuretics without evidence of clinically significant adverse interactions.
Food Interaction: The oral bioavailability of ticlopidine is increased by 20% when taken after a meal. Administration of Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) with food is recommended to maximize gastrointestinal tolerance. In controlled trials in stroke patients, Ticlid (ticlopidine hcl) was taken with meals.
Ticlid (ticlopidine) is a P2Y12 inhibitor that inhibits the ability of platelets to clump and form blood clots. Ticlid, a discontinued brand in the U.S., is a medication prescribed for preventing strokes or TIAs (mini-strokes), and for preventing blood clots in stents placed in the heart. Common side effects of Ticlid include diarrhea, nausea, rash, stomach upset, and vomiting. Ticlid has not been adequately studied in pregnant women. Serious side effects of Ticlid include a severe reduction in white blood cell count and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Ticlid has not been adequately studied in pregnant women. It is unknown if Ticlid is secreted in human breast milk.
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Related Disease Conditions
Angina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning, squeezing, and aching. Coronary artery disease is the main cause of angina but there are other causes. Angina is diagnosed by taking the patient's medical history and performing tests such as an electrocardiogram (EKG), blood test, stress test, echocardiogram, cardiac CT scan, and heart catheterization. Treatment of angina usually includes lifestyle modification, medication, and sometimes, surgery. The risk of angina can be reduced by following a heart healthy lifestyle.
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic). Symptoms of a stroke may include: weakness, numbness, double vision or vision loss, confusion, vertigo, difficulty speaking or understanding speech. A physical exam, imaging tests, neurological exam, and blood tests may be used to diagnose a stroke. Treatment may include administration of clot-busting drugs, supportive care, and in some instances, neurosurgery. The risk of stroke can be reduced by controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and stopping smoking.
Heat Stroke (A Very Serious Condition)
Heat stroke (heatstroke or sun stroke) is a form of hyperthermia. Heat stroke is a true medical emergency that can be fatal if not promptly and properly treated. Symptoms of heat stroke include high body temperature, absence of sweating, hot red or flushed dry skin, rapid pulse, difficulty breathing, strange behavior, hallucinations, confusion, agitation, disorientation, seizure, and coma. A victim of heat stroke must receive immediate treatment to avoid permanent organ damage.
Stroke is the third leading killer in the United States. Some of the warning signs of stroke include sudden confusion, trouble seeing with one or both eyes, dizziness, loss of balance, and more. Stroke prevention and reatable risk factors for stroke include lowering high blood pressure, quit smoking, heart disease, diabetes control and prevention.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT, Blood Clot in the Legs)
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in the deep veins, and can be caused by broken bones, trauma to a limb, immobility, medications, smoking, cancer, genetic predisposition, and cancer. Symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis in a leg are swelling, tenderness, redness, warmth, and pain. Treatments for DVT include medications and surgery.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke)
When a portion of the brain loses blood supply, through a blood clot or embolus, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke) may occur. If the symptoms do not resolve, a stroke most likely has occurred. Symptoms of TIA include: confusion, weakness, lethargy, and loss of function to one side of the body. Risk factors for TIA include vascular disease, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Treatment depends upon the severity of the TIA, and whether it resolves.
Blood Clots (in the Leg)
Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins, bladder, urinary tract and uterus. Risk factors for causes of blood clots include high blood pressure and cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and family history. Symptoms of a blood clot depend on the location of the clot. Some blood clots are a medical emergency. Blood clots are treated depending upon the cause of the clot. Blood clots can be prevented by lowering the risk factors for developing blood clots.
Early Warning Signs and Symptoms of Stroke (FAST)
Stroke is a serious medical condition. If you think you or someone you know is having a stroke call 911 immediately. There are two main types of strokes, hemorrhagic and ischemic (the most common type). A hemorrhagic stroke occurs due to a blood vessel rupture in the brain. An ischemic stroke occurs when a blood clot becomes lodged in a blood vessel in the brain, which causes a loss of blood supply to the brain, possibly causing brain tissue death. FAST is an acronym that helps people identify stroke signs and symptoms so they can act fast and call 911. Face drooping, Arm weakness, and Speech difficulty are indicators that a person may be having a stroke and it is Time to seek emergency medical treatment. Additional signs and symptoms of stroke may include weakness, difficulty walking, blurred vision, dizziness, headache, confusion, difficulty speaking, and loss of sensation. Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the U.S. Early identification and treatment of stroke helps reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality.
Stroke vs Aneurysm (Differences and Similarities)
A stroke or "brain attack" is caused because blood flow to an area of the brain has been cut off by a blood clot or by a weakened or damaged blood vessel (for example, head trauma). The damaged area of the brain dies, which results in loss of function like speech capabilities, muscle movement, or muscles of an extremity like an arm or leg is reduced or lost completely. An aneurysm is a weakness in an artery wall. This weakness in the wall causes the artery to widen or balloon out, and then they rupture or break open. A person with an brain aneurysm generally won't have any symptoms until it becomes a problem. The symptoms and signs are similar to a stroke.Symptoms and signs of a stroke include: Vision problems Severe headache with no known cause Loss of memory Trouble getting words out Trouble typing, texting, or other coordination problems Both the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association recommend using the FAST system to recognize and treat strokes. If you think someone may be having a stroke, remember FAST! F - Facial drooping A - Arm weakness S - Speech difficulty T - time - DO NOT DELAY. Call 911.If you think someone is having a stroke or aneurysm call 911 immediately. Both conditions require medical treatment. The prognosis for both diseases depend on the extent of the damage to the brain and any other affected areas of the body.
Heart Attack vs. Stroke Symptoms, Differences, and Similarities
Heart attack usually is caused by a clot that stops blood flow supplying oxygen to an area of heart muscle, which results in heart muscle death. Stroke or "brain attack" is caused by a loss of blood supply to the brain (usually a blood clot) or by hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding within the brain), which results in brain tissue death. Both heart attack and stroke usually come on suddenly, produce similar symptoms, can be disabling, and can be fatal. The classic symptoms and warning signs of heart attack are different. Classic heart attack warning signs are chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, pain that radiates to the shoulders, back, arms, belly, jaw, or teeth, sweating, fainting, and nausea and vomiting. Moreover, woman having a heart attack may have additional symptoms like abdominal pain or discomfort, dizziness, clammy skin, and moderate to severe fatigue. The classic symptoms and warning signs that a person is having a stroke are confusion or loss of consciousness, sudden severe headache, speech problems, problems seeing out of one or both eyes, and numbness or weakness of only one side of the body. Moreover, a woman having a stroke may have additional warning symptom and signs like shortness of breath, disorientation, agitation, behavioral changes, weakness, nausea, vomiting, seizures, and hiccups. Recognition of stroke symptoms is vital for emergency treatment. The acronym "FAST" stands for recognition of Facial drooping, Arm weakness, Speech difficulty, and a Time for action. If you experience the symptoms heart attack or stroke (FAST) or see them develop in another person, then contact 911 immediately.
Stroke vs. Mini-Stroke (TIA) Differences
A stroke or "brain attack" occurs when a blood clot or artery ruptures within the brain. The rupture or clot causes brain cell damage or death. A mini-stroke (TIA, transient ischemic attack) is caused by brain cells that dysfunctional over a short period. Stroke and mini-stroke warning signs of stroke and mini stroke are the same, and include, speech problems, weakness, numbness, and facial droop. Side effects of stroke may be permanent and you may never regain full function of the parts of the body affected. Mini-stroke side effects usually resolve within minutes to a couple of days. A transient ischemic attack (mini-stroke) is a precursor for stroke because 40% of individuals who have a mini-stroke will have a stroke within a year. Treatment of stroke depends upon the type and parts of the body affected.
Migraine and Stroke (Symptoms, Types, Causes, Treatment)
Migraine headache is a type of headache in which the exact cause is not known; however, they may be inherited, and certain foods and environmental factors can trigger and may contribute them. A stroke (brain attack) happens when a blood vessel in the brain leaks, bursts, or becomes blocked, which can be caused by many other health problems. Both migraines and strokes can can cause severe head pain (migraine pain usually is only on one side of the head). Migraine aura symptoms may mimic or feel like a stroke or mini-stroke (transient ischemic attack, TIA) because they have similar symptoms and signs like severe headache, numbness in the legs, feet, arms, hands, or face, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Other migraine aura symptoms include vision problems like flashing lights or blind spots in one eye. The main difference between migraine headache and stroke symptoms and signs is that a migraine headaches usually come on gradually while a stroke symptoms come on suddenly and unexpectedly. A migraine may cause photophobia (sensitivity to light and sound). Migraine triggers include hormonal changes, alcohol, insomnia, caffeine, stress, anxiety, bright lights, loud noises, strong odors, aspartame, MSG, and changes in the weather. Symptoms of a stroke that do not occur with migraines include confusion, speech, vision, and balance problems. You can have a migraine headache and a stroke at the same time, but migraines do not cause strokes. However, in certain individuals with migraines with auras there may be related to a higher risk of stroke. Stroke is a medical emergency. If you have stroke symptoms, call 9-1-1 and get medical attention immediately.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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Medications & Supplements
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Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.