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Does Procardia (nifedipine) cause side effects?
Procardia (nifedipine) is a calcium channel blocker (CCB) used to treat and prevent angina (heart pain) resulting from either an increased workload on the heart (as with exercise) or spasm of the coronary arteries.
Procardia is also used to treat high blood pressure, to treat abnormally fast heart rhythms such as atrial fibrillation, and to prevent episodes of abnormal rapid heart rhythm originating from the atria of the heart.
It also is used to dilate blood vessels that go into spasm such as those causing Raynaud's phenomenon, a painful condition of the hands caused by spasm of the arteries supplying blood to the hands.
Common side effects of Procardia include
Uncommon side effects of Procardia include
- muscle cramps,
- overgrowth of gums,
- erectile dysfunction, and
- excessive reduction in blood pressure.
- Procardia decreases the elimination of digoxin by the kidneys which can increase digoxin blood levels in the blood and give rise to digoxin toxicity.
- Procardia interferes with the breakdown of tacrolimus by the liver, which in turn causes elevated blood levels of tacrolimus and may increase the risk of toxicity from tacrolimus.
- Procardia reduces the blood levels of quinidine which may reduce the effectiveness of quinidine.
- Conversely, blood levels of Procardia are increased by quinidine and may lead to side effects from Procardia.
- Cimetidine interferes with breakdown by the liver of Procardia and increases Procardia blood levels.
- Procardia should not be taken with grapefruit juice since grapefruit juice inhibits the breakdown of Procardia by the liver and increases the levels of Procardia in the blood.
There are no adequate studies of Procardia in pregnant women, and in general, it is avoided during pregnancy. Procardia is excreted in human breast milk. Generally, Procardia is avoided in females who are breastfeeding.
What are the important side effects of Procardia (nifedipine)?
Side effects of nifedipine are generally mild, and reversible. Most side effects are expected consequences of the dilation of the arteries. The most common side effects include:
Less common side effects include:
Uncommon side effects include:
Procardia (nifedipine) side effects list for healthcare professionals
In multiple-dose United States and foreign controlled studies in which adverse reactions were reported spontaneously, adverse effects were frequent but generally not serious and rarely required discontinuation of therapy or dosage adjustment. Most were expected consequences of the vasodilator effects of Procardia.
|Adverse Effect||Procardia (%)|
|Dizziness, lightheadedness, giddiness||27||15|
|Flushing, heat sensation||25||8|
|Muscle cramps, tremor||8||3|
|Nervousness, mood changes||7||4|
|Dyspnea, cough, wheezing||6||3|
|Nasal congestion, sore throat||6||8|
There is also a large uncontrolled experience in over 2100 patients in the United States. Most of the patients had vasospastic or resistant angina pectoris, and about half had concomitant treatment with betaadrenergic blocking agents. The most common adverse events were:
Incidence Approximately 10%
Cardiovascular: peripheral edema
Central Nervous System: dizziness or lightheadedness
Incidence Approximately 5%
Cardiovascular: transient hypotension
Incidence 2% or Less
Musculoskeletal: inflammation, joint stiffness, muscle cramps
Incidence Approximately 0.5%
Cardiovascular: syncope (mostly with initial dosing and/or an increase in dose), erythromelalgia
Incidence Less Than 0.5%
CNS: depression, paranoid syndrome
Urogenital: nocturia, polyuria
Several of these side effects appear to be dose related. Peripheral edema occurred in about one in 25 patients at doses less than 60 mg per day and in about one patient in eight at 120 mg per day or more.
Transient hypotension, generally of mild to moderate severity and seldom requiring discontinuation of therapy, occurred in one of 50 patients at less than 60 mg per day and in one of 20 patients at 120 mg per day or more.
In addition, more serious adverse events were observed, not readily distinguishable from the natural history of the disease in these patients. It remains possible, however, that some or many of these events were drug-related.
Myocardial infarction occurred in about 4% of patients and congestive heart failure or pulmonary edema in about 2%. Ventricular arrhythmias or conduction disturbances each occurred in fewer than 0.5% of patients.
In a subgroup of over 1000 patients receiving Procardia with concomitant beta blocker therapy, the pattern and incidence of adverse experiences were not different from that of the entire group of Procardia (nifedipine) treated patients.
In a subgroup of approximately 250 patients with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure as well as angina pectoris (about 10% of the total patient population), dizziness or lightheadedness, peripheral edema, headache, or flushing each occurred in one in eight patients.
Hypotension occurred in about one in 20 patients. Syncope occurred in approximately one patient in 250. Myocardial infarction or symptoms of congestive heart failure each occurred in about one patient in 15. Atrial or ventricular dysrhythmias each occurred in about one patient in 150.
In post-marketing experience, there have been rare reports of exfoliative dermatitis caused by nifedipine. There have been rare reports of exfoliative or bullous skin adverse events (such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis) and photosensitivity reactions. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis also has been reported.
What drugs interact with Procardia (nifedipine)?
Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents
Experience in over 1400 patients in a noncomparative clinical trial has shown that concomitant administration of Procardia and beta-blocking agents is usually well tolerated, but there have been occasional literature reports suggesting that the combination may increase the likelihood of congestive heart failure, severe hypotension, or exacerbation of angina.
Procardia may be safely co-administered with nitrates, but there have been no controlled studies to evaluate the antianginal effectiveness of this combination.
Since there have been isolated reports of patients with elevated digoxin levels, and since there is a possible interaction between digoxin and nifedipine, it is recommended that digoxin levels be monitored when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing nifedipine to avoid possible over- or under-digitalization.
There have been rare reports of an interaction between quinidine and nifedipine (with a decreased plasma level of quinidine).
There have been rare reports of increased prothrombin time in patients taking coumarin anticoagulants to whom Procardia was administered. However, the relationship to Procardia therapy is uncertain.
A study in six healthy volunteers has shown a significant increase in peak nifedipine plasma levels (80%) and area-under-the-curve (74%) after a one week course of cimetidine at 1000 mg per day and nifedipine at 40 mg per day. Ranitidine produced smaller, non-significant increases.
The effect may be mediated by the known inhibition of cimetidine on hepatic cytochrome P-450, the enzyme system probably responsible for the first-pass metabolism of nifedipine. If nifedipine therapy is initiated in a patient currently receiving cimetidine, cautious titration is advised.
Nifedipine is metabolized by CYP3A4. Co-administration of nifedipine with phenytoin, an inducer of CYP3A4, lowers the systemic exposure to nifedipine by approximately 70%. Avoid co-administration of nifedipine with phenytoin or any known CYP3A4 inducer or consider an alternative antihypertensive therapy.
CYP3A inhibitors such as fluconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, erythromycin, nefazodone, fluoxetine, saquinavir, indinavir, and nelfinavir may result in increased exposure to nifedipine when coadministered.
Careful monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary; consider initiating nifedipine at the lowest dose available if given concomitantly with these medications.
Co-administration of nifedipine with grapefruit juice resulted in approximately a doubling in nifedipine AUC and Cmax with no change in half-life. The increased plasma concentrations most likely result from inhibition of CYP 3A4 related first-pass metabolism.
Avoid ingestion of grapefruit and grapefruit juice while taking nifedipine.
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High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Angina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning, squeezing, and aching. Coronary artery disease is the main cause of angina but there are other causes. Angina is diagnosed by taking the patient's medical history and performing tests such as an electrocardiogram (EKG), blood test, stress test, echocardiogram, cardiac CT scan, and heart catheterization. Treatment of angina usually includes lifestyle modification, medication, and sometimes, surgery. The risk of angina can be reduced by following a heart healthy lifestyle.
High Blood Pressure Treatment (Natural Home Remedies, Diet, Medications)
High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include lifestyle modifications (alcohol, smoking, coffee, salt, diet, exercise), drugs and medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), alpha blockers, clonidine, minoxidil, and Exforge.
Portal hypertension is most commonly caused by cirrhosis, a disease that results from scarring of the liver. Other causes of portal hypertension include blood clots in the portal vein, blockages of the veins that carry the blood from the liver to the heart, and a parasitic infection called schistosomiasis. Symptoms of portal hypertension include varices (enlarged veins), vomiting blood, blood in the stool, black and tarry stool, ascites (abnormal fluid collection within the peritoneum, the sac that contains the intestines within the abdominal cavity), confusion and lethargy, splenomegaly or enlargement of the spleen, and decreased white blood cell counts.
Hypertension-Related Kidney Disease
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Hypertensive Kidney Disease
High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and is one of the leading causes of kidney failure (end-stage renal kidney disease). Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. If you have kidney disease, you should control your blood pressure. Other treatment options include prescription medications.
Preeclampsia (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension)
Preeclampsia is related to increased blood pressure and protein in the mother's urine. Preeclampsia typically begins after the 20th week of pregnancy. When preeclampsia causes seizures, it is termed "eclampsia" and is the second leading cause of maternal death of in the US. Preeclampsia is the leading cause of fetal complications. Risk factors for preeclampsia include high blood pressure, obesity, multiple births, and women with preexisting medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or scleroderma. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle changes may reduce the risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy.
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Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.